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1.
Nat Protoc ; 16(2): 1276-1296, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462443

RESUMO

RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful approach to discover disease-causing gene regulatory defects in individuals affected by genetically undiagnosed rare disorders. Pioneering studies have shown that RNA-seq could increase the diagnosis rates over DNA sequencing alone by 8-36%, depending on the disease entity and tissue probed. To accelerate adoption of RNA-seq by human genetics centers, detailed analysis protocols are now needed. We present a step-by-step protocol that details how to robustly detect aberrant expression levels, aberrant splicing and mono-allelic expression in RNA-seq data using dedicated statistical methods. We describe how to generate and assess quality control plots and interpret the analysis results. The protocol is based on the detection of RNA outliers pipeline (DROP), a modular computational workflow that integrates all the analysis steps, can leverage parallel computing infrastructures and generates browsable web page reports.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 529, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483494

RESUMO

Aberrant splicing is a major cause of rare diseases.  However, its prediction from genome sequence alone remains in most cases inconclusive. Recently, RNA sequencing has proven to be an effective complementary avenue to detect aberrant splicing. Here, we develop FRASER, an algorithm to detect aberrant splicing from RNA sequencing data. Unlike existing methods, FRASER captures not only alternative splicing but also intron retention events. This typically doubles the number of detected aberrant events and identified a pathogenic intron retention in MCOLN1 causing mucolipidosis. FRASER automatically controls for latent confounders, which are widespread and affect sensitivity substantially. Moreover, FRASER is based on a count distribution and multiple testing correction, thus reducing the number of calls by two orders of magnitude over commonly applied z score cutoffs, with a minor loss of sensitivity. Applying FRASER to rare disease diagnostics is demonstrated by reprioritizing a pathogenic aberrant exon truncation in TAZ from a published dataset. FRASER is easy to use and freely available.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento Alternativo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Internet , Íntrons/genética , Software
3.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) clinical site from 2014-2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: The transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: For our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 102-111, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883641

RESUMO

Isolated complex III (CIII) deficiencies are among the least frequently diagnosed mitochondrial disorders. Clinical symptoms range from isolated myopathy to severe multi-systemic disorders with early death and disability. To date, we know of pathogenic variants in genes encoding five out of 10 subunits and five out of 13 assembly factors of CIII. Here we describe rare bi-allelic variants in the gene of a catalytic subunit of CIII, UQCRFS1, which encodes the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, in two unrelated individuals. Affected children presented with low CIII activity in fibroblasts, lactic acidosis, fetal bradycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and alopecia totalis. Studies in proband-derived fibroblasts showed a deleterious effect of the variants on UQCRFS1 protein abundance, mitochondrial import, CIII assembly, and cellular respiration. Complementation studies via lentiviral transduction and overexpression of wild-type UQCRFS1 restored mitochondrial function and rescued the cellular phenotype, confirming UQCRFS1 variants as causative for CIII deficiency. We demonstrate that mutations in UQCRFS1 can cause mitochondrial disease, and our results thereby expand the clinical and mutational spectrum of CIII deficiencies.


Assuntos
Alopecia/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Mutação , Alelos , Alopecia/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Criança , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Linhagem
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 907-917, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503520

RESUMO

RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is gaining popularity as a complementary assay to genome sequencing for precisely identifying the molecular causes of rare disorders. A powerful approach is to identify aberrant gene expression levels as potential pathogenic events. However, existing methods for detecting aberrant read counts in RNA-seq data either lack assessments of statistical significance, so that establishing cutoffs is arbitrary, or rely on subjective manual corrections for confounders. Here, we describe OUTRIDER (Outlier in RNA-Seq Finder), an algorithm developed to address these issues. The algorithm uses an autoencoder to model read-count expectations according to the gene covariation resulting from technical, environmental, or common genetic variations. Given these expectations, the RNA-seq read counts are assumed to follow a negative binomial distribution with a gene-specific dispersion. Outliers are then identified as read counts that significantly deviate from this distribution. The model is automatically fitted to achieve the best recall of artificially corrupted data. Precision-recall analyses using simulated outlier read counts demonstrated the importance of controlling for covariation and significance-based thresholds. OUTRIDER is open source and includes functions for filtering out genes not expressed in a dataset, for identifying outlier samples with too many aberrantly expressed genes, and for detecting aberrant gene expression on the basis of false-discovery-rate-adjusted p values. Overall, OUTRIDER provides an end-to-end solution for identifying aberrantly expressed genes and is suitable for use by rare-disease diagnostic platforms.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199938, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995917

RESUMO

The accurate quantification of cellular and mitochondrial bioenergetic activity is of great interest in medicine and biology. Mitochondrial stress tests performed with Seahorse Bioscience XF Analyzers allow the estimation of different bioenergetic measures by monitoring the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of living cells in multi-well plates. However, studies of the statistical best practices for determining aggregated OCR measurements and comparisons have been lacking. Therefore, to understand how OCR behaves across different biological samples, wells, and plates, we performed mitochondrial stress tests in 126 96-well plates involving 203 fibroblast cell lines. We show that the noise of OCR is multiplicative, that outlier data points can concern individual measurements or all measurements of a well, and that the inter-plate variation is greater than the intra-plate variation. Based on these insights, we developed a novel statistical method, OCR-Stats, that: i) robustly estimates OCR levels modeling multiplicative noise and automatically identifying outlier data points and outlier wells; and ii) performs statistical testing between samples, taking into account the different magnitudes of the between- and within-plate variations. This led to a significant reduction of the coefficient of variation across plates of basal respiration by 45% and of maximal respiration by 29%. Moreover, using positive and negative controls, we show that our statistical test outperforms the existing methods, which suffer from an excess of either false positives (within-plate methods), or false negatives (between-plate methods). Altogether, this study provides statistical good practices to support experimentalists in designing, analyzing, testing, and reporting the results of mitochondrial stress tests using this high throughput platform.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Respiração Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Fibroblastos/citologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Consumo de Oxigênio
7.
Elife ; 72018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345616

RESUMO

Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies. Together, our data suggest that oxidative stress induced axonal degeneration in a single class of neurons drives the functional decline of an entire neural network and the behavior it controls. Given the important role of the cholinergic system in neurodegeneration, the fly olfactory system could be a useful model for the identification of drug targets.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Modelos Animais , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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