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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003276

RESUMO

Background: Endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection (ESTD) has recently been an effective procedure for resecting large early esophageal neoplasm. However, excessive dissection beyond the distal limit may occur because the prepared distal end often cannot be distinguished through the tunnel. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a novel crystal violet navigation (CVN) for identifying the distal end.Material and methods: In the observational case series study, all 22 patients who underwent esophageal ESTD using the CVN were included. When setting the distal end, the distal incision line was dyed purple using a crystal violet solution. The rates of purple color identified via the tunnel, successful tunnel penetration without extra dissection, en bloc and curative resection, procedure time for ESTD and CVN, and procedure-associated complications were evaluated.Results: The rates of purple color and successful tunnel penetration were both 100%. En bloc and curative resection were 100%, and 86%, respectively. The mean total procedure time was 103.9 ± 46.2 (mean ± SD) minutes, while the mean time for the CVN was 14.1 ± 3.44 s. No complications were observed.Conclusions: The simple CVN method can be a navigation tool for identifying the distal end during the ESTD procedure.

2.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 28(4): 397-404, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become a standard treatment for early gastric neoplasia. However, as the upper and middle body of the greater curvature has a rich vasculature and submucosal fibrosis, ESD of neoplasia in these locations requires a specific strategy. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the J-shaped superficial cutting and splashed submucosal dissection (JSCS) technique for neoplasia of the greater curvature by comparing ESD using JSCS with conventional ESD. METHODS: Twenty-two patients who underwent ESD for gastric neoplasia affecting the upper and middle body of the greater curvature were divided into two groups for retrospective analysis. Nine patients underwent conventional ESD (c-Group), while 13 underwent ESD with JSCS (j-Group). Primary outcome was the en bloc resection rate. Secondary outcomes included complete resection (R0) rate, procedure time, perforation rate, total bleeding time, and the total number of massive bleeding events and of hemostatic forceps times applied during ESD. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between both groups (c-Group vs j-Group) in en bloc resection rate, or R0 resection rate. Compared with the c-Group, the j-Group tended to have a decreased mean procedure time (mean 133 minutes vs 74 minutes, p=0.11) and perforation rate (11% vs 0%, p=0.41). Compared with the c-Group, the j-Group had significantly fewer bleeding incidents (13.4 times vs 6.6 times, p=0.0095), shorter total bleeding time (17.6 min vs 7.4 min, p=0.036), and fewer usages of hemostatic forceps (6.3 times vs 2.4 times, p=0.026) during ESD. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic submucosal dissection with JSCS is superior to conventional ESD, as it reduces intraprocedural bleeding. This technique has the potential to become the standard strategy for neoplasia affecting the upper and middle body of the greater curvature.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261874

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common primary esophageal malignancy. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker (ARB) and a widely used antihypertensive, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of various cancer types. This study evaluated the effects of telmisartan on human ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and sought to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in these antitumor effects. We examined the effects of telmisartan on three human ESCC cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE180, and KYSE850). Telmisartan inhibited proliferation of these three cell lines by inducing S-phase arrest, which was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin A2, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and other cell cycle-related proteins. Additionally, telmisartan reduced levels of phosphorylated ErbB3 and thrombospondin-1 in KYSE180 cells. Furthermore, expression of miRNAs was remarkably altered by telmisartan in vitro. Telmisartan also inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, telmisartan inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in ESCC cells by inducing cell-cycle arrest.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fase S/efeitos dos fármacos , Telmisartan/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclina A2/genética , Ciclina A2/metabolismo , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Telmisartan/uso terapêutico , Trombospondina 1/genética , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo
5.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 968-976, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171880

RESUMO

In most cases of sporadic colorectal cancers, tumorigenesis is a multistep process, involving genomic alterations in parallel with morphologic changes. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the human gut microbiome is linked to the development of colorectal cancer. Here we performed fecal metagenomic and metabolomic studies on samples from a large cohort of 616 participants who underwent colonoscopy to assess taxonomic and functional characteristics of gut microbiota and metabolites. Microbiome and metabolome shifts were apparent in cases of multiple polypoid adenomas and intramucosal carcinomas, in addition to more advanced lesions. We found two distinct patterns of microbiome elevations. First, the relative abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum spp. was significantly (P < 0.005) elevated continuously from intramucosal carcinoma to more advanced stages. Second, Atopobium parvulum and Actinomyces odontolyticus, which co-occurred in intramucosal carcinomas, were significantly (P < 0.005) increased only in multiple polypoid adenomas and/or intramucosal carcinomas. Metabolome analyses showed that branched-chain amino acids and phenylalanine were significantly (P < 0.005) increased in intramucosal carcinomas and bile acids, including deoxycholate, were significantly (P < 0.005) elevated in multiple polypoid adenomas and/or intramucosal carcinomas. We identified metagenomic and metabolomic markers to discriminate cases of intramucosal carcinoma from the healthy controls. Our large-cohort multi-omics data indicate that shifts in the microbiome and metabolome occur from the very early stages of the development of colorectal cancer, which is of possible etiological and diagnostic importance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146370

RESUMO

Galectin-9 (Gal-9) enhances tumor immunity mediated by T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Its expression level in various cancers correlates with prognosis. Furthermore, Gal-9 directly induces apoptosis in various cancers; however, its mechanism of action and bioactivity has not been clarified. We evaluated Gal-9 antitumor effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to analyze the dynamics of apoptosis-related molecules, elucidate its mechanism of action, and identify relevant changes in miRNA expressions. KYSE-150 and KYSE-180 cells were treated with Gal-9 and their proliferation was evaluated. Gal-9 inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The xenograft mouse model established with KYSE-150 cells was administered with Gal-9 and significant suppression in the tumor growth observed. Gal-9 treatment of KYSE-150 cells increased the number of Annexin V-positive cells, activation of caspase-3, and collapse of mitochondrial potential, indicating apoptosis induction. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) phosphorylation were activated and could be involved in apoptosis. Therefore, Gal-9 induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of ESCC and inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo with JNK and p38 activation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Galectinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Galectinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
7.
Digestion ; : 1-6, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clinicopathological characteristics of superficial spreading-type esophageal carcinoma extending ≥5 cm along the long axis of the esophagus. This study was aimed at investigating the frequency of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with superficial spreading-type esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: We reviewed the data of 320 patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone esophagectomy with lymph node dissection at our hospital between 1986 and 2010. The incidence of LNM was compared between the spreading (≥5 cm) and nonspreading (< 5 cm) types. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the likelihood of LNM depending on the lymphovascular invasion, the infiltrative growth pattern (INF)-c, and the depth. There was no difference in the LNM frequency between nonspreading and spreading type in the patients with epithelium (EP)-lamina propria, muscularis mucosa (MM)-submucosa (SM)1 and SM2/3 lesions. The frequencies of LNMs (nonspreading-type vs. spreading-type tumors) in the patients with MM-SM1 lesions were 7/47 (14.9%) versus 4/25 (16%) and those in the patients with SM2/3 lesions were 22/58 (37.9%) versus 4/14 (28.9%), when the lesions did not have lymphovascular invasion and INF-c. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic resection can be selected for -EP-SM1 lesions, regardless of whether the lesions are of the spreading type or nonspreading type.

8.
J Med Case Rep ; 12(1): 227, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine cell carcinoma is a rare variant of esophageal carcinoma. The characteristic clinical features and diagnosis of superficial neuroendocrine cell carcinoma remain to be established. We report a rare case of superficial coexistence of neuroendocrine cell carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection, and regional lymph node metastasis was detected after additional surgical treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old Japanese man with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma received endoscopic submucosal dissection in en-bloc resection. Histopathological findings showed that lymphovascular invasion by the neuroendocrine cell carcinoma component occurred in the deep part of the muscularis mucosa. Regional lymph node metastasis was identified after additional surgical treatment. After surgical treatment, our patient received chemotherapy consisting of etoposide and carboplatin for 3 months. He is alive and shows no sign of disease recurrence 12 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the fact that even if neuroendocrine cell carcinoma is small and limited to superficial, the tumor has the potential for metastasis if lymphovascular invasion by the neuroendocrine cell carcinoma component occurs. In addition, this case indicates the necessity of close follow-up of small neuroendocrine cell carcinoma after treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Mucosa Esofágica/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Dissecação , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagoscopia , Humanos , Japão , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino
10.
Endosc Int Open ; 5(8): E695-E705, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) for gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions (SELs) has limited diagnostic accuracy due to technical problems and small lesion size. We previously reported a novel submucosal tunneling biopsy (STB) technique for sampling SELs. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability and safety of STB compared to that of FNA for SELs. PATIENTS AND METHODS : The study was a non-randomized, prospective comparative study with crossover design in patients with endoluminal gastric SELs. Forty-three patients, including 29 cases with lesions < 2 cm were enrolled. A crossover design with 2 intervention stages (Group A: FNA followed by STB for 23 SELs, Group B: STB followed by FNA for 20 SELs) was implemented. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield (DY). Secondary outcomes were technical success rate, procedure time, complication rate, and sample quality. RESULTS : The DY of STB was significantly higher than that of FNA (100 % vs. 34.8 %; P  < 0.0001) in group A, including 100 % in overall STB. The technical success rate of STB was significantly higher than that of FNA (100 % vs. 56.5 %; P  = 0.0006), whereas the median procedure time of STB was significantly longer than that of FNA (37 minutes vs. 18 minutes; P  < 0.0001). The median specimen area of STB samples was markedly larger than that of FNA samples (5.54 mm 2 vs. 0.69 mm 2 ; P  < 0.001). No complications occurred in either method. CONCLUSIONS: STB had significantly superior diagnostic ability and a more adequate sample quality than FNA for endoluminal gastric SELs, indicating the suitability of STB for small SELs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN 000006754.

12.
Oncol Lett ; 14(1): 355-362, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693176

RESUMO

Narrow band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME), which is useful for the assessment of micro-vessels, has excellent diagnostic potential for early gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia. Conventional diagnostic tools for uterine cervical epithelial tumors are still unsatisfactory. An accurate diagnostic tool for uterine cervical epithelial tumors is required to preserve the reproductive ability of young women with uterine cervical tumors. Flexible NBI-ME was performed in patients with cervical squamous cell lesions that required further examinations based on their Pap smear results (cytology ≥ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) at Kagawa University Hospital between April 2014 and April 2015. NBI-ME results concordant with the punch biopsy sites were compared with the histological results. A retrospective review of the NBI-ME images identified abnormal NBI-ME results regarding micro-vascular patterns. All images were categorized as having abnormal features. NBI-ME revealed the following vascular pattern differences of different stage tumors: Dot-like vessels without irregular arrangements and high density in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) CIN1-CIN2; dot-like vessels with irregular arrangements and high density in CIN3-carcinoma in situ; crawling vessels in minimum invasive cancer; and willow branch vessels and new tumor vessels in invasive cancer. NBI-ME may be an effective diagnostic tool for uterine cervical epithelial tumors, which may lead to the establishment of a novel classification system.

14.
Int J Oncol ; 50(6): 2145-2153, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440424

RESUMO

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBAC) accounts for 3% of all gastrointestinal tract tumors and approximately 0.5% of all cancer cases. Recent studies have indicated that the use of metformin, one of the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drugs, is associated with a better prognosis for certain malignant diseases. However, there have been no reports on the effect of metformin in SBAC. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of metformin on human SBAC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and identified the microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with its antitumor effects. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of HuTu80 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Importantly, metformin reduced the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, which resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. This arrest was accompanied by activation of AMPKα and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70s6k. Additionally, metformin reduced the levels of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and ROR2 as well as markedly altered miRNA expression in HuTu80 cells. Metformin also inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Our data suggest that metformin might have therapeutic potential in SBAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1 , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Endosc Int Open ; 5(3): E137-E145, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28271094

RESUMO

Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 - 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes.

16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 51(5): 407-411, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After colorectal cancer and desmoid tumors, duodenal adenocarcinoma is the next leading cause of death in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, but it has not been thoroughly investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To investigate the clinical course of duodenal neoplasia, including adenoma and cancer, we investigated 77 Japanese FAP patients treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. We evaluated the clinicopathologic features, Spigelman severity score, and management of duodenal neoplasms. Data were acquired from a prospectively enrolled database. RESULTS: Fifty-one (66%) of the 77 FAP patients had duodenal neoplasia during this observational period, and 47 of 51 patients had extra-ampulla duodenal neoplasia; 42 (58%) had duodenal neoplasms (extra-ampulla), 4 had duodenal adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and 1 had invasive carcinoma. Among the 45 patients (extra-ampulla) with duodenal adenoma with HGD or low-grade dysplasia, 8 (18%) patients were treated using endoscopic resection (ER). During the short observation period, ER was performed only in HGD cases. None of the patients died from duodenal neoplasia. In total, during the surveillance period, duodenal HGD was detected in 5 (63%) of 8 patients graded as Spigelman stage IV; HGD was not detected in stage 0 (n=33), I (n=0), II (n=12), or III (n=20) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Short-interval endoscopic surveillance and appropriate ER may help prevent duodenal invasive carcinoma. In addition, there was little development of invasive carcinoma during the follow-up. The Spigelman classification is beneficial for the risk assessment of duodenal neoplasia in Japanese FAP patients.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Duodenais/patologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/mortalidade , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias Duodenais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Duodenais/cirurgia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 22(29): 6595-609, 2016 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27547003

RESUMO

Duodenal endoscopic resection is the most difficult type of endoscopic treatment in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and is technically challenging because of anatomical specificities. In addition to these technical difficulties, this procedure is associated with a significantly higher rate of complication than endoscopic treatment in other parts of the GI tract. Postoperative delayed perforation and bleeding are hazardous complications, and emergency surgical intervention is sometimes required. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to establish a management protocol for preventing serious complications. For instance, the prophylactic closure of large mucosal defects after endoscopic resection may reduce the risk of hazardous complications. However, the size of mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is relatively large compared with the size after endoscopic mucosal resection, making it impossible to achieve complete closure using only conventional clips. The over-the-scope clip and polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin gel make it possible to close large mucosal defects after duodenal ESD. In addition to the combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection, endoscopic full-thickness resection holds therapeutic potential for difficult duodenal lesions and may overcome the disadvantages of endoscopic resection in the near future. This review aims to summarize the complications and closure techniques of large mucosal defects and to highlight some directions for management after duodenal endoscopic treatment.


Assuntos
Duodeno/cirurgia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Duodenais/cirurgia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Laparoscopia , Técnicas de Sutura/instrumentação
19.
Oncol Lett ; 11(1): 531-534, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26870243

RESUMO

Tissue sampling of primary duodenal lymphoma is essential for its histological diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), which is frequently used for submucosal tumor (SMT)-like duodenal tumors, is adequate for cytological diagnosis, but not for histological diagnosis. Therefore, in the present study, a mucosal incision-assisted biopsy (MIAB) was performed in an 81-year-old woman for the diagnosis of an SMT-like duodenal mass, as tissue sampling for histological analysis using a regular endoscopic biopsy had failed to establish a definite diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. EUS-FNA had also led to poor tissue sampling due to the difficult location of the duodenal tumor. The pathological examination of biopsy samples using MIAB revealed the presence of a diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphocytes, and the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)20 and CD79a, but no expression of CD3 in the tumor specimens. The patient was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To the best of knowledge, this is first report of a case using MIAB as a sampling method for the histological diagnosis of SMT-like primary duodenal lymphoma. This case suggests that MIAB may be an essential method for obtaining tissue samples from SMT-like duodenal tumors.

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