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1.
Curr Protoc ; 2(4): e420, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441832

RESUMO

The free radical nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important signal molecule in plants, due to its involvement in various plant growth, development, and stress responses. For elucidating the role of NO, it is very important to precisely determine, localize, and quantify NO levels. Due to a relatively short half-life and its rapid, complex reactivity with other radicals, together with its capacity to diffuse from the source of production, the quantification of NO in whole plants, tissues, organelles, and extracts is notoriously difficult. Hence, it is essential to employ sensitive procedures for precise detection of NO. Currently available methods can fulfill many requirements to precisely determine NO, but each method has several advantages and pitfalls. In this article, we describe a detailed procedure for the measurement of NO by diaminofluorescein (DAF) in cell-permeable forms (DAF-FM-DA). In this method, the tissues are immersed in DAF-FM DA, leading to their diffusion from the plasma membrane to the inside of the cell, where intracellular esterases cleave the ester bonds, leading to DAF-FM release. The resulting DAF-FM reacts with intracellularly generated NO and forms highly fluorescent triazolofluorescein (DAF-FMT), which can be localized and monitored by fluorescence or confocal microscopy, and can also be detected via fluorimetry and flow cytometry. DAF dyes are very popular as they are non-invasive, relatively easy to handle, and commercially available. Another precise and very sensitive method is chemiluminescence detection of NO, where NO reacts with ozone (O3 ), leading to emission of a quantum of light from which NO can be calculated. Using chickpea seedlings, we describe in detail the measurement of NO using DAF-FM-DA and chemiluminescence methods. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Measurement of nitric oxide from chickpea seedlings using DAF-FM DA fluorescence with fluorescence and confocal microscopy Basic Protocol 2: Chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide from chickpea seedlings.


Assuntos
Cicer , Óxido Nítrico , Cicer/metabolismo , Fluoresceína/química , Fluorometria , Luminescência , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
2.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(11): 1431-1440, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) leads to an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation despite latent tuberculosis (LTB) screening, especially in TB endemic regions. AIM: We evaluated the effect of stringent screening strategy and LTB prophylaxis on TB reactivation. METHODS: We performed an ambispective comparison between patients who received anti-TNF therapy after January 2019 (late cohort) and between Jan 2005 and Jan 2019 (early cohort). Late cohort patients were subjected to stringent screening criteria which included all: history of past TB/recent contact with active TB, chest X-ray, CT (computed tomography) chest, IGRA (interferon-gamma release assay), TST (tuberculin skin test), and if any positive were given chemoprophylaxis. A cohort comparison was done to evaluate for risk reduction of TB following the stringent screening strategy. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-one patients (63: ulcerative colitis/108: Crohn's disease, mean age diagnosis: 28.5 ± 13.4 years, 60% males, median follow-up duration after anti-TNF: 33 months [interquartile range: 23-57 months]) were included. Among the 112 in the early cohort, 29 (26%) underwent complete TB screening, 22 (19.6%) had LTB, 10 (9%) received chemoprophylaxis, and 19 (17%) developed TB. In comparison, in the late cohort, 100% of patients underwent complete TB screening, 26 (44%) had LTB, 23 (39%) received chemoprophylaxis, and only 1(1.7%) developed TB (p < 0.01). On survival analysis, patients in early cohort had a higher probability of TB reactivation compared with the late cohort (HR: 14.52 (95% CI: 1.90-110.61 [p = 0.01]) after adjusting for gender, age at anti-TNF initiation, concomitant immunosuppression, anti-TNF doses, and therapy escalation. CONCLUSION: The high risk of TB reactivation with anti-TNF therapy in TB endemic regions can be significantly mitigated with stringent LTB screening and chemoprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Tuberculose Latente , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108814, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343708

RESUMO

Better understanding of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection might provide valuable insights into the future implementation of vaccination policies. Longitudinal analysis of IgG antibody titers was carried out in 32 recovered COVID-19 patients based in the Umbria region of Italy for 14 months after Mild and Moderately-Severe infection.Two FDA-approved immunoassays against SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein (NCP) and anti-spike-receptor binding domain (S-RBD) were used for sequential serological tests at different time points. The demographics,clinical history and symptom profile associated with the magnitude and longevity of antibody responses were also analyzed. Anti-S-RBD IgG persisted in 96.8% (31 of 32) subjects at 14 months. Patients reporting loss of smell and taste during the clinical course of the disease developed significantly higher antibody titers. Anti-NCP IgG seronegative patients(n=7) at 10 months, tested positive for anti-S-RBD IgG at 12,13 and 14 months emphasizing on a higher false-negative rate for NCP protein-based antibody assays. This study also highlights the importance of adopting specific immunoassays for routine estimation of antibody titers and the decreased rate of re-infections in recovered patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(3): 94-97, mar. 28, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120592

RESUMO

Objective: to determine the prevalence of hypercementosis in a Saudi Arabian population. material and methods: a total of 642 CBCT scans from patients comprising 4471 teeth were incorporated in the study sample. all teeth were analyzed for the presence of hypercementosis in sagittal, axial and coronal plains by two qualified and experienced observers. the characteristics of the involved tooth in terms of gender, jaw and location were recorded from the CBCT scans. the obtained data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 21.0. the reliability of measurements was evaluated by kappa statistics. results: out of total 642 subjects hypercementosis was observed in 31 patients (4.82 percent) and 43 teeth (0.96 percent). Eight (2.68 percent) maxillary 1st molars, 6 (1.88 percent) mandibular 1st molars, 5 (1.46 percent) maxillary second molars, 7 (1.95 percent) mandibular 2nd molars, 9 (4.76 percent) maxillary 3rd molars and 8 (3.58 percent) mandibular 3rd molars were observed to have hypercementosis. among males, 4.76 percent were affected with hypercementosis as compared to 4.86 percent of females (p=0.97). likewise, no significant difference in the occurrence of hypercementosis was observed between maxillary and mandibular arches or between sides (p>0.05). conclusion: the prevalence of hypercementosis in a Saudi population was found to be 4.82 percent with respect to patients and 0.96 percent with respect to teeth. No significant propensity for gender, jaw and arch side was noted.


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipercementose/epidemiologia , Hipercementose/diagnóstico por imagem , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula , Maxila , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol India ; 68(1): 45-50, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391675

RESUMO

Purpose of the Study: To assess the efficacy of hysteroscopy in diagnosis of AUB. Method: A total of 56 women in reproductive and peri-menopausal age group (20-50 years) with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent hysteroscopic examination followed by biopsy/histopathological evaluation. Hysteroscopic findings were compared against histopathological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of hysteroscopy were calculated. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.4 ± 7.6. Majority (60.7%) presented within 6 months of complaints. Clinically, 66.1% were diagnosed as menorrhagia, 30.4% polymenorrhoea and 3.6% intermenstrual bleeding. Hysteroscopically 53.6% presented with abnormal pathology, it diagnosed polyps in 16.1%, calcification in 12.5%, submucous fibroma in 10.7%, necrotic mass in 7.1%, adhesion and forgotten IUCD in 5.4% cases each. However, on histopathology, 33 (58.9%) cases had normal/proliferative/atrophic endometrium, 12 (21.4%) had hyperplasia, 7 (12.5%) had calcified endometrium, and 12 (21.4%) had polyp. No significant difference between two modalities was observed with respect to number of normal/proliferative/atrophic endometrium (p = 0.185). Histopathology diagnosed hyperplasia in significantly higher proportion of patients as compared to hysteroscopy (p = 0.042). Hysteroscopy diagnosed significantly higher proportion of patients with submucous myoma (p = 0.012) and necrotic mass (p = 0.042). Statistically, no significant difference between two modalities was observed with respect to other pathologies (p > 0.05). Overall agreement between two modalities was 62.5%. For pathological abnormalities in general, hysteroscopy had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy values of 78.3, 63.6, 60, 80.8 and 69.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Hysteroscopy provided additional information for some of the pathologies, otherwise remaining undiagnosed by HPE.

8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4059, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966885

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the efficacy of oxitard and lycopene in the management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF). Material and Methods: 120 subjects with clinicpathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (oxitard) and Group B (lycopene). Group A was administered 2 oxitard capsules twice daily and Group B was given 8 mg lycopene in 2 divided doses of 4 mg for 3 months. Gingival index and plaque index were documented for all patients and compared. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Student's paired t test and Chi-square test. P-value <0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening and tongue protrusion was significant in Group A (p<0.001). Subjective symptoms of pain associated with the lesion (p=0.0001), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0004) and speech (p=0.0002) significantly improved in the Group A. However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p>0.001) among the 2 groups. Although the mean gingival index and plaque index in group A was reduced but it was found to be not statistically significant. Conclusion: Oxitard capsules can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in swallowing and speech and pain associated with the lesion when compared to lycopene, thereby improving the quality of life of the affected individuals.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/diagnóstico , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/patologia , Síndrome da Ardência Bucal/diagnóstico , Estudo Comparativo , Eficácia , Antioxidantes , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Índice Periodontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Índia
9.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 7(4): 344-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559528
10.
Indian J Dermatol ; 61(3): 337-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27293264
11.
12.
Indian J Dermatol ; 61(1): 75-7, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955099

RESUMO

A wide prevalence of socio-religious, cultural, and tribal practices in India often leads to a multitude of skin conditions, which can misled the dermatologists in arriving at a diagnosis. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions are crossing boundaries, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects of these practices. Here, we report a unique case of thermal burn in a circumferential pattern over the umbilical region, a result of the placement of burning lamp over umbilicus to alleviate abdominal discomfort.

13.
Indian J Dermatol ; 61(1): 119, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lot of cosmetic and Ayurvedic products containing unlabeled depigmenting agent and steroids are available readily over the counter sale. The side effects of these products are not documented and can lead to adverse effects of continuous usage. OBJECTIVE: By this study, we aimed to find out the true nature of the above problem and it's implication in the Indian rural scenario. METHODOLOGY: All patients attending dermatology department during the period of 3 months from May to June 2013 for skin diseases were enquired about unsupervised use of any cosmetic product on their facial skin, duration of use, any side effect experienced through the prescribed questionnaire. RESULTS: Total 50 patients were recruited for the study. Out of which, 48% were males and 52% were females. Seventy-four percent of people had applied topical products/steroids in an attempt of attainment of fair complexion, 14% for melasma, 8% for acne induced hyperpigmentation, and 4% for dark circles. About 80% people had obtained one or the other products over the counter sale, 8% had followed the attractive advertisements, 8% had started the application on the recommendation of friends/family while only 4% people had correctly gone through the proper channel to consult a dermatologist. CONCLUSION: The problem of topical products or steroids abuse is rampant and significant, and unless and until immediate steps are taken to root out this problem from our setup, the condition will become worse all the more.

14.
Indian J Dermatol ; 60(6): 624-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677287
16.
Indian J Dermatol ; 60(3): 298-300, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26120162

RESUMO

Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1 (HGPRT-1) leading to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is one of the important causes of self-mutilation. Hereby, we report a case of LNS in a three and half-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-mutilating behavior. He had history of developmental delay, difficulty in social interaction, attention deficit and features of autism. His serum blood biochemistry was normal except for low hemoglobin levels and raised serum uric acid levels. With a diagnosis of LNS, the child was treated with allopurinol. With various modalities of physical restraint, his self-mutilating behavior came under control and currently the patient is being followed up.

17.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 6(3): 220-1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009724

RESUMO

Authors have attempted to discuss recently described "signs" in the field of dermatology.

18.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 6(2): 228-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25883486

RESUMO

There are very few published reports of HIV leprosy co infection in India in spite of having a large burden of both leprosy and HIV. Herein we are reporting a case of co-infection of Hansen's disease and HIV with facial nerve palsy.

19.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 18(1): 90-2, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745321

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder which primarily affects the growth and development of neural cell tissues. It presents as multiple tumor-like growths over the skin that arises from the nerves and is associated with other abnormalities like pigmentation over the skin and bone deformities. Becker's nevus or hairy pigmented epidermal nevus is a benign cutaneous hamartoma which is characterized by hyperpigmented macule with hypertrichosis. It is rarely associated with neurofibromatosis. We report a 22-years-old male with coexistent Becker's nevus and type 1 neurofibromatosis.

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