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1.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124302, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162235

RESUMO

The present study explores the differential responses of two genotypes (APwC: wild collection and APMS: mass selection line) of A. paniculata against the three application rates of arsenic (42, 126, and 200 mg kg-1). The oxidative enzymes, As accumulation in different tissues, plant growth, and content of pharmacologically important ent-labdane-related diterpenes (ent-LRDs) of the two genotypes were evaluated in the study. Results demonstrated that As uptake significantly reduced plant biomass in APwC and APMS by 5-41.5% and 9-33% in a dose-response manner, respectively. The APMS exhibited lower bioconcentration and translocation factors, higher As tolerance index, and higher content of ent-LRDs as compared to APWC. As treatment induced a decrease in the sum of four metabolite content of APMS (1.43 times) and an increase in that of APWC (1.12 times) as compared to control. Likewise, variance in the production of 5,7,2',3'-tetramethoxyflavanone, and stress enzymes was also observed between APwC and APMS. The increase in the expression of ApCPS2 suggested its involvement in channeling of metabolic flux towards the biosynthesis of ent-LRDs under As stress.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26681-26687, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046637

RESUMO

Measurements of Δ14C and CO2 can cleanly separate biogenic and fossil contributions to CO2 enhancements above background. Our measurements of these tracers in air around Los Angeles in 2015 reveal high values of fossil CO2 and a significant and seasonally varying contribution of CO2 from the urban biosphere. The biogenic CO2 is composed of sources such as biofuel combustion and human metabolism and an urban biospheric component likely originating from urban vegetation, including turf and trees. The urban biospheric component is a source in winter and a sink in summer, with an estimated amplitude of 4.3 parts per million (ppm), equivalent to 33% of the observed annual mean fossil fuel contribution of 13 ppm. While the timing of the net carbon sink is out of phase with wintertime rainfall and the sink seasonality of Southern California Mediterranean ecosystems (which show maximum uptake in spring), it is in phase with the seasonal cycle of urban water usage, suggesting that irrigated urban vegetation drives the biospheric signal we observe. Although 2015 was very dry, the biospheric seasonality we observe is similar to the 2006-2015 mean derived from an independent Δ14C record in the Los Angeles area, indicating that 2015 biospheric exchange was not highly anomalous. The presence of a large and seasonally varying biospheric signal even in the relatively dry climate of Los Angeles implies that atmospheric estimates of fossil fuel-CO2 emissions in other, potentially wetter, urban areas will be biased in the absence of reliable methods to separate fossil and biogenic CO2.

3.
Nature ; 575(7781): 180-184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695210

RESUMO

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is targeted for emissions mitigation by the US state of California and other jurisdictions worldwide1,2. Unique opportunities for mitigation are presented by point-source emitters-surface features or infrastructure components that are typically less than 10 metres in diameter and emit plumes of highly concentrated methane3. However, data on point-source emissions are sparse and typically lack sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to guide their mitigation and to accurately assess their magnitude4. Here we survey more than 272,000 infrastructure elements in California using an airborne imaging spectrometer that can rapidly map methane plumes5-7. We conduct five campaigns over several months from 2016 to 2018, spanning the oil and gas, manure-management and waste-management sectors, resulting in the detection, geolocation and quantification of emissions from 564 strong methane point sources. Our remote sensing approach enables the rapid and repeated assessment of large areas at high spatial resolution for a poorly characterized population of methane emitters that often appear intermittently and stochastically. We estimate net methane point-source emissions in California to be 0.618 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.523-0.725), equivalent to 34-46 per cent of the state's methane inventory8 for 2016. Methane 'super-emitter' activity occurs in every sector surveyed, with 10 per cent of point sources contributing roughly 60 per cent of point-source emissions-consistent with a study of the US Four Corners region that had a different sectoral mix9. The largest methane emitters in California are a subset of landfills, which exhibit persistent anomalous activity. Methane point-source emissions in California are dominated by landfills (41 per cent), followed by dairies (26 per cent) and the oil and gas sector (26 per cent). Our data have enabled the identification of the 0.2 per cent of California's infrastructure that is responsible for these emissions. Sharing these data with collaborating infrastructure operators has led to the mitigation of anomalous methane-emission activity10.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , California , Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Metano/química , Metano/metabolismo , Gás Natural , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/métodos , Petróleo , Águas Residuárias
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9636-9645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347357

RESUMO

California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 ± 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission estimates by California Air Resource Board (CARB). Some of differences could be biogenic emissions, superemitter point sources, and other episodic emissions which may not be completely included in the CARB inventory. San Joaquin Valley (SJV) has the largest CH4 emissions (0.94 ± 0.18 Tg/yr), followed by the South Coast Air Basin, the Sacramento Valley, and the San Francisco Bay Area at 0.39 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.05 Tg/yr, respectively. The dairy and oil/gas production sources in the SJV contribute 0.44 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.23 Tg CH4/yr, respectively. This study has important policy implications for regulatory programs, as it provides a thorough multiyear evaluation of the emissions inventory using independent atmospheric measurements and investigates the utility of a complementary multiplatform approach in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions in the state and identifies opportunities for the expansion and applications of the monitoring network.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , California , São Francisco
5.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaaw0076, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183402

RESUMO

Long-term atmospheric CO2 mole fraction and δ13CO2 observations over North America document persistent responses to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We estimate these responses corresponded to 0.61 (0.45 to 0.79) PgC year-1 more North American carbon uptake during El Niño than during La Niña between 2007 and 2015, partially offsetting increases of net tropical biosphere-to-atmosphere carbon flux around El Niño. Anomalies in derived North American net ecosystem exchange (NEE) display strong but opposite correlations with surface air temperature between seasons, while their correlation with water availability was more constant throughout the year, such that water availability is the dominant control on annual NEE variability over North America. These results suggest that increased water availability and favorable temperature conditions (warmer spring and cooler summer) caused enhanced carbon uptake over North America near and during El Niño.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 172: 411-422, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735973

RESUMO

Immobilization of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) along with the alleviation of their phytotoxicity in Mentha arvensis by biochar was examined in this investigation. A greenhouse experiment was executed to evaluate the effect of biochar (BC) amended Cd and Pb spiked soil on their immobilization and uptake, plant growth, photosynthetic attributes (total chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal activity) and oxidative enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase: POD; catalase: CAT and superoxide dismutase: SOD). In the present study, the photosynthetic attributes showed that BC significantly improved the total chlorophyll, photosynthetic, transpiration rates, and stomatal activity in the plants. The incorporation of BC in soil increase the Pb and Cd tolerance in M. arvensis vis-à-vis improved the biomass yield and nutrient intake. In addition, biochar has also reduced the POD, CAT, and SOD in the plant as well as improved the soil pH and enzymatic activities. Overall, BC immobilized the Cd and Pb in soil by providing the binding site to the metals and reduced the phytotoxicity in M. arvensis. However, large-scale field trials of BC are required for safe cultivation of M. arvensis which is known for its phytopharmaceuticals importance.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Chumbo/análise , Mentha/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Catalase/metabolismo , Mentha/metabolismo , Mentol/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984251

RESUMO

We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the Los Angeles (LA) Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four "extra-urban" sites including two "marine" sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO) and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI), one "continental" site located in Victorville (VIC), in the high desert northeast of LA, and one "continental/mid-troposphere" site located on Mount Wilson (MWO) in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within ~1 ppm CO2 and ~10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. "Urban" and "suburban" sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California) site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of ~20 ppm CO2 and ~150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as ~15 ppm CO2 and ~80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00-16:00 LT, local time), which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014). The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much larger than the measurement uncertainty. The background uncertainty for the marine background estimate is ~10 and ~15 % of the median mid-afternoon enhancement near downtown LA for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Overall, analytical and background uncertainties are small relative to the local CO2 and CH4 enhancements; however, our results suggest that reducing the uncertainty to less than 5 % of the median mid-afternoon enhancement will require detailed assessment of the impact of meteorology on background conditions.

8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(10): 3427-43, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124119

RESUMO

Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub-Basin estimates have not been previously available.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Estações do Ano
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 544: 410-21, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657386

RESUMO

Soil enzymes are crucial for soil nutrient cycling function. Understanding of the factors that control their response to major disturbances such as dumping of environmentally toxic acidic waste remains limited. We evaluated the effect of dumping of overburden (OB) and their amendments using biochar, on the resistance and resilience of soil enzyme activities involved in phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur and carbon cycling (acid & alkaline phosphatase, urease, arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phenol oxidases, cellulase and ß-glucosidase). For investigation the soils treated with OB and with the mixture of OB and biochar were used for the cultivation of bacopa were used. We assessed 0 day, 45 day and 90 days activities of the target soil enzymes, available phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur, soil organic carbon and microbial identification. The resilience and resistance index of all the treatments were calculated. We found that phyto-remediated OB-contaminated soil has its own resilience power. However, biochar addition enhanced the enzyme resistance and resilience of OB contaminated soil. In silico study indicates that biochar-Fe complex play a significant role in enzymatic activities. Overall, the results indicate a significant influence of phytoremediation and biochar addition on soil enzymatic activity that is extremely resistant to OB. This study provides insight on how biochar addition modulates soil biochemical and microbiological response to OB affected soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Mineração , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Geophys Res Lett ; 41(12): 4381-4388, 2014 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25821266

RESUMO

The ability to monitor fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions from subcontinental regions using atmospheric CO2 observations remains an important but unrealized goal. Here we explore a necessary but not sufficient component of this goal, namely, the basic question of the detectability of FFCO2 emissions from subcontinental regions. Detectability is evaluated by examining the degree to which FFCO2 emissions patterns from specific regions are needed to explain the variability observed in high-frequency atmospheric CO2 observations. Analyses using a CO2 monitoring network of 35 continuous measurement towers over North America show that FFCO2 emissions are difficult to detect during nonwinter months. We find that the compounding effects of the seasonality of atmospheric transport patterns and the biospheric CO2 flux signal dramatically hamper the detectability of FFCO2 emissions. Results from several synthetic data case studies highlight the need for advancements in data coverage and transport model accuracy if the goal of atmospheric measurement-based FFCO2 emissions detection and estimation is to be achieved beyond urban scales. KEY POINTS: Poor detectability of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from subcontinental regionsDetectability assessed via attribution of emissions patterns in atmospheric dataLoss in detectability due to transport modeling errors and biospheric signal.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; 137: 376-85, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603187

RESUMO

In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Carvão Mineral , Poaceae/química , Eucalyptus/química , Cinética , Óxidos/química , Rosa/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
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