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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4579, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872671

RESUMO

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a complex rheumatic disease with both autoimmune and autoinflammatory components. Recently, familial cases of systemic-onset JIA have been attributed to mutations in LACC1/FAMIN. We describe three affected siblings from a Moroccan consanguineous family with an early-onset chronic, symmetric and erosive arthritis previously diagnosed as rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular JIA. Autozygosity mapping identified four homozygous regions shared by all patients, located in chromosomes 3, 6 (n:2) and 13, containing over 330 genes. Subsequent whole exome sequencing identified two potential candidate variants within these regions (in FARS2 and LACC1/FAMIN). Genotyping of a cohort of healthy Moroccan individuals (n: 352) and bioinformatics analyses finally supported the frameshift c.128_129delGT mutation in the LACC1/FAMIN gene, leading to a truncated protein (p.Cys43Tyrfs*6), as the most probable causative gene defect. Additional targeted sequencing studies performed in patients with systemic-onset JIA (n:23) and RF-negative polyarticular JIA (n: 44) revealed no pathogenic LACC1/FAMIN mutations. Our findings support the homozygous genotype in the LACC1/FAMIN gene as the defect underlying the family here described with a recessively inherited severe inflammatory joint disease. Our evidences provide further support to the involvement of LACC1/FAMIN deficiency in different types of JIA in addition to the initially described systemic-onset JIA.

2.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 275, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a biomarker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and predicts relapse in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Higher drug trough serum levels are associated with a good response in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Power Doppler ultrasound synovitis is predictive of relapse and structural damage progression in patients in clinical remission. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of serum calprotectin levels, drug trough serum levels (TSL), and power Doppler (PD) activity as predictors of relapse in RA and PsA patients in remission or with low disease activity receiving TNFi. METHODS: This was a longitudinal, prospective, 1-year single-center study of 103 patients (47 RA, 56 PsA) receiving TNFi in remission or with low disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) ≤ 3.2). The predictive value of serum calprotectin, TNFi TSL, and PD were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. To illustrate the predictive performance of calprotectin, TNFi TSL, and PD score, Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed from baseline to relapse. Associations between baseline factors and relapse were determined using Cox regression models. Multivariate models were constructed to analyze the effect of covariates and to fully adjust the association between calprotectin, TNFi TSL, and PD score with relapse. A generalized estimating equation model with an identity link for longitudinal continuous outcomes was used to assess the effect of covariates on TNFi TSL. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients completed 1 year of follow-up, of whom 12 experienced a relapse. At baseline, relapsers had higher calprotectin levels, lower TNFi TSL, and higher PD activity than nonrelapsers. ROC analysis showed calprotectin fully predicted relapse (area under the curve (AUC) = 1.00). TNFi TSL and PD had an AUC of 0.790 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.691-0.889) and 0.877 (95% CI 0.772-0.981), respectively. Survival analyses and log rank tests showed significant differences between groups according to calprotectin serum levels (p < 0.001), TNFi TSL (p = 0.004), and PD score (p < 0.001). Univariate Cox regression models showed that time-to-remission/low disease activity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, p < 0.001), calprotectin levels (HR = 2.38, p < 0.001), TNFi TSL (HR = 0.47, p = 0.018), and PD score (HR = 1.31, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with disease relapse. In the multivariate analysis, only baseline calprotectin levels independently predicted disease relapse (HR = 2.41, p = 0.002). The generalized estimating equation analysis showed that only disease activity by DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly associated with longitudinal changes in TNFi TSL (regression coefficient 0.26 (0.0676 to 0.0036), p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Time-to-remission/low disease activity, calprotectin serum levels, TNFi TSL, and PD score were significantly associated with disease relapse. However, only baseline calprotectin serum levels independently predicted disease relapse in RA and PsA patients under TNFi therapy.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Artrite Psoriásica/sangue , Artrite Psoriásica/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postzygotic de novo mutations lead to the phenomenon of gene mosaicism. The 3 main types are called somatic, gonadal, and gonosomal mosaicism, which differ in terms of the body distribution of postzygotic mutations. Mosaicism has been reported occasionally in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) since the early 1990s, but its real involvement has not been systematically addressed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the incidence of gene mosaicism in patients with PIDs. METHODS: The amplicon-based deep sequencing method was used in the 3 parts of the study that establish (1) the allele frequency of germline variants (n = 100), (2) the incidence of parental gonosomal mosaicism in families with PIDs with de novo mutations (n = 92), and (3) the incidence of mosaicism in families with PIDs with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism (n = 36). Additional investigations evaluated body distribution of postzygotic mutations, their stability over time, and their characteristics. RESULTS: The range of allele frequency (44.1% to 55.6%) was established for germline variants. Those with minor allele frequencies of less than 44.1% were assumed to be postzygotic. Mosaicism was detected in 30 (23.4%) of 128 families with PIDs, with a variable minor allele frequency (0.8% to 40.5%). Parental gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 6 (6.5%) of 92 families with de novo mutations, and a high incidence of mosaicism (63.9%) was detected among families with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism. In most analyzed cases mosaicism was found to be both uniformly distributed and stable over time. CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest performed to date to investigate mosaicism in patients with PIDs, revealing that it affects approximately 25% of enrolled families. Our results might have serious consequences regarding treatment and genetic counseling and reinforce the use of next-generation sequencing-based methods in the routine analyses of PIDs.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029515

RESUMO

Pregnancy and early infancy represent two very particular immunological states. During pregnancy, the haploidentical fetus and the pregnant women develop tolerance mechanisms to avoid rejection; then, just after birth, the neonatal immune system must modulate the transition from the virtually sterile but haploidentical uterus to a world full of antigens and the rapid microbial colonization of the mucosa. B regulatory (Breg) cells are a recently discovered B cell subset thought to play a pivotal role in different conditions such as chronic infections, autoimmunity, cancer, and transplantation among others in addition to pregnancy. This review focuses on the role of Breg cells in pregnancy and early infancy, two special stages of life in which recent studies have positioned Breg cells as important players.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/metabolismo , Doença , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
5.
Front Immunol ; 9: 636, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867916

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and poor response to vaccines. Its diagnosis is made based on clinical and immunological criteria, after exclusion of other diseases that can cause similar phenotypes. Currently, less than 20% of cases of CVID have a known underlying genetic cause. We have analyzed whole-exome sequencing and copy number variants data of 36 children and adolescents diagnosed with CVID and healthy relatives to estimate the proportion of monogenic cases. We have replicated an association of CVID to p.C104R in TNFRSF13B and reported the second case of homozygous patient to date. Our results also identify five causative genetic variants in LRBA, CTLA4, NFKB1, and PIK3R1, as well as other very likely causative variants in PRKCD, MAPK8, or DOCK8 among others. We experimentally validate the effect of the LRBA stop-gain mutation which abolishes protein production and downregulates the expression of CTLA4, and of the frameshift indel in CTLA4 producing expression downregulation of the protein. Our results indicate a monogenic origin of at least 15-24% of the CVID cases included in the study. The proportion of monogenic patients seems to be lower in CVID than in other PID that have also been analyzed by whole exome or targeted gene panels sequencing. Regardless of the exact proportion of CVID monogenic cases, other genetic models have to be considered for CVID. We propose that because of its prevalence and other features as intermediate penetrancies and phenotypic variation within families, CVID could fit with other more complex genetic scenarios. In particular, in this work, we explore the possibility of CVID being originated by an oligogenic model with the presence of heterozygous mutations in interacting proteins or by the accumulation of detrimental variants in particular immunological pathways, as well as perform association tests to detect association with rare genetic functional variation in the CVID cohort compared to healthy controls.

6.
Leukemia ; 32(6): 1427-1434, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463830

RESUMO

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a biologically heterogeneous, clinically defined entity with a variable rate of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Reliable markers for progression are critical for the development of potential therapeutic interventions. We retrospectively evaluated the predictive value of the evolving pattern of serum M-protein among other progression risk factors in 206 patients with SMM diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. Median time from recognition of evolving type to progression into symptomatic MM was 1.1 years (95% CI 0.5-2.0) and progression rate at 3 years was 71%. Development of the evolving type drastically worsened the prognostic estimation made at diagnosis for every covariate predictive of progression (serum M-protein size, bone marrow plasma cell infiltration, immunoparesis and Mayo Clinic risk). On average, the hazard ratio for progression to symptomatic MM increased to 5.1 (95% CI 3.4-7.6) after recognition of the evolving type. In conclusion, in patients with SMM the evolving pattern accurately predicts the risk of early progression to symptomatic disease, thereby allowing the identification of ultra-high risk patients who would be candidates for immediate therapy.

7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 84(4): 716-725, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314183

RESUMO

AIMS: Intravenous tocilizumab is currently dosed on body weight, although a weak correlation between body weight and clearance has been described. The aim of the study was to assess the current dosing strategy and provide a scientific rational for dosing using a modelling and simulation approach. METHODS: Serum concentrations and covariates were obtained from intravenous tocilizumab treated subjects at a dose of 4, 6 or 8 mg every 28 days. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. The final model was used to simulate tocilizumab exposure to assess a dosing strategy based on body weight or fixed dosing, using as target a cumulative area under the curve at 24 weeks of treatment above 100 × 103  µg h ml-1 . RESULTS: A one-compartment disposition model with parallel linear and nonlinear elimination best described the concentration-time data. The typical population mean values for clearance, apparent volume of distribution, maximum elimination rate and Michaelis-Menten constant were 0.0104 l h-1 , 4.83 l, 0.239 mg h-1 and 4.22 µg ml-1 , respectively. Interindividual variability was included for clearance (17.0%) and volume of distribution (30.8%). Significant covariates for clearance were patient body weight and C-reactive protein serum levels. An estimated exponent for body weight of 0.360 confirms the weak relationship with tocilizumab clearance. Simulations demonstrate that patients with lower weights are at risk of underdosing if the weight-based dosing approach is used. However, fixed-dosing provides a more consistent drug exposure regardless of weight category. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence to support fixed dosing of intravenous tocilizumab in rheumatoid arthritis patients since it reduces variability in tocilizumab exposure among weight categories compared to the current weight-based dosing approach.

8.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 150(2): 67-74, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169923

RESUMO

Las enfermedades autoinflamatorias (EAIF) monogénicas son enfermedades minoritarias caracterizadas por un aumento descontrolado de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, que es causado por mutaciones en genes que participan en ciertas vías inflamatorias. En los últimos años, se han identificado genes y proteínas responsables de nuevas EAIF, y se ha producido una mejora sustancial en su tratamiento. Las EAIF monogénicas se inician típicamente en la edad pediátrica, pero también se presentan en adultos. A diferencia de los pacientes pediátricos, los adultos suelen manifestar síntomas menos graves y con menos complicaciones a largo plazo. Además, en los pacientes que comienzan en la edad adulta tienden a predominar las variantes genéticas de baja penetrancia sobre las patogénicas. Ocasionalmente, el inicio tardío se puede asociar a la presencia de mutaciones somáticas. En esta revisión se describen las EAIF monogénicas que pueden iniciarse en la edad adulta, entre las que se encuentran las más conocidas y frecuentes hasta la fecha, y otras de reciente descripción (AU)


Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases (AIFD) are rare disorders characterized by an uncontrolled increase of the systemic inflammatory response, which is caused by mutations in genes involved in inflammatory pathways. Over the last few years, new genes and proteins responsible for new monogenic AIFD have been identified and a substantial improvement in their treatment has been achieved. Monogenic AIFD manifestations typically begin during childhood, but they can also occur in adults. Compared to pediatric patients, adults usually present with a less severe disease and fewer long-term complications. In addition, patients with adult-onset disease carry low-penetrance mutations more often than pathogenic variants. A late-onset of AIFD may be occasionally associated with the presence of somatic mutations. In this study, we review the most frequent monogenic AIFD, and others recently described, which may occur during adulthood (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/epidemiologia , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/análise , Caspase 1/análise , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/fisiopatologia , Imunoglobulina D/análise , Estomatite Aftosa/genética
9.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 150(2): 67-74, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923673

RESUMO

Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases (AIFD) are rare disorders characterized by an uncontrolled increase of the systemic inflammatory response, which is caused by mutations in genes involved in inflammatory pathways. Over the last few years, new genes and proteins responsible for new monogenic AIFD have been identified and a substantial improvement in their treatment has been achieved. Monogenic AIFD manifestations typically begin during childhood, but they can also occur in adults. Compared to pediatric patients, adults usually present with a less severe disease and fewer long-term complications. In addition, patients with adult-onset disease carry low-penetrance mutations more often than pathogenic variants. A late-onset of AIFD may be occasionally associated with the presence of somatic mutations. In this study, we review the most frequent monogenic AIFD, and others recently described, which may occur during adulthood.

10.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1462, 2017 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133782

RESUMO

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances immunity in addition to orchestrating metabolism. Here we show that mTOR coordinates immunometabolic reconfiguration of marginal zone (MZ) B cells, a pre-activated lymphocyte subset that mounts antibody responses to T-cell-independent antigens through a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-amplified pathway involving transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). This receptor interacts with mTOR via the TLR adapter MyD88. The resulting mTOR activation instigates MZ B-cell proliferation, immunoglobulin G (IgG) class switching, and plasmablast differentiation through a rapamycin-sensitive pathway that integrates metabolic and antibody-inducing transcription programs, including NF-κB. Disruption of TACI-mTOR interaction by rapamycin, truncation of the MyD88-binding domain of TACI, or B-cell-conditional mTOR deficiency interrupts TACI signaling via NF-κB and cooperation with TLRs, thereby hampering IgG production to T-cell-independent antigens but not B-cell survival. Thus, mTOR drives innate-like antibody responses by linking proximal TACI signaling events with distal immunometabolic transcription programs.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/imunologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ativação Enzimática , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina/genética , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia
11.
Amyloid ; 24(4): 245-252, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Immunoparesis (IP) is a risk factor associated with an unfavourable outcome in several plasma cell disorders. It has been suggested that its presence in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis could be associated with worse prognosis. However, the relevance of IP after treatment has not been evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic impact of IP at diagnosis and one year after treatment onset in patients with AL amyloidosis. METHODS: The clinical records of 69 patients with AL amyloidosis treated at a single institution from January 2006 to January 2016 were included in the study. RESULTS: IP was observed in 27.5% of patients at diagnosis. The presence of IP was associated with a lower probability to achieve very good partial response or better after first-line treatment (37.8% versus 62.2%; p = .04). However, only in the group of patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), the presence of IP resulted in a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (30.2 months versus not reached [NR]; p = .02) but not in overall survival (OS). Persistence of IP at one year after treatment onset was identified in only four (9.8%) of the 41 evaluable patients. In the ASCT group, the absence of IP at one year after treatment onset resulted in a longer median PFS and OS (NR versus 22.6 months; p = .006; and NR versus 35.2 months; p < .001; respectively). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of IP at one year after treatment onset was independently associated with longer survival. CONCLUSION: IP at diagnosis has a negative impact on survival while its absence at one year after treatment is an independent marker for long-term survival.


Assuntos
Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Idoso , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1123, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodies are considered safe during pregnancy, there are no studies on the development of the exposed-infant immune system. The objective was to study for the first time the impact of throughout pregnancy exposure to anti-TNF-α has an impact in the development of the infant's immune system, especially B cells and the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway. METHODS: Prospective study of infants born to mothers with inflammatory bowel disease treated throughout pregnancy with anti-TNF-α (adalimumab/infliximab). Infants were monitored both clinically and immunologically at birth and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS: We included seven patients and eight healthy controls. Exposed infants had detectable levels of anti-TNF-α until 6 months of age; they presented a more immature B- and helper T-phenotype that normalized within 12 months, with normal immunoglobulin production and vaccine responses. A decreased Treg cell frequency at birth that inversely correlated with mother's peripartum anti-TNF-α levels was observed. Also, a decreased response after mycobacterial challenge was noted. Clinically, no serious infections occurred during follow-up. Four of seven had atopia. CONCLUSION: This study reveals changes in the immune system of infants exposed during pregnancy to anti-TNF-α. We hypothesize that a Treg decrease might facilitate hypersensitivity and that defects in IL-12/IFN-γ pathway might place the infant at risk of intracellular infections. Pediatricians should be aware of these changes. Although new studies are needed to confirm these results, our findings are especially relevant in view of a likely increase in the use of these drugs during pregnancy in the coming years.

13.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 85(1-2): 27-29, ene.-jun. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-884083

RESUMO

Introducción. Las inmunodeficiencias primarias son un grupo de enfermedades de origen genético que implican altera - ciones asociadas a la respuesta inmunológica. El infra diagnóstico de estas conlleva al retraso de tratamiento, evitables en gran parte; Entre estas existe el síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich; es un trastorno raro, ligado al cromosoma X, recesivo, que se caracteriza por trom - bocitopenia, eczema e inmunodeficiencia donde su tratamiento curativo es el trasplante de medula ósea. CASO CLÍNICO : Paciente de 10 años, con antecedentes de múltiples hospitalizaciones por procesos infecciosos importantes: neumonías recurrentes, menin - gitis, diarreas, erupción cutánea generalizada y trombocitopenia de hasta 9,000 mm³. Después de múltiples estudios realizados, se confirma el diagnóstico de síndrome de Wiskott -Aldrich por inmunogenetica (mutación del gen WAS) y mediante colaboración médica internacional, se realiza trasplante de médula ósea con posterior resolución de su enfermedad. DISCUSION: Las inmunodeficiencias primarias son patologías más comunes de lo que se creía (prevalencia de hasta 1/1200), la evidencia de aparición y su importancia clínica deben ser tomadas en consideración. En este caso de Síndrome de Wiskot-Aldrich en donde el diagnóstico definitivo es in - munogenetico, (actualmente el país no cuenta), además de tratamiento inmuno-oncológico adecuado, el paciente pudo sobrevivir y mejorar su calidad de vida gracias a soporte investigativo y terapéutico multinacional. Existen colaboraciones multicentricas como el consorcio de tratamiento inmunodeficiencias primarias, que tienen como objetivo colaborar activamente en el diagnóstico y tratamien - to estos casos, salvaguardando la vida de estos pacientes y ayudando a comprender estas enfermedades raras...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Autoimunes , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/diagnóstico , Cromossomo X
14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(8): 1679-1688, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canakinumab treatment in active hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS). METHODS: This was a 3-part open-label study with an initial 6-month treatment period in which patients with HIDS (n = 9) received canakinumab subcutaneously at a dose of 300 mg (or 4 mg/kg for those weighing ≤40 kg) every 6 weeks (period 1 [P1]), followed by a 6-month withdrawal period (period 2 [P2]), and then a 24-month extension treatment period with canakinumab at the same dose (period 3 [P3]). The primary end point was reduction in the frequency of attacks during treatment periods as compared to the historical period (HP; defined as the period in which patients did not receive drugs other than nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and/or steroids). RESULTS: All 9 patients completed P1 and P2, whereas only 8 patients completed P3. All patients achieved a complete response during P1, and only 2 required dose adjustments. The number of attacks per patient decreased from a median of 5 (range 3-12) during the HP to a median of 0 (range 0-2) during P1. During P2, 7 of 9 patients experienced a disease flare within a median of 110 days (range 62-196) after the last canakinumab dose. Laboratory findings were normalized by day 15 of treatment and remained at normal levels throughout the study. Analysis of blood transcriptome profiles, assessed during P1, showed up-regulated levels of interferon and myeloid-related inflammatory responses in untreated patients compared to healthy controls, and these rapidly decreased following canakinumab injection, reaching levels comparable to those of healthy controls. At least 1 adverse event (AE) was detected in all 9 patients. Most of the AEs were mild in intensity, with infections being the most frequent AE. Serious AEs were reported in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy and safety of canakinumab treatment to control active HIDS and to suppress inflammation-related transcriptional responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Masculino , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/genética , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Indução de Remissão , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 8: 299, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal-dominant autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene. R92Q, a low-penetrance variant, is usually associated with a milder TRAPS phenotype than structural or pathogenic mutations. No studies differentiating R92Q-related disease in patients with pediatric and adult onset have been performed to date. OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical features and disease outcomes in patients diagnosed with TRAPS associated with R92Q variant and to investigate differences between patients with pediatric and adult disease onset. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with R92Q-related disease from four reference centers for autoinflammatory diseases was performed. Clinical and laboratory features, family history of autoinflammatory diseases, treatments received, and outcomes during follow-up were recorded and separately analyzed in pediatric and adult patients. Our results were included in the analysis with other reported pediatric and adult R92Q-related disease series. RESULTS: Our series encompassed 18 patients (9 females and 9 males) with R92Q variant. In 61% of patients, disease onset occurred during infancy and in 39%, during adulthood, with a median diagnostic delay of 5 years and a follow-up of 5.4 years. A positive family history of autoinflammatory disease was detected in 28% of patients. All patients presented with febrile recurrent episodes. Other common symptoms included arthralgia/arthritis (61%), myalgia (39%), asthenia/fatigue (44%), abdominal pain (39%), headache (33%), odynophagia (33%), skin rash (28%), and chest pain (22%). During attacks, 80% of patients increased acute phase reactants levels. No patient had developed amyloidosis during the study period. At the end of follow-up, 28% of patients were asymptomatic and treatment free, 50% were receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or glucocorticoids on demand, and 22% were being treated with biologic agents. When differences between pediatric and adult patients were globally analyzed, adults tended to have longer attacks duration and presented more frequently with chest pain and headache, while abdominal pain, vomiting, cervical adenitis, and pharyngitis predominated in pediatric patients. No differences in outcomes and treatment requirements were observed in both age groups. CONCLUSION: This study has contributed to characterize R92Q-related disease by identifying trends in disease phenotypes depending on the age at disease onset.

16.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(8): 1269-1275, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434927

RESUMO

The emergence of oligoclonal bands (OB) in patients with multiple myeloma achieving a complete remission (CR) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and the use of novel agents is a well-recognized event. The presence of OB is associated with favorable outcome. However, the emergence of OB in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis has never been investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, natural history, and prognostic impact of OB in 50 patients with AL amyloidosis who achieved at least a partial response either after upfront ASCT (20 patients [40%]) or after conventional treatment in patients ineligible for transplantation (30 patients [60%]). OB were observed in 60% of the patients, with IgG-kappa (30.7%) the most frequently detected isotype. This phenomenon was more prevalent in patients achieving CR than those in other response categories (88% versus 32%, P = .0001). The landmark analysis at 1 year after diagnosis demonstrates a significantly longer progression-free survival and an improvement trend in overall survival (P = .04 and P = .06, respectively). This prognostic impact was also observed in patients who achieved CR and in patients with more advanced stage. In summary, this is the first report of OB in patients with AL amyloidosis. Although its biological meaning remains unclear, it could reflect a more robust humoral immune response.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/terapia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 201, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28326080

RESUMO

The newborn's immune system must transition from a sterile haploidentical uterus to the world full of antigens. Regulatory B-cells (Breg; broadly defined as CD19+CD24hiCD38hi) are tolerance promoters in the adult immune system. They can inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells and are essential in different conditions, including pregnancy. Breg have still not been well characterized in umbilical cord blood, where we hypothesize that they are pivotal in the achievement of tolerance. We studied CD19+CD24hiCD38hi Breg in healthy umbilical cord blood (hUCB) compared to healthy peripheral adult blood (hAPB). Total numbers of Breg were increased in hUCB compared to hAPB (34.39 vs. 9.49%; p = 0.0002), especially in the marginal zone-like B-cell subset, in which the most marked difference could be observed between hUCB and hAPB (60.80 vs. 4.94%; p = 0.1). CD24hiCD38hi subset in hUCB produced IL-10 and inhibited T-cell IFN-γ [1.63 vs. 0.95 stimulation ratio (SR); p = 0.004] and IL-4 (1.63 vs. 1.44 SR; p = 0.39) production. Phenotypically, hUCB Breg cells presented IgMhiIgDhiCD5+CD10+CD27- markers, similar to those described in hAPB Breg cells, but they showed increased IgM concentration and decreased expression of CD22 and CD73 markers. Our work characterized the frequency, phenotype, and function of Breg in hUCB, which may contribute to understanding of immune tolerance during pregnancy, paving the way to a new approach to immune-related diseases in the fetus and the newborn.

18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35 Suppl 108(6): 27-31, 2017 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) usually start during infancy as an urticarial-like rash and a marked acute phase response, with additional manifestations appearing during its evolution. The aim of this study was to expand the clinical diversity of CAPS by the description of novel atypical features. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from patients' medical charts. Sanger sequencing analyzed NLRP3. Response to anti-IL-1 blockade was evaluated by clinical assessments and by measurements of laboratory parameters. RESULTS: Seventeen patients from two families (A and B), carrying the p.Ala439Thr and p.Arg260Trp NLRP3 mutations respectively, were enrolled. The disease was unexpectedly atypical in all members of Family A, with a 16-year-old asymptomatic carrier, and onset in adulthood associated with absence of skin lesions in four affected members. Surprisingly, one patient from each family suffered from severe haemorrhagic cystitis due to AA amyloidosis in the urinary bladder. Members of Family B displayed a classical phenotype, with two patients suffering from olfactive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence suggests that CAPS may occasionally be presented as a late-onset, recurrent inflammatory disease without urticarial-like rash. In some patients, AA amyloidosis in strange locations like urinary bladder may complicate the clinical course. The response to IL-1 blockade in these atypical CAPS was similar to that described in classical forms. Consequently, we suggest that CAPS should be included in the differential diagnosis of adult patients with unexplained, recurrent inflammatory diseases, and once confirmed, the early initiation of anti-IL-1 blockade will probably prevent the development of life-threatening complications.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/etiologia , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/complicações , Cistite/etiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Idoso , Amiloidose/tratamento farmacológico , Amiloidose/genética , Amiloidose/imunologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/genética , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/imunologia , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/genética , Cistite/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/genética , Nefropatias/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 202-211.e6, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes in macrophages. They assemble after infection- or stress-associated stimuli, activating both caspase-1-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion and pyroptosis. Increased inflammasome activity resulting from gene mutations is related to monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. However, variable penetrance among patients with the same gene mutations suggests involvement of additional mechanisms associated with inflammasome gene regulation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the role of DNA demethylation in activating inflammasome genes during macrophage differentiation and monocyte activation in healthy control subjects and patients with autoinflammatory syndrome. METHODS: Inflammasome-related genes were tested for DNA methylation and mRNA levels by using bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative RT-PCR in monocytes in vitro differentiated to macrophages and exposed to inflammatory conditions. The contribution of Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) and nuclear factor κB to DNA demethylation was tested by using chromatin immunoprecipitation, small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation, and pharmacologic inhibition. RESULTS: We observed that inflammasome-related genes are rapidly demethylated in both monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and on monocyte activation. Demethylation associates with increased gene expression, and both mechanisms are impaired when TET2 and nuclear factor κB are downregulated. We analyzed DNA methylation levels of inflammasome-related genes in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) and familial Mediterranean fever, 2 archetypical monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. Under the above conditions, monocytes from untreated patients with CAPS undergo more efficient DNA demethylation than those of healthy subjects. Interestingly, patients with CAPS treated with anti-IL-1 drugs display methylation levels similar to those of healthy control subjects. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to demonstrate the involvement of DNA methylation-associated alterations in patients with monogenic autoinflammatory disease and opens up possibilities for novel clinical markers.


Assuntos
Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Inflamassomos/genética , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
20.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 83(5): 962-975, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27990682

RESUMO

The use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade, becoming the cornerstone treatment for many patients. The current therapeutic arsenal consists of just under 10 biologic agents, with four different mechanisms of action. Several studies have demonstrated a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which translates to unpredictability in clinical response among individuals. The present review focuses on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biologic agents approved for rheumatoid arthritis. The literature relating to their concentration-effect relationship and the use of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling to optimize drug regimens is analysed. Due to the scarcity and complexity of these studies, the current dosing strategy is based on clinical indexes/aspects. In general, dose individualization for biologics should be implemented increasingly in clinical practice as there is a direct benefit for treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Moreover, there is an indirect benefit in terms of cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Antirreumáticos/economia , Antirreumáticos/farmacocinética , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Fatores Biológicos/economia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacocinética , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos
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