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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CREBRF missense variant (p.Arg457Gln) is paradoxically associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, yet higher body mass index (BMI). Here we sought to determine whether this CREBRF variant might be associated with adult height. METHODS: Linear regression was used to analyse the association of the CREBRF minor (A) allele with height in 2286 Maori and Pacific adults living in Aotearoa/New Zealand. A potential type 2 diabetes index event was corrected to account for a bias that may be the cause of paradoxical association between the CREBRF diabetes-protective allele and higher BMI and height. RESULTS: The CREBRF protective allele was associated with increased adult height (ß = 1.25 cm, P = 3.9 × 10-6), with the effect being more pronounced in males. The lower odds of diabetes remained similar when analyses were adjusted for height (OR = 0.67-0.65). We found no evidence of a diabetes index event bias to explain the paradoxical effect of CREBRF with either BMI or height and diabetes. The orthologous CREBRF p.Arg457Gln variant was created in knock-in mice to independently assess the effect of the variant, and length was found to be greater in male mice at 8 weeks of age. CONCLUSION: These data taken together indicate that CREBRF p.Arg457Gln is associated with taller stature in Maori and Pacific adults.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

4.
J Hepatol ; 71(3): 594-602, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Excess liver iron content is common and is linked to the risk of hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. We aimed to identify genetic variants influencing liver iron content and use genetics to understand its link to other traits and diseases. METHODS: First, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,289 individuals from UK Biobank, whose liver iron level had been quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, before validating our findings in an independent cohort (n = 1,513 from IMI DIRECT). Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to test the causal effects of 25 predominantly metabolic traits on liver iron content. Third, we tested phenome-wide associations between liver iron variants and 770 traits and disease outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 3 independent genetic variants (rs1800562 [C282Y] and rs1799945 [H63D] in HFE and rs855791 [V736A] in TMPRSS6) associated with liver iron content that reached the GWAS significance threshold (p <5 × 10-8). The 2 HFE variants account for ∼85% of all cases of hereditary haemochromatosis. Mendelian randomisation analysis provided evidence that higher central obesity plays a causal role in increased liver iron content. Phenome-wide association analysis demonstrated shared aetiopathogenic mechanisms for elevated liver iron, high blood pressure, cirrhosis, malignancies, neuropsychiatric and rheumatological conditions, while also highlighting inverse associations with anaemias, lipidaemias and ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: Our study provides genetic evidence that mechanisms underlying higher liver iron content are likely systemic rather than organ specific, that higher central obesity is causally associated with higher liver iron, and that liver iron shares common aetiology with multiple metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. LAY SUMMARY: Excess liver iron content is common and is associated with liver diseases and metabolic diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. We identified 3 genetic variants that are linked to an increased risk of developing higher liver iron content. We show that the same genetic variants are linked to higher risk of many diseases, but they may also be associated with some health advantages. Finally, we use genetic variants associated with waist-to-hip ratio as a tool to show that central obesity is causally associated with increased liver iron content.

5.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(6): 607-613, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141482

RESUMO

Background Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal/early-onset non-autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes, multiple epiphyseal dysphasia and growth retardation. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 3 (EIF2AK3). We aimed to study the clinical characteristics and frequency of the disease in the Iranian population. Methods We recruited 42 patients who referred to the endocrine and metabolism clinic at Mashhad Imam Reza Hospital with neonatal diabetes. Molecular screening of KCNJ11, INS, ABCC8 and EIF2AK3 was performed at the Exeter Molecular Genetics Laboratory, UK. We calculated the frequency of the disease in 124 patients referred from Iran to the Exeter Molecular Genetics Laboratory for genetic screening and compared it to other countries worldwide. Results We identified seven patients as having Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. Genetic testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis and indicated five novel mutations. Only two patients developed clinical features of the syndrome by 6 months of age. Of all 124 cases of Iranian neonatal diabetes referred to the Exeter Molecular Genetics Laboratory for genetic screening, 28 patients (22.58%) had a recessive mutation in EIF2AK3. Conclusions The results of this study raises awareness of the condition and provides further accurate data on the genetic and clinical presentation of Wolcott-Rallison syndrome in the Iranian population. Our study highlights the importance of genetic testing in patients from consanguineous families with diabetes diagnosed within the first 6 months of life.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1585, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952852

RESUMO

Sleep is an essential human function but its regulation is poorly understood. Using accelerometer data from 85,670 UK Biobank participants, we perform a genome-wide association study of 8 derived sleep traits representing sleep quality, quantity and timing, and validate our findings in 5,819 individuals. We identify 47 genetic associations at P < 5 × 10-8, of which 20 reach a stricter threshold of P < 8 × 10-10. These include 26 novel associations with measures of sleep quality and 10 with nocturnal sleep duration. The majority of identified variants associate with a single sleep trait, except for variants previously associated with restless legs syndrome. For sleep duration we identify a missense variant (p.Tyr727Cys) in PDE11A as the likely causal variant. As a group, sleep quality loci are enriched for serotonin processing genes. Although accelerometer-derived measures of sleep are imperfect and may be affected by restless legs syndrome, these findings provide new biological insights into sleep compared to previous efforts based on self-report sleep measures.


Assuntos
Polissonografia/métodos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Sono/genética , Acelerometria/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Serotonina/genética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 343, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696823

RESUMO

Being a morning person is a behavioural indicator of a person's underlying circadian rhythm. Using genome-wide data from 697,828 UK Biobank and 23andMe participants we increase the number of genetic loci associated with being a morning person from 24 to 351. Using data from 85,760 individuals with activity-monitor derived measures of sleep timing we find that the chronotype loci associate with sleep timing: the mean sleep timing of the 5% of individuals carrying the most morningness alleles is 25 min earlier than the 5% carrying the fewest. The loci are enriched for genes involved in circadian regulation, cAMP, glutamate and insulin signalling pathways, and those expressed in the retina, hindbrain, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Using Mendelian Randomisation, we show that being a morning person is causally associated with better mental health but does not affect BMI or risk of Type 2 diabetes. This study offers insights into circadian biology and its links to disease in humans.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idoso , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Reino Unido
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423117

RESUMO

Background: Depression is more common in obese than non-obese individuals, especially in women, but the causal relationship between obesity and depression is complex and uncertain. Previous studies have used genetic variants associated with BMI to provide evidence that higher body mass index (BMI) causes depression, but have not tested whether this relationship is driven by the metabolic consequences of BMI nor for differences between men and women. Methods: We performed a Mendelian randomization study using 48 791 individuals with depression and 291 995 controls in the UK Biobank, to test for causal effects of higher BMI on depression (defined using self-report and Hospital Episode data). We used two genetic instruments, both representing higher BMI, but one with and one without its adverse metabolic consequences, in an attempt to 'uncouple' the psychological component of obesity from the metabolic consequences. We further tested causal relationships in men and women separately, and using subsets of BMI variants from known physiological pathways. Results: Higher BMI was strongly associated with higher odds of depression, especially in women. Mendelian randomization provided evidence that higher BMI partly causes depression. Using a 73-variant BMI genetic risk score, a genetically determined one standard deviation (1 SD) higher BMI (4.9 kg/m2) was associated with higher odds of depression in all individuals [odds ratio (OR): 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.28, P = 0.00007) and women only (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.39, P = 0.0001). Meta-analysis with 45 591 depression cases and 97 647 controls from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) strengthened the statistical confidence of the findings in all individuals. Similar effect size estimates were obtained using different Mendelian randomization methods, although not all reached P < 0.05. Using a metabolically favourable adiposity genetic risk score, and meta-analysing data from the UK biobank and PGC, a genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.9 kg/m2) was associated with higher odds of depression in all individuals (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50], P = 0.010), but with weaker statistical confidence. Conclusions: Higher BMI, with and without its adverse metabolic consequences, is likely to have a causal role in determining the likelihood of an individual developing depression.

10.
Diabetes ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352878

RESUMO

Recent genetic studies have identified alleles associated with opposite effects on adiposity and risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify more of these variants and test the hypothesis that such "favourable adiposity" alleles are associated with higher subcutaneous fat and lower ectopic fat. We combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of body fat % and metabolic traits. We report 14 alleles, including 7 newly characterized alleles, associated with higher adiposity, but a favourable metabolic profile. Consistent with previous studies, individuals carrying more "favourable adiposity" alleles had higher body fat % and higher BMI, but lower risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. These individuals also had higher subcutaneous fat, but lower liver fat and lower visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. Individual alleles associated with higher body fat % but lower liver fat and lower risk of type 2 diabetes included those in PPARG, GRB14 and IRS1, whilst the allele in ANKRD55 was paradoxically associated with higher visceral fat but lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Most identified "favourable adiposity" alleles are associated with higher subcutaneous and lower liver fat, a mechanism consistent with the beneficial effects of storing excess triglyceride in metabolically low risk depots.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239722

RESUMO

One in four adults worldwide are either overweight or obese. Epidemiological studies indicate that the location and distribution of excess fat, rather than general adiposity, is most informative for predicting risk of obesity sequellae, including cardiometabolic disease and cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of body fat distribution, measured by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), and identified 463 signals in 346 loci. Heritability and variant effects were generally stronger in women than men, and we found approximately one-third of all signals to be sexually dimorphic. The 5% of individuals carrying the most WHRadjBMI-increasing alleles were 1.62 times more likely than the bottom 5% to have a WHR above the thresholds used for metabolic syndrome. These data, made publicly available, will inform the biology of body fat distribution and its relationship with disease.

12.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181606

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many women with X chromosome aneuploidy undergo lifetime clinical monitoring for possible complications. However, ascertainment of cases in the clinic may mean that the penetrance has been overestimated. METHODS: We characterized the prevalence and phenotypic consequences of X chromosome aneuploidy in a population of 244,848 women over 40 years of age from UK Biobank, using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data. RESULTS: We detected 30 women with 45,X; 186 with mosaic 45,X/46,XX; and 110 with 47,XXX. The prevalence of nonmosaic 45,X (12/100,000) and 47,XXX (45/100,000) was lower than expected, but was higher for mosaic 45,X/46,XX (76/100,000). The characteristics of women with 45,X were consistent with the characteristics of a clinically recognized Turner syndrome phenotype, including short stature and primary amenorrhea. In contrast, women with mosaic 45,X/46,XX were less short, had a normal reproductive lifespan and birth rate, and no reported cardiovascular complications. The phenotype of women with 47,XXX included taller stature (5.3 cm; SD = 5.52 cm; P = 5.8 × 10-20) and earlier menopause age (5.12 years; SD = 5.1 years; P = 1.2 × 10-14). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the clinical management of women with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism should be minimal, particularly those identified incidentally.

13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(16): 2840-2850, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790996

RESUMO

Depression is a common and disabling disorder, representing a major social and economic health issue. Moreover, depression is associated with the progression of diseases with an inflammatory etiology including many inflammatory-related disorders. At the molecular level, the mechanisms by which depression might promote the onset of these diseases and associated immune-dysfunction are not well understood. In this study we assessed genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in whole blood-derived DNA obtained from individuals with a self-reported history of depression (n = 100) and individuals without a history of depression (n = 100) using the Illumina 450K microarray. Our analysis identified six significant (Sidák corrected P < 0.05) depression-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs); the top-ranked DMR was located in exon 1 of the LTB4R2 gene (Sidák corrected P = 1.27 × 10-14). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression were generated and known biological markers of inflammation, telomere length (TL) and IL-6, were measured in DNA and serum samples, respectively. Next, we employed a systems-level approach to identify networks of co-methylated loci associated with a history of depression, in addition to depression PRS, TL and IL-6 levels. Our analysis identified one depression-associated co-methylation module (P = 0.04). Interestingly, the depression-associated module was highly enriched for pathways related to immune function and was also associated with TL and IL-6 cytokine levels. In summary, our genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of individuals with and without a self-reported history of depression identified several candidate DMRs of potential relevance to the pathogenesis of depression and its associated immune-dysfunction phenotype.

14.
Cell Rep ; 23(2): 327-336, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641994

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133) in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21's mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 559-571, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632382

RESUMO

We aggregated coding variant data for 81,412 type 2 diabetes cases and 370,832 controls of diverse ancestry, identifying 40 coding variant association signals (P < 2.2 × 10-7); of these, 16 map outside known risk-associated loci. We make two important observations. First, only five of these signals are driven by low-frequency variants: even for these, effect sizes are modest (odds ratio ≤1.29). Second, when we used large-scale genome-wide association data to fine-map the associated variants in their regional context, accounting for the global enrichment of complex trait associations in coding sequence, compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex diseases and identification of validated therapeutic targets; however, appropriate mechanistic inference requires careful specification of their causal contribution to disease predisposition.

16.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 744, 2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963451

RESUMO

There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/m2). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 × 10-10, 6.0 × 10-5, and 2.9 × 10-3). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.Individual SNPs have small effects on anthropometric traits, yet the impact of CNVs has remained largely unknown. Here, Kutalik and co-workers perform a large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of structural variation and find rare CNVs associated with height, weight and BMI with large effect sizes.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Relação Cintura-Quadril
17.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0185083, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Variability in red blood cell volumes (distribution width, RDW) increases with age and is strongly predictive of mortality, incident coronary heart disease and cancer. We investigated inherited genetic variation associated with RDW in 116,666 UK Biobank human volunteers. RESULTS: A large proportion RDW is explained by genetic variants (29%), especially in the older group (60+ year olds, 33.8%, <50 year olds, 28.4%). RDW was associated with 194 independent genetic signals; 71 are known for conditions including autoimmune disease, certain cancers, BMI, Alzheimer's disease, longevity, age at menopause, bone density, myositis, Parkinson's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Exclusion of anemic participants did not affect the overall findings. Pathways analysis showed enrichment for telomere maintenance, ribosomal RNA, and apoptosis. The majority of RDW-associated signals were intronic (119 of 194), including SNP rs6602909 located in an intron of oncogene GAS6, an eQTL in whole blood. CONCLUSIONS: Although increased RDW is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, this was not explained by known CVD or related lipid genetic risks, and a RDW genetic score was not predictive of incident disease. The predictive value of RDW for a range of negative health outcomes may in part be due to variants influencing fundamental pathways of aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/genética , Índices de Eritrócitos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(5): 1018-1030, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040731

RESUMO

As genetic association studies increase in size to 100 000s of individuals, subtle biases may influence conclusions. One possible bias is 'index event bias' (IEB) that appears due to the stratification by, or enrichment for, disease status when testing associations between genetic variants and a disease-associated trait. We aimed to test the extent to which IEB influences some known trait associations in a range of study designs and provide a statistical framework for assessing future associations. Analyzing data from 113 203 non-diabetic UK Biobank participants, we observed three (near TCF7L2, CDKN2AB and CDKAL1) overestimated (body mass index (BMI) decreasing) and one (near MTNR1B) underestimated (BMI increasing) associations among 11 type 2 diabetes risk alleles (at P < 0.05). IEB became even stronger when we tested a type 2 diabetes genetic risk score composed of these 11 variants (-0.010 standard deviations BMI per allele, P = 5 × 10- 4), which was confirmed in four additional independent studies. Similar results emerged when examining the effect of blood pressure increasing alleles on BMI in normotensive UK Biobank samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that, under realistic scenarios, common disease alleles would become associated at P < 5 × 10- 8 with disease-related traits through IEB alone, if disease prevalence in the sample differs appreciably from the background population prevalence. For example, some hypertension and type 2 diabetes alleles will be associated with BMI in sample sizes of >500 000 if the prevalence of those diseases differs by >10% from the background population. In conclusion, IEB may result in false positive or negative genetic associations in very large studies stratified or strongly enriched for/against disease cases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão/genética , Alelos , Glicemia/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/patologia , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(2): 559-575, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073954

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome and a 69-variant genetic risk score (GRS) for obesity and 12 measures of the obesogenic environment as exposures. These measures included Townsend deprivation index (TDI) as a measure of socio-economic position, TV watching, a 'Westernized' diet and physical activity. We performed several negative control tests, including randomly selecting groups of different average BMIs, using a simulated environment and including sun-protection use as an environment. Results: We found gene-environment interactions with TDI (Pinteraction = 3 × 10 -10 ), self-reported TV watching (Pinteraction = 7 × 10 -5 ) and self-reported physical activity (Pinteraction = 5 × 10 -6 ). Within the group of 50% living in the most relatively deprived situations, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 3.8 kg extra weight in someone 1.73 m tall. In contrast, within the group of 50% living in the least deprivation, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 2.9 kg extra weight. The interactions were weaker, but present, with the negative controls, including sun-protection use, indicating that residual confounding is likely. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the obesogenic environment accentuates the risk of obesity in genetically susceptible adults. Of the factors we tested, relative social deprivation best captures the aspects of the obesogenic environment responsible.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Exercício , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Reino Unido
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