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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(5)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164216

RESUMO

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is a powerful method for the measurement of hydrogen concentration in metallic materials. However, hydrogen loss from metallic samples during the preparation of the measurement poses a challenge to the accuracy of the results, especially in materials with high diffusivity of hydrogen, like ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels. In the present paper, the effect of specimen cooling during the experimental procedure, as a tentative to reduce the loss of hydrogen during air-lock vacuum pumping for one high-strength steel of 1400 MPa, is evaluated. The results show, at room temperature, the presence of a continuous outward hydrogen flux accompanied with the redistribution of hydrogen within the measured steel during its exposure to the air-lock vacuum chamber under continuous pumping. Cooling of the steel samples to 213 K during pumping in the air-lock vacuum chamber before TDS measurement results in an increase in the measured total hydrogen concentration at about 14%. A significant reduction in hydrogen loss and redistribution within the steel sample improves the accuracy of hydrogen concentration measurement and trapping analysis in ferritic and martensitic steels.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382506

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a rapidly growing field of technology. In order to increase the variety of metal alloys applicable for AM, selective laser melting (SLM) of duplex stainless steel 2205 powder and the resulting microstructure, density, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance were investigated. An optimal set of processing parameters for producing high density (>99.9%) material was established. Various post-processing heat treatments were applied on the as-built predominantly ferritic material to achieve the desired dual-phase microstructure. Effects of annealing at temperatures of 950 °C, 1000 °C, 1050 °C, and 1100 °C on microstructure, crystallographic texture, and phase balance were examined. As a result of annealing, 40-46 vol.% of austenite phase was formed. Annealing decreased the high yield and tensile strength values of the as-built material, but significantly increased the ductility. Annealing also decreased the residual stresses in the material. Mechanical properties of the SLM-processed and heat-treated materials outperformed those of conventionally produced alloy counterparts. Using a scanning strategy with 66° rotation between layers decreased the strength of the crystallographic texture. Electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization testing in 0.6 M NaCl solution at room temperature showed that the heat treatment improved the pitting corrosion resistance of the as-built SLM-processed material.

3.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24234, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27086752

RESUMO

One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

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