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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(22): 11977-11981, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275275

RESUMO

Researchers have found many similarities between the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and SARS-CoV-19 through existing data that reveal the SARS's cause. Artificial intelligence (AI) learning models can be created to predict drug structures that can be used to treat COVID-19. Despite the effectively demonstrated repurposed drugs, more repurposed drugs should be recognized. Furthermore, technological advancements have been helpful in the battle against COVID-19. Machine intelligence technology can support this procedure by rapidly determining adequate and effective drugs against COVID-19 and by overcoming any barrier between a large number of repurposed drugs, laboratory/clinical testing, and final drug authorization. This paper reviews the proposed vaccines and medicines for SARS-CoV-2 and the current application of AI in drug repurposing for COVID-19 treatment.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11455-11460, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215473

RESUMO

Recent Coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of the respiratory diseases, and it is known as fast infectious ability. This dissemination can be decelerated by diagnosing and quarantining patients with COVID-19 at early stages, thereby saving numerous lives. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is known as one of the primary diagnostic tools. However, RT-PCR tests are costly and time-consuming; it also requires specific materials, equipment, and instruments. Moreover, most countries are suffering from a lack of testing kits because of limitations on budget and techniques. Thus, this standard method is not suitable to meet the requirements of fast detection and tracking during the COVID-19 pandemic, which motived to employ deep learning (DL)/convolutional neural networks (CNNs) technology with X-ray and CT scans for efficient analysis and diagnostic. This study provides insight about the literature that discussed the deep learning technology and its various techniques that are recently developed to combat the dissemination of COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Quarentena , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 30(2): 367-372, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ankle fractures were usually treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) which may lead to Charcot joint, or conservative which may lead to pressure sores. For better results, minimally invasive procedures have been developed, which decrease complications and enable early mobilization and rapid rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of a total of 26 uncontrolled diabetic patients: 8 males [30.8%] and 18 females [69.2%]. The mean age of the patients was 67.4 (range 60 to 75) years. We include only Weber A and B where 10 patients suffered from lateral malleolus only (38.5%), 11 patients with bi-malleolar ankle fracture (42.3%) and 5 patients with tri-malleolar fracture (19.2%). RESULTS: The mean time to union was 6.92 weeks (range of 6 to 12 weeks). Weight-bearing has begun from the first day in 19 patients (73.1%), while 7 patients began weight-bearing 4 weeks after the operation (26.9%). Mean follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years. Mean AOFAS was 96.12 (range of 60 to 99). Only 3 patients suffered from complication: One patient suffered from Charcot joint, one suffered from fracture displacement and needed revision, and one suffered from mal-reduction. Thus, the complication rate was 11.5%. CONCLUSION: We believe that percutaneous cannulated screws technique is a simple and effective method that can be applied safely in uncontrolled DM patients with ankle fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Parafusos Ósseos , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Idoso , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/etiologia , Pé Diabético/complicações , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 29(4): 252-254, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) is performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in patients with pancreaticobiliary diseases. We investigated the role of simethicone and concomitant otilonium bromide during ERCP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective randomized study included 120 patients who underwent ERCP (study and control group=60 patients each). The study group received otilonium bromide and simethicone. The control group received no medication. RESULTS: The quantity of duodenal foam and bubbles in the study group was significantly lesser than that in the control group. The duodenal motility score was 2.1±0.7 and 4.3±0.9 in the study and the control groups, respectively. Endoscopist satisfaction was good in 82%, moderate in 15%, and poor in 3% of ERCPs in the study group and good in 15%, moderate in 65%, and poor in 25% of ERCPs in the control group. The study group showed a shorter ERCP duration than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Simethicone and otilonium bromide administered concomitantly reduce duodenal motility and foam/bubble formation, which facilitates papilla of Vater catheterization to reduce procedure time.


Assuntos
Antiespumantes/uso terapêutico , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Duração da Cirurgia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/uso terapêutico , Simeticone/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Biliares/cirurgia , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Immunol Methods ; 441: 8-14, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693641

RESUMO

Microbicidal activity is related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be measured by flow-cytometry using rhodamine 123 (R123). Few assays have been proposed to measure ROS production, usually on heparinized samples but none of them is standardized. Here we propose to improve the test by selecting polymorphonuclears (PMN) and monocytes, labelled and activated in one step to keep the test short, and to standardize the process even between different systems (i.e. Navios™ and FACSCanto™) using fluorescence intensity target setting ("FITS"). We applied this test on 15 patients without inflammation, 19 patients from an intensive care unit (ICU) and 11 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Provided calcium restitution, we show that the test can be performed on EDTA that is a better sample preservative. The results were highly correlated between instruments (r2=0.898). PMN CD16 (and not CD14) expression was altered under stimulation with E. coli (MdFI=239.3±93.5) or PMA (139.7±76.8) as compared to resting sample (307.6±145.1). RH123 was strongly and homogeneously induced by PMA (14.2±6.6) and more heterogeneously by E. coli (MdFI 21.9±23.4) as compared to unstimulated PNN (0.9±1.3, p<0.0001). The test is useful not only for genetic disorders but also for secondary deficiencies as observed in ICU (E. coli RH123 MFI=10.5±11.1 patients vs 30.1±26.5 in healthy donors). In ICU, CD16 expression was already altered on unstimulated samples (MdFI=197.4±131.2 vs 418, 2±81.3 in healthy donors; p≤0.0001). Bacterial stimulation was dependent of the complement that partly explains deficiency to bacterial stimulus in ICU patients.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/normas , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória , Rodaminas
6.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 12(8): 2087-91, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22292656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on breastfeeding and childhood leukemia risk have indicated that longer duration of breast feeding (> 6 months) is associated with decreased risk of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of childhood leukemia in Oman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case control study all recently diagnosed and registered cases of childhood leukemia at the National Registry during (1999-2009), a total of 70 cases, were recruited. For each case, a gender and age matched control was selected either from the family relatives or from the neighbors of family siblings. RESULTS: Breastfeeding is culturally favored for longer periods of time (up to 24 months) in Oman. Data of this study revealed that 21% of cases and 12 % of their gender and age matched controls were breastfed for an average duration of 6-12 months. In 75% of the cases and 81% of controls the period of breastfeeding was between 12-24 months. Only 4% of the cases and 7% of controls were breastfed for a period more than 24 months. No significant (P>0.05) differences were observed between the cases and controls with respect to breastfeeding and the risk of childhood leukemia in Oman. Similarly the duration of breast feeding did not have any significant (P>0.05) effect on the risk. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that duration of breastfeeding was not associated with risk of childhood leukemia in Oman and there may be some other environmental and genetic factors that might be responsible for the occurrence of this disease that must be explored further.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/etiologia , Masculino , Omã/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Phys Med Biol ; 52(13): N297-308, 2007 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17664568

RESUMO

Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective and retrospective treatment planning studies. We designed the software package 'McGill Monte Carlo treatment planning' (MMCTP) for the research development of MC and patient-specific treatment planning. The MMCTP design consists of a graphical user interface (GUI), which runs on a simple workstation connected through standard secure-shell protocol to a cluster for lengthy MC calculations. Treatment planning information (e.g., images, structures, beam geometry properties and dose distributions) is converted into a convenient MMCTP local file storage format designated, the McGill RT format. MMCTP features include (a) DICOM_RT, RTOG and CADPlan CART format imports; (b) 2D and 3D visualization views for images, structure contours, and dose distributions; (c) contouring tools; (d) DVH analysis, and dose matrix comparison tools; (e) external beam editing; (f) MC transport calculation from beam source to patient geometry for photon and electron beams. The MC input files, which are prepared from the beam geometry properties and patient information (e.g., images and structure contours), are uploaded and run on a cluster using shell commands controlled from the MMCTP GUI. The visualization, dose matrix operation and DVH tools offer extensive options for plan analysis and comparison between MC plans and plans imported from commercial treatment planning systems. The MMCTP GUI provides a flexible research platform for the development of patient-specific MC treatment planning for photon and electron external beam radiation therapy. The impact of this tool lies in the fact that it allows for systematic, platform-independent, large-scale MC treatment planning for different treatment sites. Patient recalculations were performed to validate the software and ensure proper functionality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia/instrumentação , Radioterapia/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Monte Carlo , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
9.
J Food Prot ; 68(7): 1487-91, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16013393

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05).


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queijo/análise , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 35(7): 530-6, 1977 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-894485

RESUMO

Using Milgram's original test of obedience, 192 Jordanian subjects were tested in a 2 X 2 X 3 design in which sex, two kinds of punishment instructions, and three levels of age groups (6-8, 10-12, and 14-16 years) were combined factorially. The instructions issued to the experimental group were identical to those used in Milgram's paradigm in that teacher subjects were asked to administer shock to confederate learners each time the latter made a mistake in a paired-associate task and to increase the shock level with each additional mistake. The subjects in the control group were given a free choice of delivering or not delivering shock each time the learner made a mistake. The results showed that 73% of all experimental subjects, as opposed to 16% of the control subjects, continued to deliver shock to the end of the shock scale. Neither age nor sex differences in obedience rate were found. However, significantly more obedient females than males reported that they punished the learners because they were obeying orders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Comportamento Cooperativo , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Punição , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico
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