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Materials (Basel) ; 15(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683229


As the demand for nonrenewable natural resources, such as aggregate, is increasing worldwide, new production of artificial aggregate should be developed. Artificial lightweight aggregate can bring advantages to the construction field due to its lower density, thus reducing the dead load applied to the structural elements. In addition, application of artificial lightweight aggregate in lightweight concrete will produce lower thermal conductivity. However, the production of artificial lightweight aggregate is still limited. Production of artificial lightweight aggregate incorporating waste materials or pozzolanic materials is advantageous and beneficial in terms of being environmentally friendly, as well as lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, additives, such as geopolymer, have been introduced as one of the alternative construction materials that have been proven to have excellent properties. Thus, this paper will review the production of artificial lightweight aggregate through various methods, including sintering, cold bonding, and autoclaving. The significant properties of artificial lightweight aggregate, including physical and mechanical properties, such as water absorption, crushing strength, and impact value, are reviewed. The properties of concrete, including thermal properties, that utilized artificial lightweight aggregate were also briefly reviewed to highlight the advantages of artificial lightweight aggregate.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832267


Underwater concrete is a cohesive self-consolidated concrete used for concreting underwater structures such as bridge piers. Conventional concrete used anti-washout admixture (AWA) to form a high-viscosity underwater concrete to minimise the dispersion of concrete material into the surrounding water. The reduction of quality for conventional concrete is mainly due to the washing out of cement and fine particles upon casting in the water. This research focused on the detailed investigations into the setting time, washout effect, compressive strength, and chemical composition analysis of alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) paste through underwater placement in seawater and freshwater. Class C fly ash as source materials, sodium silicate, and sodium hydroxide solution as alkaline activator were used for this study. Specimens produced through underwater placement in seawater showed impressive performance with strength 71.10 MPa on 28 days. According to the Standard of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), the strength of specimens for underwater placement must not be lower than 80% of the specimen's strength prepared in dry conditions. As result, the AAFA specimens only showed 12.11% reduction in strength compared to the specimen prepared in dry conditions, thus proving that AAFA paste has high potential to be applied in seawater and freshwater applications.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673522


Aggregates can be categorized into natural and artificial aggregates. Preserving natural resources is crucial to ensuring the constant supply of natural aggregates. In order to preserve these natural resources, the production of artificial aggregates is beginning to gain the attention of researchers worldwide. One of the methods involves using geopolymer technology. On this basis, this current research focuses on the inter-particle effect on the properties of fly ash geopolymer aggregates with different molarities of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The effects of synthesis parameters (6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 M) on the mechanical and microstructural properties of the fly ash geopolymer aggregate were studied. The fly ash geopolymer aggregate was palletized manually by using a hand to form a sphere-shaped aggregate where the ratio of NaOH/Na2SiO3 used was constant at 2.5. The results indicated that the NaOH molarity has a significant effect on the impact strength of a fly ash geopolymer aggregate. The highest aggregate impact value (AIV) was obtained for samples with 6 M NaOH molarity (26.95%), indicating the lowest strength among other molarities studied and the lowest density of 2150 kg/m3. The low concentration of sodium hydroxide in the alkali activator solution resulted in the dissolution of fly ash being limited; thus, the inter-particle volume cannot be fully filled by the precipitated gels.

Int J Mol Sci ; 16(5): 11629-47, 2015 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26006238


This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

Polímeros/química , Silicatos/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Cristalização , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
Int J Mol Sci ; 13(6): 7186-98, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22837687


In this paper, we report the results of our investigation on the possibility of producing foam concrete by using a geopolymer system. Class C fly ash was mixed with an alkaline activator solution (a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH), and foam was added to the geopolymeric mixture to produce lightweight concrete. The NaOH solution was prepared by dilute NaOH pellets with distilled water. The reactives were mixed to produce a homogeneous mixture, which was placed into a 50 mm mold and cured at two different curing temperatures (60 °C and room temperature), for 24 hours. After the curing process, the strengths of the samples were tested on days 1, 7, and 28. The water absorption, porosity, chemical composition, microstructure, XRD and FTIR analyses were studied. The results showed that the sample which was cured at 60 °C (LW2) produced the maximum compressive strength for all tests, (11.03 MPa, 17.59 MPa, and 18.19 MPa) for days 1, 7, and 28, respectively. Also, the water absorption and porosity of LW2 were reduced by 6.78% and 1.22% after 28 days, respectively. The SEM showed that the LW2 sample had a denser matrix than LW1. This was because LW2 was heat cured, which caused the geopolymerization rate to increase, producing a denser matrix. However for LW1, microcracks were present on the surface, which reduced the compressive strength and increased water absorption and porosity.

Materiais de Construção , Silicatos/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química