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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 158(1): 82-88, 2023.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596497

RESUMO

The progress of computational toxicology (CompTox) in drug safety research is highly anticipated. CompTox provides toxicity screening methods for drug discovery in the early stages. CompTox also contributes to fostering the application of the principles of the 3Rs in toxicity testing by expanding non-animal test methods. The mechanism of toxicity is complex and varied, and drug discovery modalities are becoming more diverse. Consequently, the research is considered necessary to predict toxicity using not only chemical structures but experimental data as well. Additionally, various perspectives, such as interpretation of toxicity mechanisms and species differences, must be considered in risk assessment and management in drug safety research. Therefore, it is important to construct a comprehensive CompTox system that not only presents toxicity prediction results but also provides much information related to the relationship between drug candidate substances and living organisms. In this review paper, CompTox is positioned as a discipline of toxicology that applies computer-based technology, including AI (artificial intelligence). I also introduce toxicity prediction systems based on experimental data and an ontology system that supports the interpretation of toxicity prediction results as examples of research on constructing the foundation of a comprehensive CompTox system.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Testes de Toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas
2.
Brain Res Bull ; 193: 84-94, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539101

RESUMO

Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are recurrent neural activities entrained to regular cyclic auditory stimulation. ASSRs are altered in individuals with schizophrenia, and may be related to hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor. Noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, including ketamine, have been used in ASSR studies of rodent models of schizophrenia. Although animal studies using non-human primates are required to complement rodent studies, the effects of ketamine on ASSRs are unknown in intact awake non-human primates. In this study, after administration of vehicle or ketamine, click trains at 20-83.3 Hz were presented to elicit ASSRs during recording of electroencephalograms in intact, awake macaque monkeys. The results indicated that ASSRs quantified by event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence were maximal at 83.3 Hz after vehicle administration, and that ketamine reduced ASSRs at 58.8 and 83.3 Hz, but not at 20 and 40 Hz. The present results demonstrated a reduction of ASSRs by the NMDA receptor antagonist at optimal frequencies with maximal responses in intact, awake macaques, comparable to ASSR reduction in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that ASSR can be used as a neurophysiological biomarker of the disturbance of gamma-oscillatory neural circuits in this ketamine model of schizophrenia using intact, awake macaques. Thus, this model with ASSRs would be useful in the investigation of human brain pathophysiology as well as in preclinical translational research.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Esquizofrenia , Animais , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Primatas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Vigília
3.
J Reprod Immunol ; 155: 103783, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528910

RESUMO

In this study, CCL25, a chemokine that contributes to the immunological function of the thymus and intestines, was detected in human breast milk (HBM) for the first time. We then focused on the correlations of CCL25 with CCL28, TSLP, and IL-7, which were predicted to interact with CCL25 in HBM. We also compared their levels between primiparous and multiparous women. A total of 53 parturient women were recruited. Their HBM was collected during 0-5 days and at 1 month after parturition and the CCL25, CCL28, IL-7, and TSLP levels in the HBM were analyzed using ELISA. The results showed that CCL25 and TSLP levels were significantly higher in colostrum than in mature milk. Moreover, CCL28 and IL-7 levels in colostrum showed a positive correlation. These results indicate that CCL28 and IL-7 in colostrum might interact positively with each other when produced in the mammary glands during lactation. The findings also suggest that the level of parity has no effect on their levels in HBM. In conclusion, our results clarify that CCL25 is present in HBM and that the concentrations of CCL25 and TSLP are higher in colostrum than in mature milk. Moreover, the production of CCL28 and IL-7 might be closely correlated in human colostrum.


Assuntos
Interleucina-7 , Leite Humano , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Quimiocinas , Leite , Colostro , Parto , Lactação , Quimiocinas CC
4.
Acta Med Okayama ; 76(6): 749-754, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549779

RESUMO

We provide the first report of successful salvage surgery for a post-C1 laminectomy symptomatic recurrence of a retro-odontoid pseudotumor (ROP) that caused myelopathy. The 72-year-old Japanese woman presented with an ROP causing symptomatic cervical myelopathy. With ultrasonography support, we performed the enucleation of the ROP via a transdural approach and fusion surgery for the recurrence of the mass. At the final observation 2-year post-surgery, MRI demonstrated the mass's regression and spinal cord decompression, and the patient's symptoms had improved. Our strategy is an effective option for a symptomatic recurrence of ROP.


Assuntos
Processo Odontoide , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Laminectomia/efeitos adversos , Processo Odontoide/cirurgia , Processo Odontoide/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Descompressão Cirúrgica
6.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 6(6): 681-688, 2022 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561150

RESUMO

Introduction: Adult spinal fusion surgery improves lumbar alignment and patient satisfaction. Adult spinal deformity surgery improves saggital balance not only lumbar lesion, but also at hip joint coverage. It was expected that hip joint coverage rate was improved and joint stress decreased. However, it was reported that adjacent joint disease at hip joint was induced by adult spinal fusion surgery including sacroiliac joint fixation on an X-ray study. The mechanism is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between lumbosacral fusion including sacroiliac joint fixation and contact stress of the hip joint. Methods: A 40-year-old woman with intact lumbar vertebrae underwent computed tomography. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was constructed from the L4 vertebra to the femoral bone with triangular shell elements (thickness, 2 mm; size, 3 mm) for the cortical bone's outer surface and 2-mm (lumbar spine) or 3-mm (femoral bone) tetrahedral solid elements for the remaining bone. We constructed the following four models: a non-fusion model (NF), a L4-5 fusion model (L5F), a L4-S1 fusion model (S1F), and a L4-S2 alar iliac screw fixation model (S2F). A compressive load of 400 N was applied vertically to the L4 vertebra and a 10-Nm bending moment was additionally applied to the L4 vertebra to stimulate flexion, extension, left lateral bending, and axial rotation. Each model's hip joint's von Mises stress and angular motion were analyzed. Results: The hip joint's angular motion in NF, L5F, S1F, and S2F gradually increased; the S2F model presented the greatest angular motion. Conclusions: The average and maximum contact stress of the hip joint was the highest in the S2F model. Thus, lumbosacral fusion surgery with sacroiliac joint fixation placed added stress on the hip joint. We propose that this was a consequence of adjacent joint spinopelvic fixation. Lumbar-to-pelvic fixation increases the angular motion and stress at the hip joint.

7.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 6(6): 696-703, 2022 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561157

RESUMO

Introduction: Long fusion surgery for adult spinal deformity may restrict activities of daily living due to lumbar stiffness. While the Lumbar Stiffness Disability Index (LSDI) can help assess lumbar stiffness, in Asia the external validity of this questionnaire has not been sufficiently examined. We performed the psychometric evaluation and external validation of the Japanese version of the LSDI (LSDI-J). Methods: Fifty consecutive patients (14 males and 36 females; mean age 70.6 years) who underwent lumbar fusion surgery at our institution a minimum of one year after surgery and who visited the outpatient clinic between April and May 2019, were surveyed using the LSDI-J. The mean number of fusion levels was 4.4. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated for internal consistency, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate reliability. External validity was assessed by comparisons with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), and the lumbar range of motion (LROM) with LSDI-J scores. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.652 overall, and 0.849 after excluding Question 10 due to a low response rate. The ICC was 0.824 overall and 0.851 after excluding Question 10. The correlation with the ODI was 0.684, and the correlation coefficients with each domain of the JOABPEQ ranged from -0.590 to -0.413, indicating moderate correlation. However, LROM and the LSDI-J were not correlated (r=-0.055, P=0.734). Conclusions: The LSDI-J may not be suitable in Japan because there was no correlation with LROM, the most important factor for external validity. It may be necessary to investigate why the LSDI-J did not apply to the Japanese population in terms of lower limb function. Alternatively, a unique method may be needed to assess lumbar stiffness disability that is more suitable for actual clinical practice in Japan.

8.
Eur Spine J ; 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542165

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spinal fusion surgery is often performed with pelvic fixation to prevent distal junctional kyphosis. The inclusion of spinopelvic fixation has been reported to induce progression of hip joint arthropathy in a radiographic follow-up study. However, its biomechanical mechanism has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to compare the changes in hip joint moment before and after spinal fusion surgery. METHODS: This study was an observational study and included nine patients (eight women and one man) who were scheduled to undergo spinopelvic fusion surgery. We calculated the three-dimensional external joint moments of the hip during gait, standing, and climbing stairs before and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: During gait, the maximum extension moment was 0.51 ± 0.29 and 0.63 ± 0.40 before and after spinopelvic fusion surgery (p = 0.011), and maximum abduction moment was 0.60 ± 0.33 and 0.83 ± 0.34 before and after surgery (p = 0.004), respectively. During standing, maximum extension moment was 0.76 ± 0.32 and 1.04 ± 0.21 before and after spinopelvic fusion surgery (p = 0.0026), and maximum abduction moment was 0.12 ± 0.20 and 0.36 ± 0.22 before and after surgery (p = 0.0005), respectively. During climbing stairs, maximum extension moment was - 0.31 ± 0.30 and - 0.48 ± 0.15 before and after spinopelvic fusion surgery (p = 0.040), and maximum abduction moment was 0.023 ± 0.18 and - 0.02 ± 0.13 before and after surgery (p = 0.038), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that hip joint flexion-extension and abduction-adduction moments increased after spinopelvic fixation surgery in the postures of standing, walking, and climbing stairs. The mechanism was considered to be adjacent joint disease after spinopelvic fusion surgery including sacroiliac joint fixation.

9.
Br J Pain ; 16(5): 472-480, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389013

RESUMO

Background: We hypothesized that 3 weeks of preoperative rehabilitation could improve postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 weeks of preoperative rehabilitation on postoperative pain after TKA. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 29 subjects (41 knees) divided into two groups: the preoperative rehabilitation group included 14 subjects (20 knees) and the control group included 15 subjects (21 knees). All subjects were scheduled for unilateral or bilateral TKA. The preoperative rehabilitation group completed a 90-min rehabilitation program 3 days per week for 3 weeks before their TKA. The rehabilitation included body weight exercise, resistance exercise, and cycle ergometer exercise. The control group did not undergo any rehabilitation prior to TKA. We assessed the patients using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and recorded their physical activity of walking, standing, sitting, and lying down at study entry and/or before TKA and 1 month after TKA. Results: The WOMAC total and WOMAC pain scores were significantly lower after 3-weeks of rehabilitation, but before TKA and 1 month after surgery were significantly lower in the preoperative rehabilitation group than in the control group. The time spent walking, standing, sitting, and lying down for 12 h did not change after TKA in the preoperative rehabilitation group. In contrast, in the control group, the time spent in walking and standing positions decreased and the time in the sitting position increased after TKA (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We found that 3-week preoperative training reduced knee pain and helped maintain physical activity after surgery in patients with severe osteoarthritis who underwent TKA.

10.
J Orthop Sci ; 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased signal intensity (ISI) is usually recognized at the disc level of the responsible lesion in the patients with cervical myelopathy. However, it is occasionally seen at the vertebral body level, below the level of compression. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance and the radiographic characteristics of ISI at the vertebral body level. METHODS: This retrospective study included 135 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who underwent surgery and with local ISI. We measured the local and C2-7 angle at flexion, neutral, and extension. We also evaluated the local range of motion (ROM) and C2-7 ROM. The patients were classified into group D (ISI at disc level) and group B (ISI at vertebral body level). RESULTS: The prevalence was 80.7% (109/135) and 19.3% (26/135) for groups D and B, respectively. Local angle at flexion and neutral were more kyphotic in group B than in group D. The local ROM was larger in group B than in group D. Moreover, C2-7 angle at flexion, neutral and extension were more kyphotic in group B than in group D. Two years later, local angle at flexion, neutral, and extension were also kyphotic in group B than group D; however, local and C2-7 ROM was not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant difference of clinical outcomes 2 years postoperatively between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Group B was associated with the kyphotic alignment and local greater ROM, compared to group D. As the spinal cord is withdrawn in flexion, the ISI lesion at vertebral body might be displaced towards the disc level, which impacted by the anterior components of the vertebrae. ISI at the vertebral body level might be related to cord compression or stretching at flexion position. This should be different from the conventionally held pincer-mechanism concept.

11.
IJU Case Rep ; 5(6): 469-473, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341203

RESUMO

Introduction: Anastomosing hemangioma in the adrenal area is extremely rare. We report a large anastomosing hemangioma in the adrenal area that underwent robot-assisted adrenalectomy. Case presentation: A 49-year-old man with left back pain underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that revealed a tumor in the left adrenal area; it was diagnosed as nonfunctional endocrinologically. However, the major axis of the tumor increased from 64 to 72 mm during the 4-month period. Robot-assisted left adrenalectomy was performed. Although the large tumor adhered to the surrounding tissues, it was safely resected by the effective use of an extra robotic arm. An anastomosing hemangioma was diagnosed since there were no malignant findings. Conclusion: Robotic surgical systems may serve as an effective treatment option for large adrenal tumors, and our report is the first robot-assisted adrenalectomy performed on an anastomosing hemangioma.

12.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 6(5): 464-471, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348683

RESUMO

Introduction: Massive hemothorax due to thoracic vertebral fractures (MHTVF) is a potentially lethal condition; however, its epidemiological and clinical data have been rarely described. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical features of MHTVF. Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 202 consecutive patients (136 male and 66 female patients) with thoracic vertebral fractures treated at our institute between January 2009 and December 2019. Their mean age was 60.7 (range, 17-90) years. Unstable fractures accounted for 57.4% (n=116) of the total fractures. The patients were then divided into MHTVF and non-MHTVF groups. We assessed the following MHTVF-associated factors: sex, age, history of medical conditions, anticoagulation/antiplatelet drug use, injury severity score, anatomical distribution of levels of the vertebral fractures, fracture type, and presence or absence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) fracture. Results: In total, eight patients (six men and two women) with a mean age of 68.9 years (range, 22-85 years) were determined to exhibit MHTVF. The incidence of MHTVF in patients with unstable thoracic spinal fractures was 6.9%, whereas none of those with stable spinal fractures exhibited MHTVF. Factors like type B (p=0.049) and DISH (p=0.017) fractures were noted to be significantly associated with the MHTVF. Three patients experienced shock upon arrival, whereas two exhibited delayed shock. Chest tube insertion and/or emergency thoracotomy was performed. The survival rate was 100.0%. Conclusions: MHTVF is not rare. Because type B and DISH fractures are identified as predictive factors of MHTVF, it must be carefully treated to avoid preventable death even after hospitalization in patients with these thoracic fractures.

13.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 6(5): 472-479, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348687

RESUMO

Introduction: Sacroiliac joint pain (SIJP) is one of the pathological conditions of adjacent segment disorders occurring after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that even in ASD surgery using S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screws, SIJP can develop much earlier than reported previously and can be rescued by ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint block. Methods: Overall, 94 patients with ASD treated with long spinal fusion using S2AI screws were prospectively investigated for SIJP postoperatively, and the effect of ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint block was evaluated. Additionally, the relationship between the symptomatic side of the SIJP and the surgical procedure; the preoperative and postoperative whole-spine sagittal and coronal alignment, lumbar pelvis sagittal plane alignment, and pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis were retrospectively compared between the groups with and without SIJP. Results: Eleven of 94 cases (11.7%) developed SIJP. The average onset was 12.0 (±6.2) days after surgery. The "one-finger test," "Gaenslen test," and "tenderness of the posterosuperior iliac spine" had high positivity rates for SIJP. Night pain occurred in 81.8% of patients and was one of the diagnostic features. There were no significant relationships between the symptomatic side of SIJP and the approach-side of lumbar interbody fusion, donor site of the iliac bone graft, or malposition of the S2AI screw. There were no significant differences in preoperative characteristics and radiological parameters between the SIJP-positive and -negative groups preoperatively, postoperatively, or in postoperative changes. Two of the 11 cases required the SIJ block four times, but all patients eventually achieved >70% pain relief with no recurrence. Conclusions: For good pain control and physical therapy, the fact that early buttock-groin pain after spinal fusion surgery has a 12% likelihood of being due to SIJP and can be relieved with the ultrasound-guided SIJ block is clinically important for diagnosis and pain management.

14.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 6(5): 488-496, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348688

RESUMO

Introduction: Long-term clinical outcomes of microendoscopic laminotomy (MEL) for patients with multilevel radiographic lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) have not been widely explored. The clinical significance and natural progression of additional untreated levels (e.g., remaining radiographic (RR)-LSS not addressed by selective MEL) remain unknown. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes of selective MEL in LSS patients and compare outcomes between patients with and without remaining RR-LSS to determine the efficacy of this procedure. Methods: Forty-nine patients at a single center underwent posterior spinal microendoscopic decompression surgery for neurogenic claudication or radicular leg pain in moderate-to-severe spinal stenosis. The patients were categorized into the RR-LSS-positive and RR-LSS-negative cohorts based on unaddressed levels of stenosis. Pre-operative and 10-year follow-up evaluations, including the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS) score for low back pain and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and satisfaction, were compared between the groups. Additionally, the need for reoperation was determined. Results: MEL significantly improved JOA scores, lumbar VAS, and ODI over the 10-year postoperative period. Pre-operative characteristics and postoperative outcomes were not significantly different between the cohorts. Overall, 18.4% (9/49) of patients required reoperation during the follow-up period. The reoperation rate in the RR-LSS-positive (13.8%; 4/29) group was similar to that in the RR-LL-negative (15.0%; 3/20) group. Conclusions: MEL is effective for lumbar stenosis, with improved clinical outcomes up to 10 years following surgery. Selective MEL, addressing only symptomatic levels in multilevel stenosis, with residual remaining lumbar stenosis, is similarly effective without increased reoperation rates. Surgeons may consider more limited selective decompression in patients with multilevel stenosis, avoiding the risk and invasiveness of extensive procedures. Level of Evidence: Level III.

15.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(12): 1371-1377, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450515

RESUMO

Green tea components, such as catechins have been reported to provide several benefits including anti-oxidative, anti-viral/bacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Catechins effectively inhibited the adsorption and replication of the influenza virus. Additionally, green tea contains theanine and vitamin C, which enhance the immunity against viral/bacterial infections. Based on these, green tea is hypothesized to have potential benefits in the prevention of influenza and other respiratory tract infections in the clinical setting. However, its specific effects in patients remain unclear. To determine the clinical significance of green tea in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, we conducted an observational study and eight interventional studies. Based on the results of three studies, consuming or gargling green tea or its components significantly aided in the prevention of influenza. Meanwhile, one study showed that green tea successfully prevented common colds. Catechin inhalation was also reported to decrease the bacterial load of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum. Although the anti-viral/anti-bacterial effects of green tea components have been demonstrated in experimental studies, the clinical evidence remains limited. Further studies are required to confirm the clinical efficacy of green tea and its components in preventing respiratory tract infections.


Assuntos
Catequina , Influenza Humana , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Chá , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Catequina/farmacologia , Antivirais
16.
J Clin Med ; 11(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sphenoid sinus (SS) is located close to vital structures, such as the pituitary gland, and it has significant clinical relevance. This study aimed to clarify the growth pattern of the SS in Japanese children using three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Seventy-eight participants with congenital, acquired, or external auditory canal cholesteatoma were recruited and underwent CT more than twice during their treatment. Using the volume-rendered images, the size and volume of the SS were measured. Furthermore, on the scout image, the morphological measurements of the cranial base were determined. RESULTS: The size and volume of the SS increased with age, and peaked at the mean age of 15 years. For males, the volume of the SS was smaller than that of females aged <5 years. The growth rate of the SS was significantly higher in males than in females. The maximum growth rate was detected at the age of 12 years for males and 10 years for females. For females, the increase in the length of the anterior cranial base ceased at approximately 10 years of age and remained constant thereafter. In contrast, for males, the length of the anterior cranial base increased gradually until 15 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the similarity of the periods between the adolescent growth spurt and the maximum growth rate of the SS, changes in the size of the SS may be used as an indicator of the physical growth spurt.

17.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The lateral flow antigen test is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The analytical sensitivity of six lateral flow antigen test kits was compared. METHODS: The limit of detection (LoD) and time to positive results were evaluated for six lateral flow tests including ImmunoArrow®, ESPLINE® SARS-CoV-2, QuickNavi™ COVID19 Ag, ImmunoAce® SARS-CoV-2, Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device, and SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test using the heat-inactivated virus. The LoD of ImmunoArrow® against the Omicron variants was compared with that against the wild-type using recombinant proteins. RESULTS: ImmunoArrow® and ESPLINE® showed the lowest LoD. The time to positive results of all tests except for ESPLINE® was within 200 s in the evaluation at high dose of antigens (2.5 × 105 TCID50/mL) and 500 s in the evaluation at low dose of antigens (2.5 × 104 TCID50/mL). The LoD of ImmunoArrow® against the Omicron variants was the same concentration against the wild-type antigen. CONCLUSIONS: ImmunoArrow® detected SARS-CoV-2 antigens including the Omicron variants with good sensitivity among the six lateral flow antigen tests. These finding support that it can support the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 with the good sensitivity.

18.
J Neurosurg Case Lessons ; 3(12)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors report an extremely rare presentation of a patient with an intraforaminal cervical gas cyst with radiculopathy. The patient's condition was refractory to conservative treatment, and he was treated by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Several intraspinal gas cysts with lumbar disc herniation have been treated surgically. However, no cases of intraforaminal cervical gas requiring ACDF have been reported. OBSERVATIONS: A 70-year-old male patient presented with right-sided neck and shoulder pain, aggravating in the supine position. Cervical radiography showed vacuum disc phenomenon at C4-5, and multiplanar computed tomography showed intraforaminal gas along the right C5 nerve root. The patient experienced severe pain with impaired sleep and daytime fatigue. After confirming C5 radiculopathy using an echo-guided technique using ultrasonography guidance, the authors performed C4-5 ACDF. Postoperatively, the patient's neck and shoulder pain disappeared immediately. There was no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. LESSONS: This is the first case report of an intraspinal cervical gas cyst with radiculopathy treated by ACDF surgery. The vacuum disc had been implicated as the genesis of the intraforaminal cervical gas cyst, leading to radiculopathy. ACDF surgery provides favorable outcomes in cases of intraspinal gas refractory to conservative therapy.

19.
Sports Biomech ; : 1-18, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205520

RESUMO

In volleyball, the overhead pass is important. Coaches usually teach players to push the ball, utilising the legs, especially for a long distance pass. The purpose of this study was to conduct a biomechanical analysis of an overhead pass to different distances. Twelve male elite volleyball players participated. They were told to pass a ball with an overhead pass through a 2.43 m high ring located 3 m, 6 m, and 9 m in front of them. Twenty-four reflective markers were placed on the ball and the subject's body to obtain joint centres, joint angles, and ball position. EMG activities were recorded from four right arm muscles. Triceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis pull and push phase activities differed significantly between 3 m and 6 m, but not between 6 m and 9 m. On the other hand, leg movements were significantly different among 3 m, 6 m, and 9 m, suggesting that leg movements supplement the power given to the ball. Thus, as the distance to a target lengthens in an overhead pass, not only arm movement but also leg movement is required.

20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5855, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195765

RESUMO

Prospect theory, arguably the most prominent theory of choice, is an obvious candidate for neural valuation models. How the activity of individual neurons, a possible computational unit, obeys prospect theory remains unknown. Here, we show, with theoretical accuracy equivalent to that of human neuroimaging studies, that single-neuron activity in four core reward-related cortical and subcortical regions represents the subjective valuation of risky gambles in monkeys. The activity of individual neurons in monkeys passively viewing a lottery reflects the desirability of probabilistic rewards parameterized as a multiplicative combination of utility and probability weighting functions, as in the prospect theory framework. The diverse patterns of valuation signals were not localized but distributed throughout most parts of the reward circuitry. A network model aggregating these signals reconstructed the risk preferences and subjective probability weighting revealed by the animals' choices. Thus, distributed neural coding explains the computation of subjective valuations under risk.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Assunção de Riscos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Recompensa
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