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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240225

RESUMO

Insomnia is a major comorbid symptom of chronic pain and is likely to affect caregiver burden. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between insomnia in chronic pain patients and family caregiver burden. Participants were 60 patients with chronic pain of ≥3 months duration. Demographic and clinical information were collected using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), the Pain Disability Assessment Scale (PDAS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a pain intensity numerical rating scale (NRS). Family members who accompanied chronic pain patients to hospital completed the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Univariate regression analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted to clarify the associations between ZBI scores and total/subscale AIS scores. Covariates were age; sex; pain duration; and scores on the PDAS, HADS anxiety subscale, HADS depression subscale, and NRS. Insomnia was independently associated with ZBI scores [ß: 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07-0.52, p = 0.001]. Scores on the AIS subscale of physical and mental functioning during the day were significantly associated with ZBI scores (ß: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.05-0.59, p = 0.007). In conclusion, the findings suggest that in chronic pain patients, comorbid insomnia and physical and mental daytime functioning is associated with family caregiver burden independently of pain duration, pain-related disability, and pain intensity.

2.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The locomotive syndrome risk test was developed to quantify the decrease in mobility among adults, which could eventually lead to disability. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the locomotive syndrome risk test for adults and investigate the influence of age and sex. METHODS: We analyzed 8681 independent community dwellers (3607 men, 5074 women). Data pertaining to locomotive syndrome risk test (the two-step test, the stand-up test, and the 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale [GLFS-25]) scores were collected from seven administrative areas of Japan. RESULTS: The reference values of the three test scores were generated and all three test scores gradually decreased among young-to-middle-aged individuals and rapidly decreased in individuals aged over 60 years. The stand-up test score began decreasing significantly from the age of 30 years. The trajectories of decrease in the two-step test score with age was slightly different between men and women especially among the middle-aged individuals. The two physical test scores were more sensitive to aging than the self-reported test score. CONCLUSION: The reference values generated in this study could be employed to determine whether an individual has mobility comparable to independent community dwellers of the same age and sex.

3.
J Occup Rehabil ; 30(1): 135-145, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463870

RESUMO

Background Symptoms of fatigue have been shown to be associated with heightened levels of disability in patients suffering from a wide range of debilitating health and mental health conditions. The role of fatigue as a determinant of work disability in individuals with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) has received little attention. The present study examined the role of fatigue as a determinant of work-disability in individuals with WRMDs. Methods Participants included 117 individuals with WRMDs who completed measures of pain severity, fatigue, depression and disability before and after participating in a behavioral activation rehabilitation intervention. Results Cross-sectional analyses on pre-treatment measures revealed that fatigue contributed significant variance to the prediction of self-reported disability, beyond the variance accounted for by pain severity and depression. Prospective analyses revealed that reductions in fatigue through the course of treatment predicted occupational re-engagement following termination of the intervention. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest fatigue contributes to occupational disability, independent of the effects of pain and depression. The findings also suggest that meaningful reductions in fatigue might be achieved through psychosocial interventions that promote gradual re-integration into discontinued activities, increase participants' exposure to success and achievement experiences, and reduce the severity of depressive symptoms. Behavioural activation interventions such as the one used in the present study might contribute to more positive occupational outcomes in work-disabled individuals who report high levels of fatigue.

4.
J Anesth ; 34(2): 202-210, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Analgesic medication epidemic during pregnancy is an important issue in Western countries. However, no large epidemiological study involving pregnant women with pain and their medication use has been conducted in Japan. This study examined the current situation of medication use for non-cancer pain during the perinatal period in Japan using national cohort data. METHODS: We analyzed 94,649 pregnant women who completed a self-report questionnaire investigating bodily pain and an interview-based medication use survey. Medication use before and during pregnancy and new medication administration/discontinuation during pregnancy were compared between women with and without pain during pregnancy using multivariable covariance analysis. RESULTS: Mild pain was reported by 50.4% of pregnant women in the first trimester (survey 1) and 61.8% in the second/third trimester (survey 2). Moderate-to-severe pain was reported by 15.4% of women in survey 1 and 22.4% in survey 2. In survey 1, 6.2% of women used prescribed analgesics and 1.6% used over-the-counter analgesics. In survey 2, prescribed and over the counter analgesics were used by 12.2% and 0.8% of women, respectively. Other pain-related medications were rarely used (< 1.0%). Pregnant women with moderate-to-severe pain showed a lower proportion of discontinuation of analgesics and a higher proportion of new administration of prescription and transdermal analgesics compared with those without pain. CONCLUSIONS: Although a large proportion of pregnant women experience pain, medication use for pain during pregnancy is low in Japan compared with Western countries (50-60%). Adequate treatment or support may be necessary for pregnant women experiencing pain in Japan.

5.
J Anesth ; 33(6): 636-641, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between catastrophizing and pain intensity with acute herpes zoster, and the association of treatment-related early changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and catastrophizing with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) development, independent of acute pain intensity. METHODS: We analyzed 44 outpatient participants with acute herpes zoster who completed a 6-month follow-up. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at first visit, and 3 and 6 months, thereafter. We assessed associations between acute pain intensity and analyzed factors using univariate regression analyses. Univariate and bivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess associations of variables at the first visit and early changes in psychological factors with PHN development. RESULTS: Sex, severe skin rash at first visit, PCS, and HADS depression were associated with acute pain intensity {standardized regression coefficient, 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.74], 0.36 (95% CI 0.07-0.65), 0.33 (95% CI 0.03-0.62), 0.47 (95% CI 0.19-0.74), respectively}. Acute pain intensity and early change in pain intensity were associated with PHN development [odds ratio (OR) 1.08 (95% CI 1.02-1.14) OR 2.38 (95% CI 1.10-5.16), respectively]. Decreased PCS was associated with decreased risk of PHN development, independent of acute pain intensity [OR 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.80)]. CONCLUSION: Catastrophizing was associated with acute pain intensity, and lower pain-related catastrophizing among patients with acute herpes zoster was associated with less risk of PHN development, independent of acute pain intensity.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10690, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337809

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the associations of knee and low back pain with dementia development. Participants were 14,627 older people with no history of stroke, cancer, injuries, depression, Parkinson's disease, or dementia who did not require support for daily living completed self-administered questionnaires with 3-years follow-up. A Cox regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dementia development. Stratified analyses by age and regular walking were conducted. Dementia risk was higher in participants aged 65-79 years with knee pain and without low back pain than in those without knee and low back pain [HR: 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.68)]. Dementia risk was lower in participants ≥80 years with low back pain but no knee pain than in those without low back or knee pain [HR: 0.50 (95% CI: 0.31-0.80)]. Participants with knee pain who did not walk regularly had the highest dementia risk [HR: 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26-2.33)]. Knee pain may increase dementia risk among individuals aged 65-79 years, and may further increase risk in non-regular walkers. Low back pain may be a marker of maintained cognitive function despite age for individuals ≥80 years.

7.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(6): 420-422, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257242

RESUMO

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a pathogen which causes neo natal sepsis, meningitis, and invasive infections in the elderly and people with medical conditions. Macrolide and lincosamide resistance rates of GBS strains have been increasing worldwide. A macrolide resistance gene, erythromycin ribosomal methylase (erm), typically confers macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramin B resistance phenotype. However, in the current study, we recovered and characterized 3 clinical ermB-PCR-positive isolates of GBS with L phenotype. The presence of ermB and lnuB (lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase) genes in all 3 clinical isolates was confirmed using PCR. The ermB gene of the clinical isolates harbored C222T (N74N), T224C (I75T), and A299G (N100S) nucleotide (amino acid) substitutions, and insertion of an IS1216E element at nucleotide position 643, resulted in the deletion of a segment spanning nucleotides 643-738 of ermB gene, which suggested the loss-of-function of ErmB protein in the 3 clinical isolates. Since these clinical isolates show positive PCR result for a drug resistance gene despite its partial deletion, these results contradict their drug resistance phenotype. These factors must be considered while performing PCR-based detection of antimicrobial drug resistance genes.

8.
J Anesth ; 33(4): 523-530, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pain symptom, such as that caused by musculoskeletal disorders, is a major cause of occupational disability. As nicotine intake from smoking increases pain sensitivity, smokers may experience stronger pain and be more likely to experience pain-related disability than non-smokers. The study aim was to examine whether smoking was associated with pain-related occupational disability via pain intensity. METHODS: Participants were 1189 workers with pain aged 20-74 years in Japan. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire, which included a question to measure pain-related occupational disability with ordinal-option: (1) without pain-related disability, (2) pain-related presenteeism, and (3) pain-related absenteeism. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted proportional odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of pain-related occupational disability according to smoking status. A multiple mediation analysis was also conducted to assess whether pain sensitivity mediated the association between smoking and pain-related occupational disability. Adjusted variables were demographic variables, socioeconomic status, work-related psychosocial factors, general psychological factors, and pain duration. RESULTS: Current smoking and pain were associated with pain-related occupational disability compared with non-smoking and pain (multivariable OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.26-2.52). Greater pain intensity partially mediated the association of current smoking and pain with pain-related occupational disability. The mediation rate (indirect/total effect) was 25%. CONCLUSION: Smoking and pain were associated with pain-related occupational disability, partially through greater pain intensity, among Japanese workers.

10.
Biopsychosoc Med ; 13: 17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360219

RESUMO

Background: Menstrual pain causes low quality of life among women of reproductive age, and often interferes with daily activities. Perceived injustice is a cognition linked to adverse symptoms. The aims of this study were to develop a Japanese version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire-chronic (IEQ-chr-J), and to examine if perceived injustice is associated with pain intensity and impairment from menstruation. Methods: We investigated 130 Japanese women (aged 20-45 years) with menstrual pain in the past 3 months using online self-administered questionnaires. We examined the psychometric properties of the IEQ-chr-J including: structural validity; internal consistency; and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients; ICC). Concurrent validity was examined by correlations among the IEQ-chr-J, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a numerical rating scale (NRS) for maximum/average menstrual pain, and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain interference domain. We used multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association between perceived injustice and severity of menstrual pain, after excluding 10 hormone drug users. Results: The IEQ-chr-J showed sufficient validity and reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.96, ICC 0.75, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.88]. Pearson's correlation coefficients for the IEQ-chr-J, PCS, HADS anxiety, HADS depression, NRS, and BPI pain interference ranged from 0.27-0.65. The IEQ-chr-J was correlated with impairment due to menstrual pain (ICC 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.58), an independent diagnosis of endometriosis, anxiety, and depression, but not with maximum or average pain intensity. Conclusions: The IEQ-chr-J has acceptable psychometric properties, and perceived injustice is associated with impairment from menstrual pain.

12.
J Obes ; 2019: 2439571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944735

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to assess the association of habitually eating in the late evening and skipping breakfast with the prevalence of overweight/obesity. Methods: A total of 19,687 Japanese women, aged 40-74 years, were asked about their height, weight, and habitual eating behaviors such as having a late dinner and a bedtime snack and skipping breakfast, using a self-administered questionnaire. We defined overweight/obesity as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. Results: Among the participants, 11% regularly had a late dinner, 22% had bedtime snacks, and 8% skipped breakfast. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, sleep duration, and employment, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of skipping breakfast were 2.47 (2.18-2.81) for having a late dinner and 1.71 (1.53-1.91) for having a bedtime snack. These eating behaviors were associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity: the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of obesity/overweight were 1.43 (1.27-1.62) for having a late dinner, 1.47 (1.34-1.62) for having a bedtime snack, and 1.23 (1.06-1.42) for skipping breakfast. Conclusions: Japanese women who consumed late dinners or bedtime snacks were more likely to skip breakfast. Having a late dinner or bedtime snack was associated with a higher probability of overweight/obesity.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether changes in psychosocial factors and pain severity were associated with reduction in disability due to pain among patients with chronic pain. We hypothesized that increased self-efficacy would reduce disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 72 patients. Patients' psychological and physical variables were assessed before and after 3 months of treatment. Demographic and clinical information were collected, including the Pain Disability Assessment Scale (PDAS), the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) to assess pain intensity. First, univariate regression analyses were conducted to clarify associations between change in PDAS and sex, age, pain duration, changes in psychosocial factors (self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression) and change in pain intensity. Second, multivariate regression was conducted using the variables identified in the univariate analyses (PSEQ and NRS) to detect the most relevant factor for reducing disability. RESULTS: Univariate regression analyses clarified that changes in PSEQ (ß = -0.31; 95% CI: -0.54--0.08, p = 0.008) and NRS (ß = 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.47, p = 0.04) were associated with reduction in PDAS. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that change in PSEQ (ß = 0.26; 95% CI: -0.50--0.02; p = 0.01) was associated with a reduction in disability, independent of change in NRS. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest improved self-efficacy is associated with reduced disability in patients with chronic pain, independent of reduction in pain intensity. Focusing on improvement in self-efficacy may be an effective strategy in chronic pain treatment in addition to pain relief.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Dor Crônica , Depressão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor
14.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In a previous genome-wide association study of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) patients we reported the association between SJS/TEN and the prostaglandin E receptor 3 (PTGER3) gene, and that its protein PGE2 receptor 3 (EP3) was markedly downregulated in the conjunctival epithelium of SJS/TEN patients. Here we examined EP3 expression of the eyelid epidermis in SJS/TEN patients with severe ocular complications and investigated the function of EP3. METHODS: For the immunohistochemical study, we obtained eyelid samples from five SJS/TEN patients and five patients without SJS/TEN (control subjects) who were undergoing surgery to treat trichiasis, and investigated the expression of EP3 protein in the epidermis of those samples. To investigate the EP3 function in the human epidermal keratinocytes, we performed ELISA and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, since it is reported that PGE2 suppresses cytokine production via EP3 in human conjunctival epithelium. RESULTS: The results of the immunohistochemical study revealed that EP3 expression in the eyelid epidermis of the SJS/TEN patients was the same as that in the controls. PGE2 and a selective EP3 agonist suppressed cytokine production and expression induced by polyinosine-polycytidylic acid stimulation, such as chemokine ligand 5 and chemokine motif ligand 10. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that in chronic-phase SJS/TEN, EP3 protein was expressed in the eyelid epidermis and was not downregulated, unlike in conjunctival epithelium, and that PGE2 could suppress cytokine production via EP3 in human epidermal keratinocytes. Thus, EP3 expression in the epidermis might contribute to a silencing of skin inflammation in chronic-phase SJS/TEN.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 2-7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866792

RESUMO

ß-Lactam antibiotics are first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections. We previously reported clinical GBS isolates with reduced ß-lactam susceptibility (GBS-RBS) and characterized them as harbouring amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). However, to our knowledge, GBS-RBS clinical isolates have never previously been isolated from pregnant women worldwide. We obtained 477 clinical GBS isolates from vaginal/rectal swabs of 4530 pregnant women in Japan. We determined the MICs of seven ß-lactams for all 477 clinical isolates. Five clinical isolates showed reduced ceftibuten susceptibility. For these isolates, we performed sequencing analysis of pbp genes. None of the 477 isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, and meropenem. For five isolates, the MICs of ceftibuten were relatively high (64-128 µg/ml). Each of these isolates possessed a single amino acid substitution in PBP2X, and some of the substitutions had been previously found in GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility. This is the first report of the isolation of clinical GBS-RBS isolates harbouring amino acid substitutions in PBP2X that confer reduced ceftibuten susceptibility from pregnant women.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ceftibuteno/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Gravidez , Reto/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Vagina/microbiologia
16.
Cells ; 8(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717296

RESUMO

Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for the treatment of chronic cutaneous inflammation, such as atopic dermatitis, although it remains unknown how they modulate cutaneous mast cell functions. We investigated the effects of prolonged treatment with a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, on murine connective tissue-type mast cells using in vitro and in vivo models. Our connective tissue-type bone marrow-derived cultured mast cell model was found to be sensitive to mast cell secretagogues, such as compound 48/80 and substance P, and higher expression levels of α subunit of a trimeric G protein, Gi1, and several Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor (Mrgpr) subtypes were observed in comparison with immature cultured mast cells. Secretagogue-induced degranulation and up-regulation of these genes was suppressed when cultured in the presence of dexamethasone. The profiles of granule constituents were drastically altered by dexamethasone. Topical application of dexamethasone down-modulated secretagogue-induced degranulation and the expression levels of several Mrgpr subtypes in cutaneous tissue. These results suggest that mast cell-mediated IgE-independent cutaneous inflammation could be suppressed by steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through the down-regulation of G αi1 and several Mrgpr subtypes in mast cells.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular , Células do Tecido Conjuntivo/citologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA/metabolismo , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Pain Pract ; 19(5): 476-483, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There have been no community-based studies investigating the association between sleep duration and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) development. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of sleep with herpes zoster (HZ) incidence and PHN. METHODS: In total, 12,329 residents (ages 50 to 103 years) of Shozu County, Japan, participated in our study from December 2009 to November 2010 and were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, the participants completed self-administered health questionnaires, including those on usual sleep duration. Three dermatologists diagnosed HZ on the basis of clinical symptoms and virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction and serological tests, and evaluated pain using a modified Zoster Brief Pain Inventory survey form via telephone. We used a Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident HZ and PHN. We also performed mediation analysis to examine whether hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity mediated the association between sleep shortage and chronic pain intensity. RESULTS: During follow-up, 400 cases of HZ were identified. Of these, 55 participants developed PHN. Sleep duration was not associated with HZ incidence. Sleep shortage increased the risk for PHN (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 1.06 to 3.85]). Hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity mediated the association between sleep shortage and chronic pain intensity (indirect/total effect ratio = 50% mediation). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep shortage was associated with increased risk for PHN, and hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity appeared to mediate this association. Sleep shortage may be a novel risk factor for PHN.


Assuntos
Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/epidemiologia , Sono , Dor Aguda/epidemiologia , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Humanos , Hiperestesia/epidemiologia , Hiperestesia/etiologia , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(4): 931-934, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We have previously identified group B Streptococcus (GBS) clinical isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) that were non-susceptible to cefotaxime; however, the rates of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone non-susceptibility among PRGBS isolates have never been reported. Therefore, we first determined the MICs of 22 antibacterial drugs/compounds for 74 PRGBS isolates and then determined the rates of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone non-susceptibility among these isolates. METHODS: We used 74 clinical PRGBS isolates, previously collected in Japan and confirmed to harbour relevant amino acid substitutions in PBP2X. We also used 80 penicillin-susceptible GBS (PSGBS) clinical isolates as controls. The MICs of 22 antibacterial drugs/compounds for all 154 GBS isolates were determined via microdilution and/or agar dilution methods, as recommended by the CLSI. RESULTS: The rates of non-susceptibility/resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin for the 80 PSGBS isolates were 0%, 0%, 0% and 30%, respectively, but were 15% (P = 0.0003), 28% (P < 0.0001), 36% (P < 0.0001) and 93% (P < 0.0001) for the 74 PRGBS isolates, respectively. No PRGBS isolates were identified to be non-susceptible to meropenem, doripenem, vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin or linezolid. CONCLUSIONS: We found that cefotaxime- and ceftriaxone-non-susceptible PRGBS isolates occur at relatively high rates in Japan. Importantly, this finding suggests that the range of drugs likely to be effective in treating PRGBS infections may be limited compared with those available for PSGBS infections; therefore, clinicians should exercise care when considering drug choice and efficacy for PRGBS infections.

19.
J Anesth ; 33(1): 58-66, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire is a valid measure assessing self-efficacy in individuals with chronic pain. Short-form versions of the measure have been developed to decrease the assessment burden. However, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the short forms in languages other than English. The aim of this study was to evaluate two 2-item short forms and one 4-item short form of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire in terms of internal consistency, criterion validity, structural validity, and construct validity. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Data from 150 individuals with mixed chronic pain at a pain management center in a university hospital were extracted from clinical records and analyzed. The data included the information of the original version and short forms of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and other pain-related measures assessing pain intensity, pain interference, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing. RESULTS: Item statistics supported the item selection for each of the three short forms. All the short forms demonstrated adequate internal consistency and criterion validity. With respect to construct validity, one of the 2-item short forms failed to meet the criterion regarding the change in the magnitude of correlation with a depression scale. The 4-item short form met all the criteria including structural validity. CONCLUSION: The study findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of 2- and 4-item versions of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for use in clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Thyroid ; 29(1): 59-63, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective trials of active surveillance for asymptomatic papillary microcarcinoma (T1aN0M0) since the 1990s have shown progression rates of only 5-10%. Late rescue surgery after progression had no deleterious effects on mortality and morbidity. The 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines approved active surveillance for very low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) as an alternative method to immediate surgery. However, there is no study that evaluates long-term active surveillance for T1b tumors. METHODS: A prospective trial of active surveillance with 360 very low-risk PTC (T1aN0M0) patients has been conducted since 1995. Of the 392 T1bN0M0 patients, 61 selected active surveillance over surgery and eventually participated in this trial, while the remaining 331 patients underwent surgery. To find an appropriate management strategy for patients with T1bN0M0 PTC, the outcomes of active surveillance for T1bN0M0 to T1aN0M0 PTC were investigated and compared, and the outcomes of surgery for T1bN0M0 PTC were studied. RESULTS: After a mean of 7.4 years of active surveillance, 29 (8%) T1aN0M0 tumors and four (7%) T1bN0M0 tumors had increased in size (p = 0.69). Development of lymph node metastasis was seen in three (0.8%) patients and two (3%) patients, respectively (p = 0.10). No significant difference in progression rate was seen between groups. Among T1bN0M0 tumors, weak calcification and rich vascularity were risk factors for tumor-size increase, and younger age was a predictor for the development of lymph node metastasis. Mean initial tumor size was significantly greater in T1bN0M0 patients who underwent immediate surgery (14.5 ± 2.8 mm) than it was in patients who chose observation (11.7 ± 1.1 mm; p < 0.0001). No postoperative recurrence was seen in patients with tumor <15 mm in diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Active surveillance is an option for selected patients with T1bN0M0 PTC.


Assuntos
Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/terapia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto Jovem
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