Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 54
Filtrar
1.
Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776490

RESUMO

Prolonged vitamin C deficiency can result in numerous metabolic abnormalities like impaired tissue repair and defective collagen synthesis. This case report describes a middle-age Japanese man presenting painful purpura on his lower limbs, severe anemia, and altered consciousness. The patient had been eating a selective diet lacking in vegetables and fruits since childhood. A serum analysis demonstrated a low level of vitamin C. The patient was treated with vitamin supplementation and psychological intervention. Scurvy is an under-considered illness with a favorable prognosis if diagnosed early while it is still sporadically encountered in some patients with malabsorption or malnutrition even in modern times.

2.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 88: 106474, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Penetrating chest trauma caused by a crossbow bolt is very rare. Herein, we report a successfully treated patient who attempted suicide by directing a crossbow to the chest cavity and developed an expanding pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta during eight-day follow up. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department after firing a crossbow bolt twice into his left chest. At admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable and maintaining oxygenation. The bolt had already been removed from the body. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a cavity pseudoaneurysm 2.5 mm in size in the aortic arch. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT demonstrated wound tracts showing probable damage by the bolt. The patient was admitted to the emergency department for careful observation and transferred to the psychiatric ward on day two. Follow-up contrast-enhanced CT on day eight demonstrated rapid expansion of the pseudoaneurysm from 2.5 mm to 4.0 mm in size. We performed thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on day 13. The patient was uneventfully discharged on the 20th hospital day. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Emergency physicians should be aware that damage to the surrounding tissue may be accompanied by delayed expansion of an aortic pseudoaneurysm, even if the bolts do not cause direct aortic wall injury. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that understanding the injury mechanism, confirming the tract of the bolts, and carefully exploring traumatic pseudoaneurysm can lead to a less invasive operation due to early detection.

3.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 104, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to have poor prognoses. In 2003, the joint committee of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma proposed stopping unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) sustained for > 15 min after TCA. However, in 2013, a specific time-limit for terminating resuscitation was dropped, due to the lack of conclusive studies or data. We aimed to define the association between emergency medical services transport time and survival to demonstrate the survival curve of TCA. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Japan Trauma Data Bank. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 16, at least one trauma with Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS) ≥ 3, and CPR performed in a prehospital setting. Exclusion criteria were burn injury, AIS score of 6 in any region, and missing data. Estimated survival rate and risk ratio for survival were analyzed according to transport time for all patients. Analysis was also performed separately on patients with sustained TCA at arrival. RESULTS: Of 292,027 patients in the database, 5336 were included in the study with 4141 sustained TCA. Their median age was 53 years (interquartile range (IQR) 36-70), and 67.2% were male. Their median Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 22-41), and median transport time was 11 min (IQR 6-17). Overall survival after TCA was 4.5%; however, survival of patients with sustained TCA at arrival was only 1.2%. The estimated survival rate and risk ratio for sustained TCA rapidly decreased after 15 min of transport time, with estimated survival falling below 1%. CONCLUSION: The chances of survival for sustained TCA declined rapidly while the patient is transported with CPR support. Time should be one reasonable factor for considering termination of resuscitation in patients with sustained TCA, although clinical signs of life, and type and severity of trauma should be taken into account clinically.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968415

RESUMO

Aim: Although uncommon, medical emergencies arise in general dental practice. Inadequate data on their severity and frequency makes targeting medical education for general dental practitioners difficult. This also makes planning for unexpected events challenging for practitioners and makes collaborating with emergency physicians burdensome. We aimed to clarify the incidence and characteristics of a dental outpatient department's medical emergencies. Methods: This single-center, retrospective, observational study was undertaken with patients who visited the dental outpatient department of Okayama University Hospital during the 8-year period. The primary outcome of the study was to identify the incidence and characteristics of medical emergencies in the dental outpatient department. Then we examined the timing of medical emergencies, administered medications, and final disposition (home/admission). Results: During the period, 1,146,929 patients were enrolled. Forty-two patients (0.0037%) were consulted as medical emergencies. More than 60% of the incidents were vasovagal syncope, and dehydration and hypoglycemia were the second most prevalent at 9.5%. The most common types of dental treatments were tooth extraction (45.2%), followed by general dental treatment (28.6%), and other dental surgery such as implant placement (14.3%). Types of medical emergencies occurred equally before, during, and after dental treatment. Antihypertensive agents, sedatives, or glucose were used. For patients with emergencies, 90.5% recovered during the day and returned home, and 9.5% were hospitalized. Conclusion: The incidence of medical emergencies was low in our dental outpatient department. Knowledge of basic management principles, regular education for emergency care, and practicing first aid skills are mandatory for safe patient management.

5.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791103

RESUMO

Trauma is a primary cause of death globally, with non-compressible torso hemorrhage constituting an important part of "potentially survivable trauma death." Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta has become a popular alternative to aortic cross-clamping under emergent thoracotomy for non-compressible torso hemorrhage in recent years, however, it alone does not improve the survival rate of patients with severe shock or traumatic cardiac arrest from non-compressible torso hemorrhage. Development of novel advanced maneuvers is essential to improve these patients' survival, and research on promising methods such as selective aortic arch perfusion and emergency preservation and resuscitation is ongoing. This review aimed to provide physicians in charge of severe trauma cases with a broad understanding of these novel therapeutic approaches to manage patients with severe hemorrhagic trauma, which may allow them to develop lifesaving strategies for exsanguinating trauma patients. Although there are still hurdles to overcome before their clinical application, promising research on these novel strategies is in progress, and ongoing development of synthetic red blood cells and techniques that reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury may further maximize their effects. Both continuous proof-of-concept studies and translational clinical evaluations are necessary to clinically apply these hemostasis approaches to trauma patients.

6.
Acta Med Okayama ; 74(6): 513-520, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361871

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the influence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on emer-gency medical service (EMS) systems, especially in areas less affected or unaffected by COVID-19. In this study, we investigated changes in prehospital EMS activity and transport times during the COVID-19 pandemic. All patients transported by EMS in the city of Okayama from March-May 2019 or March-May 2020 were included. Interfacility transports were excluded. The primary outcome was the time from a patient's first emergency call until hospital arrival (total prehospital time). Secondary outcomes included three segments of total prehospital time: the response time, on-scene time, and transportation time. Total prehospital time and the durations of each segment were compared between corresponding months in 2020 (COVID19-affected) and 2019 (control). The results showed that total prehospital times in April 2020 were significantly higher than those in 2019 (33.8 ± 11.6 vs. 32.2 ± 10.8 min, p < 0.001). Increases in total prehospital time were caused by longer response time (9.3 ± 3.8 vs. 8.7 ± 3.7 min, p < 0.001) and on-scene time (14.4 ± 7.9 vs. 13.5 ± 6.2min, p < 0.001). The COVID-19 pandemic was thus shown to affect EMS and delayed arrival/response even in a minimally affected region. A system to minimize transportation delays should be developed for emerging pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , SARS-CoV-2 , Transporte de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370959

RESUMO

A 65-year-old woman with a previous history of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy had peritoneal cysts, increasing in size over 15 years and an increasing cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level. The size of the cysts eventually reached 86 mm and 70 mm. As malignant transformation of endometriosis was suspected, we performed peritoneal cystectomy and hysterectomy. Histopathology revealed seromucinous borderline tumours (SMBTs) derived from endometriosis. One month after surgery, her CA 19-9 level had decreased. It is rare for SMBT to occur after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; surgical management is the best treatment at present.


Assuntos
Cistos/cirurgia , Endometriose/complicações , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Salpingo-Ooforectomia , Idoso , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Cistos/etiologia , Endometriose/patologia , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/sangue , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/etiologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/sangue , Neoplasias Peritoneais/etiologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia
8.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(5): 1097-1100, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145563

RESUMO

Patients with poorly controlled insulin-dependent type 1 or type 2 diabetes rarely present with glycogenic hepatopathy, which is characterized by hepatomegaly and liver enzyme abnormalities. Glycogenic hepatopathy occurs as a consequence of excessive accumulation of glycogen in hepatocytes caused by insulin. We report a young male patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus who developed glycogenic hepatopathy following a suicide attempt by insulin overdose via subcutaneous injection. The patient's medication/nutrition compliance and adherence to insulin were poorly controlled due to comorbid schizophrenia. Our patient required a large amount of continuous glucose to maintain euglycemia for persistent intractable hypoglycemia induced by overdose of long-acting insulin. On admission day 4, the patient presented elevated transaminases, hepatomegaly, and lactic acidosis. Computed tomography revealed swollen liver parenchyma with a diffusely high absorption. The patient gradually recovered without any medical intervention except for adequate control of blood sugar and was moved to a psychiatric ward on day 8 for schizophrenia management. This report may help emergency physicians be aware of the common symptoms, clinical course, and pathophysiology of glycogenic hepatopathy. Doctors should include glycogenic hepatopathy in the differential diagnosis of abnormal liver enzymes and hepatomegaly for those with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or unstable blood sugar levels due to insulin overdose like our patient.

9.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(5): 429-433, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972083

RESUMO

Condition-specific competition is a phenomenon by which inter-specific competitive dominance changes as a result of environment, and is an important factor determining species distribution. Congeneric charrs in Hokkaido, Japan, provide one of the best examples of condition-specific competition: Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma, often dominate in cold streams (6-8°C), whereas white-spotted charr, Salvelinus leucomaenis, dominate in warmer streams (> 10°C). While past laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated the great advantage of white-spotted charr at higher water temperatures, the advantages of Dolly Varden at lower temperature have not always been clear. Here, we examined the effect of water temperature (6°C vs. 12°C) on the swimming ability of the two sympatric charrs using a stamina tunnel. At 6°C, the swimming ability of Dolly Varden was greater than that of white-spotted charr, but no difference was observed at 12°C. These results suggest that the temperature-mediated swimming ability differs between these species, which may explain the coexistence of the closely related species within heterogeneous habitats via condition-specific competition.


Assuntos
Natação/fisiologia , Temperatura , Truta/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Japão , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Acta Med Okayama ; 74(4): 359-364, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843768

RESUMO

During major flooding in June/July 2018, the Mabi Memorial Hospital in Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan was flooded and patients were stranded in the hospital. Peace Winds Japan, a non-governmental organization, collaborated with the Japanese Disaster Medical Assistance Team and Self-Defense Force Public to transport 8 critical patients from the hospital by helicopter. Ultimately, 54 patients and hospital staff members were safely evacuated. The evacuation was accomplished without any casualties, despite the severe conditions. Public and private organizations can work together and continue to seek ways to collaborate and cooperate in disaster settings.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Inundações , Hospitais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
11.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431842

RESUMO

Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply, perfusion, and concomitant reoxygenation is restored to an organ or area following an initial poor blood supply after a critical time period. Ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to mortality and morbidity in many pathological conditions in emergency medicine clinical practice, including trauma, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and post-cardiac arrest syndrome. The process of IR is multifactorial, and its pathogenesis involves several mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species are considered key molecules in reperfusion injury due to their potent oxidizing and reducing effects that directly damage cellular membranes by lipid peroxidation. In general, IR injury to an individual organ causes various pro-inflammatory mediators to be released, which could then induce inflammation in remote organs, thereby possibly advancing the dysfunction of multiple organs. In this review, we summarize IR injury in emergency medicine. Potential therapies include pharmacological treatment, ischemic preconditioning, and the use of medical gases or vitamin therapy, which could significantly help experts develop strategies to inhibit IR injury.

12.
Cureus ; 12(12): e12268, 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510981

RESUMO

Ethylene glycol is an odorless, sweet-tasting liquid found in industrial solutions such as antifreeze and windshield wiper fluid. Brake fluid, an automobile transmission liquid, contains poisonous alcohols such as glycol ethers and ethylene glycols. The toxicity of ethylene glycol is associated with toxic metabolite production by the liver enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Administration of either intravenous ethanol or fomepizole, both of which competitively inhibit ethylene glycol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase and can prevent the production and accumulation of the toxic metabolites, can be used as an antidote. A 42-year-old male car mechanic was transferred to our hospital after accidentally ingesting approximately 100 mL of brake fluid. Immediately after ingestion, he threw up most of the ingested liquid; however, he complained of nausea and throat pain and was moved to our emergency department. The patient was successfully treated with administration of oral ethanol in the form of whisky through a nasogastric tube since neither intravenous ethanol nor fomepizole was available in our hospital at the time of his presentation. Our case demonstrates that oral ethanol can be used as an alternative treatment for patients with ethylene glycol intoxication.

14.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 65: 124-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous mesenteric hematoma is an uncommon syndrome triggered by bleeding localized in the mesenteric vascular tree of a bowel segment for no apparent underlying reason. We herein report a surgical patient with an extremely rapidly growing spontaneous mesenteric hematoma that we successfully diagnosed using careful radiologic examination. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 56-year-old old male presenting sudden onset lower abdominal pain was referred to our emergency department. At the time of admission, his physical examination revealed stable vital signs without radiological abnormality. On the following day, the patient suddenly presented hypotension, tachycardia, and increased abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography examination showed a mass with both high- and low-density areas with a 130 mm maximum diameter bordering the transverse colon. Since interventional radiologists were not available, we decided to perform emergency exploratory laparotomy. On laparotomy, a 13 × 8 cm hematoma was found in the mesentery of the transverse colon. As bleeding was noted from the branches of the middle colic artery and gastrocolic artery, these responsible vessels were ligated. The patient was finally given the diagnosis of spontaneous mesenteric hematoma. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The present case, initially diagnosed as enterocolitis, suddenly manifested hypovolemic shock. Close monitoring for any signs of further deterioration, as well as aggressive imaging diagnosis, enabled us to avoid delays in treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric hematomas are essential to prevent them from rupturing and triggering life-threatening adverse events.

15.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2019: 4383086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316840

RESUMO

Orbital emphysema occurs when air enters the soft tissue surrounding the orbit. Although orbital blowout fractures are often caused by face trauma, nontraumatic orbital fractures can also occur but have been rarely described. Here, a case of orbital and palpebral emphysema caused by forceful nose-blowing is presented. Examination uncovered gross swelling of the right eye and discernable subcutaneous emphysema. The patient had normal eye movement and visual acuity. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed orbital emphysema secondary to an orbit floor fracture into the maxillary sinus, resulting from high intranasal pressure upon blowing her nose. The patient received conservative management with antibiotics and was given instructions not to sneeze or blow her nose. She fully recovered and all her symptoms completely resolved.

16.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2019: 3158969, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263607

RESUMO

Rectus sheath hematoma is an unusual but well-known clinical problem. Our hospital admitted a 54-year-old woman complaining of harsh right-sided hypogastric pain that started while muscle training. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a right rectus sheath hematoma. As the hematoma did not increase, the patient was conservatively treated. Despite increased awareness of rectus sheath hematoma, its early diagnosis and treatment still present a challenge to emergency physicians. Swift acknowledgement of this rare cause of abdominal pain may avoid more intrusive examination, unnecessary hospitalization, and laparotomy. Careful consideration of the patient's medical history and a high index of suspicion are needed to diagnose this complication.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(4): 1519-1527, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179095

RESUMO

Background: Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) is known to cause inflammatory reactions in the lung parenchyma and acute lung injury, increasing the risk of complications that can lead to death. Hydrogen gas has shown to inhibit the formation and eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to cause reperfusion injury. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 2% inhaled hydrogen gas on post-HSR lung injury. Methods: Rats weighing 300-500 g were divided into three groups: sham, HSR, and hydrogen (H2)/HSR groups. In the latter two groups, HSR was induced via femoral vein cannulation. Gas containing 2% hydrogen gas was inhaled only by those in the H2/HSR group. Lung tissue and abdominal aorta blood were obtained for histologic examination and arterial blood gas analyses, respectively. Neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory mediators were also measured. Results: PO2 was lower in the HSR and H2/HSR groups than in the sham group. Blood lactate level was not significantly different between the sham and H2/HSR groups, but it was significantly higher in the HSR group. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung tissues was more frequent in the HSR group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly different among the three groups (highest in the HSR group). All proinflammatory mediators, except IL-6, showed a significant difference among the three groups (highest in the HSR group). Conclusions: Inhalation of 2% hydrogen gas after HSR minimized the extent of lung injury by decreasing MPO activity and reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung tissue.

20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(2): 268-273, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of contrast extravasation (CE) on computed tomography (CT) of the psoas major muscle after blunt torso trauma and the optimal management of patients requiring transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the lumbar artery have not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CE on CT to determine the need for TAE of the lumbar artery. METHODS: We examined a single-center retrospective cohort of blunt torso trauma patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT from 2008 to 2017. Basic demographics and clinical data were obtained, including the number of lumbar transverse process fractures (LTPFs) and maximum psoas major muscle hematoma (PMMH) size and ratio. Maximum PMMH size was analyzed by measuring the cross-sectional area of hematoma size at the level of CE. Psoas major muscle hematoma size ratio was obtained by dividing maximum PMMH size by psoas major muscle size of the unaffected side at the same slice level. RESULTS: A total of 762 patients were included. One hundred seventeen patients had LTPFs and/or PMMH. Of 117 patients, 25 had CE on CT of the psoas major muscle and had significantly higher rates of older age and severe injury compared with those without CE. Of the 25 patients with CE, 13 required TAE of the lumbar artery. Patients who required TAE had a significantly higher number of LTPFs (4 vs. 2, p = 0.011) and higher PMMH size ratio (2.10 vs. 1.32, p = 0.016). Psoas major muscle hematoma size ratio revealed moderate accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.782). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the blunt torso trauma patients with CE on CT of the psoas major muscle will require TAE of the lumbar artery. Higher number of LTPFs and larger PMMH size can be a predictor of the need for TAE of the lumbar artery among patients with CE on CT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, level IV.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos/patologia , Hematoma/patologia , Músculos Psoas/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Adulto , Idoso , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...