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1.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with allergic diseases in children, but results are inconsistent. This study aimed to assess the association between household income and the development of allergic disease in children at 3 years old. METHODS: We used data from 72,180 participants from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which is a prospective birth cohort study with participants recruited from January 2011 to March 2014. We examined the associations between household income and allergic diseases (asthma, eczema, and food allergies) in children, adjusting for covariates using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The percentages of doctor-diagnosed allergies at 3 years old were 7.5% for asthma, 7.2% for eczema, and 6.2% for food allergies. Children from households with an annual income of <2 million yen (approx. 18,000 USD) had a significantly higher risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma and eczema than those from households with an income of 4-6 million yen. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.34) and 1.21 (95% CI 1.06-1.39). Children from households with an income of >6 million yen tended to have an increased risk of food allergies (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98-1.15). CONCLUSION: Low household income was a risk for doctor-diagnosed asthma and eczema, suggesting that public health professionals should recognize low-income groups as vulnerable populations for these conditions.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) influence maternal and pediatric outcomes. We sought to clarify the impact of prepregnancy BMI-specific GWG and its patterns on the risk of low birth weight (LBW) or macrosomia using data from a large nationwide study in Japan. METHODS: This cohort study (n = 98,052) used data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). The outcome variables in this study were LBW and macrosomia. We stratified the subjects into groups according to prepregnancy BMI. RESULTS: GWG from pre-pregnancy to the first trimester had a small effect on the risk of LBW and macrosomia. From the first to second trimesters, insufficient GWG was associated with the risk of LBW, and from the second trimester to delivery, a GWG of less than 2 kg was associated with the risk of LBW. These associations were commonly observed in all prepregnancy BMI categories. Irrespective of the GWG from pre-pregnancy to the first trimester, GWG from the first to second trimesters affects LBW and/or macrosomia. Irrespective of the GWG from the first to second trimesters, GWG from the second trimester to delivery affects LBW and/or macrosomia. LBW or macrosomia was associated with the prevalence of a sustained low or high BMI percentile until three years of age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present large national cohort study indicates that the risk of LBW or macrosomia is associated with GWG in women in Japan; the significance of this risk depends on the GWG patterns.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

4.
Endocr J ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433732

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to determine the association of neonatal/post-neonatal hypothyroidism with mother's iodine exposure, especially povidone iodine disinfection, and hysterosalpingography. Participants were mother-child pairs in a Japanese birth cohort (n = 100,286). Risk factors of hypothyroidism were supplement intake, seaweed intake, other daily iodine intake, povidone iodine disinfection at delivery, and maternal history of hysterosalpingography, thyroid disease (Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis), and medication (thiamazole and levothyroxine). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) at age 1 year was assessed using a questionnaire. Transient hypothyroidism was defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level at birth and absence of CH at age 1 year. The incidence of CH at age 1 year per 100 children was 1.1 for those born at 22-30 weeks' gestation, 0.17 following povidone iodine disinfection, and 0.07, 0.95, 0.81, 1.17, and 1.15 with a maternal history of hysterosalpingography, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thiamazole use, and levothyroxine use, respectively. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of CH at age 1 year for povidone iodine disinfection, hysterosalpingography history, maternal Graves' disease, and maternal Hashimoto's thyroiditis were 1.13 (0.71-1.79), 0.47 (0.07-3.36), 7.06 (3.70-13.5), and 5.93 (2.90-12.1), respectively. For transient hypothyroidism for povidone iodine disinfection and hysterosalpingography history, these values were 1.99 (1.51-2.62) and 0.63 (0.20-1.96), respectively. Maternal thyroid disease greatly increased neonatal/post-neonatal hypothyroidism risk. Povidone iodine disinfection may increase transient hypothyroidism risk but not the risk at 1 year of age. Hysterosalpingography does not increase hypothyroidism risk from birth to age 1 year.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047226, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of atopic dermatitis in children aged from 6 months to 3 years across birth seasons and climate conditions. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Fifteen regional centres across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 304 children born from 2011 to 2014. EXPOSURE: Birth month, and mean sunshine duration (short/long) and humidity (high/low) in the first 6 months of life. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence of atopic dermatitis. RESULTS: The highest incidence of atopic dermatitis was in children born in the months of October to December. The lowest incidence of atopic dermatitis was in the months of April to June and in periods with a long duration of sunshine and high humidity. Low humidity was significantly associated with a higher incidence of atopic dermatitis. However, this significant difference disappeared when the birth season and parental history of allergic disease were considered in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, being born in the late autumn to early winter months is associated with a risk of developing atopic dermatitis until the age of 3 years. Sunshine duration and humidity from birth to 6 months of age are not associated with the incidence of atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia
7.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; 18(4): e12437, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169664

RESUMO

AIM: We compared Japan nurse practitioner-led care and physician trainee-led care in terms of patients' length of stay in a secondary emergency department in Japan. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study, utilizing medical records. Participants (n = 1419; mean age = 63.9 ± 23.4 years; 52.3% men) were patients transferred to the emergency department by ambulance between April 2016 and March 2018 in western Tokyo. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed, with length of stay as the dependent variable and factors related to the length of stay, including medical care leaders, as the independent variable. RESULTS: Approximately half of the patients (n = 763; 53.8%) received Japan nurse practitioner-led care. Patients' length of stay was significantly shorter, by 6 min, in the Japan nurse practitioner-led care group, compared with the physician trainee-led care group (unstandardized coefficient: -6.81; 95% confidence interval: -13.35 to -0.26; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients' shorter length of stay in the Japan nurse practitioner group, compared with the physician trainee group, suggests that Japan nurse practitioners are not inferior to physician trainees in terms of the time spent to manage patients.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Médicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Environ Res ; 201: 111530, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hair dye use frequently induces allergic contact dermatitis, and on rare occasions induces immunoglobulin E-mediated immediate urticaria, anaphylaxis, and asthma. The effects of hair dye use during pregnancy on offspring have been studied for carcinogenicity, but not for development of allergies. This study aimed to assess the association between hair dye use during pregnancy and allergic disease in children at 3 years old. METHODS: Data of 77,303 participants from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which is a prospective birth cohort recruited from January 2011 to March 2014, were used. We examined the associations between using hair dye during pregnancy and allergic diseases (food allergy, asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis) in children after adjustment for covariates by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among mothers who were exposed to hair dye during pregnancy, 50.0% were exposed in hair salons, 21.3% had home use, and 9.5% had occupational exposure. The percentages of doctor-diagnosed allergies at 3 years old were 6.3% for food allergies, 7.7% for asthma, 7.3% for atopic dermatitis, and 4.6% for allergic rhinitis. In univariable analyses, hair dye use at home and occupational exposure was significantly associated with asthma respectively (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24 for at home; OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.28 for occupational exposure). Hair dye use at home were significantly associated with doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis at 3 years old (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.22). After adjustment for covariates, these associations for asthma decreased and were no longer significant (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.98-1.14 for at home; aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.20 for occupational exposure, p = 0.057), also for allergic rhinitis (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97-1.19). Doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis at 3 years old was significantly associated with hair dye use at home in the most frequent use group (aOR for quite often versus never 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.60). CONCLUSION: Both home and occupation use of hair dye during pregnancy showed a trend of increased odds of allergic rhinitis and asthma in offspring at 3 years. However, the only association that reached significance was in frequency of use analyses between the highest frequency of home hair dye users and allergic rhinitis.


Assuntos
Asma , Tinturas para Cabelo , Rinite Alérgica , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Tinturas para Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(7): 493-502, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994489

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to clarify the relationship between economic disparity and eating habits of young children to explore the support that should be provided to families with young children.Methods We conducted an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey of parents who brought their children to the 3-year-old health checkup in four wards in City A. Questionnaire items examined the children's eating habits and the childrearing environment, such as the parents' socioeconomic status. Of 1,150 parents asked to participate in the survey, 616 responded (response rate: 53.6%). Invalid questionnaires (e.g., with missing answers) were eliminated. The remaining 498 parents (effective response rate: 80.8%) were classified into two groups to examine the association of household financial status with their 3-year-old eating habits: the relative poverty group and the non-relative poverty group. The groups were divided according to the poverty line of the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Eating habits that were identified to be associated with relative poverty were further tested using logistic regression analysis.Results Analysis of the children's eating habits in the two groups revealed that, compared with the non-relative poverty group, there was a higher proportion of 3-year-olds who ate vegetables less than 6 days a week (P=0.003) and who consumed snacks 6 days or more per week (P=0.034) in the relative poverty group. The associations of relative poverty with vegetable intake less than 6 days a week and snack consumption 6 days or more a week remained significant after adjusting for parents' age, highest educational attainment, and subjective views on the everyday economic situation. Regarding the childrearing environment, the relative poverty group had a higher proportion of parents who were younger than 30 years of age (P<0.001) and in single-parent households (P=0.007). The relative poverty group had a higher proportion of parents whose highest education level was high school (P<0.001). Furthermore, the subjective view of the everyday economic situation was more negative in the relative poverty group (P<0.001).Conclusion Economic disparity was related to the eating habits of 3-year-old children. The study results indicate that identifying families with financial difficulties during pregnancy and childbirth is necessary to support them early on so that young children can acquire healthy eating habits.

10.
Addict Behav ; 120: 106989, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034004

RESUMO

AIM: The results from research on the temporal directional relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU) and depressive symptoms are inconsistent. This study aimed to explore this relationship among junior high school students in Japan. METHODS: Junior high/middle school students in the seventh grade (Time 1, [T1]) were recruited annually for 4 years starting in 2014; each cohort was followed up at 1 year (Time 2, [T2]) and 2 years (Time 3, [T3]). Three-year longitudinal panel data were collected from self-reported questionnaires that were completed by 1192 students (586 males and 606 females). Young's Internet Addiction Test and the Birleson Depression Self-rating Scale were used to assess participants' PIU and depressive symptoms, respectively. The temporal directional relationship between PIU and depressive symptoms was analyzed using the random intercept, cross-lagged panel model. RESULTS: The mean of the Internet Addiction Test increased as grade level increased: 28.0 at T1, 30.7 at T2 and 32.6 at T3. There was a unidirectional positive effect from PIU at T2 to depressive symptoms at T3, but not vice versa. There was no directional effect from PIU at T1 to depressive symptoms at T2, nor any in the reverse. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PIU precedes depressive symptoms. Therefore, addressing PIU is a promising preventive measure for adolescent depression.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Depressão , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudantes
11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 74, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. We assessed whether DNA methylation differences may mediate the association between prenatal smoking exposure and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years. RESULTS: We selected 1150 mother-infant pairs from the Hokkaido Study on the Environment and Children's Health. Mothers were categorized into three groups according to plasma cotinine levels at the third trimester: non-smokers (≤ 0.21 ng/mL), passive smokers (0.21-11.48 ng/mL), and active smokers (≥ 11.49 ng/mL). The children's ADHD symptoms were determined by the ADHD-Rating Scale at the age of 6 years. Maternal active smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD symptoms (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.15) compared to non-smoking after adjusting for covariates. DNA methylation of the growth factor-independent 1 transcriptional repressor (GFI1) region, as determined by bisulfite next-generation sequencing of cord blood samples, mediated 48.4% of the total effect of the association between maternal active smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms. DNA methylation patterns of other genes (aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor [AHRR], cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 [CYP1A1], estrogen receptor 1 [ESR1], and myosin IG [MYO1G]) regions did not exert a statistically significant mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that DNA methylation of GFI1 mediated the association between maternal active smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 641882, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869131

RESUMO

Background: Scientific innovation is often achieved through the intersection of ideas from different fields. However, barriers prevent non-epidemiologists from cultivating interests in epidemiology or undertaking epidemiologic work. In this study, we evaluated changes in the diversity of research topics in an epidemiologic journal over time. We aimed to understand how epidemiologists and non-epidemiologists communicate about epidemiologic data and how this impacts innovation in the field. Methods: We categorized the topics of articles published in the Journal of Epidemiology during the early and late 2010s based on their titles. We calculated the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H') to measure changes in the diversity of topics addressed by published articles. Results: Comparing 2011-2013 with 2017-2019, there was no significant change in the diversity of article topics (H' = 4.25 and 4.21, respectively) published in the Journal of Epidemiology. Conclusion: To encourage healthcare providers and public administrators to conduct or comment on epidemiologic studies, epidemiologists should present their findings in easily understood language with appropriate and relevant statistical indicators and useful illustrations. Bringing experience from other specialties into epidemiology may yield new findings from epidemiologic data because of the exposure of non-epidemiologists to different values, workplaces, and occupations. Collaboration among professionals from varied backgrounds and with varied occupational experiences may help to promote scientific innovation by broadening perspectives. In addition, a range of professional experiences may enable individuals to solve difficult research questions more easily by themselves.


Assuntos
Epidemiologistas , Medicina , Criatividade , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805025

RESUMO

School-based programmes need to be effective, easy for all, easy to perform within a short duration, and inexpensive. However, no studies have reported whether voluntarily and very short-time active play programmes contribute to improved health outcomes. This study aims to describe the GRoup activity, Active Play and Exercise (GRAPE) cluster randomised controlled trial that examined whether active play interventions of very short durations contribute to increasing physical activity (PA) and bone mass among school-aged children. The trial was conducted in 2018 from January to June, and the activity comprised ≥2 children jumping together for approximately 10 s per session, at least five times a day (approximately 1 min/day). School clusters, pair-matched as per school size (total number of children) and region, were randomly allocated to either intervention or wait-list control groups. The primary outcomes comprised objectively measured changes in PA levels (moderate-to-vigorous PA) evaluated using wrist-worn activity trackers from baseline to the one-year follow-up (six-month post-intervention follow-up) and changes in bone mass evaluated using calcaneus quantitative ultrasound parameters. This study could describe the problems and challenges in school-based PA intervention studies and present findings that could make a potentially important contribution to health education and PA promotion.


Assuntos
Vitis , Criança , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760833

RESUMO

Floating toe (FT) is a frequently seen condition in which a toe is inadequately in contact with the ground. Although toes play an important role in stabilizing standing posture and walking, many aspects of the effects of FT on the body remain unclear. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the relationship between FT and postural stability, especially in children. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of FT and its relationship with static postural stability in children. Of the 400 children aged 8 years who participated in our cohort study, 396, who were examined for static postural stability, were included in this study. Postural stability and FT were assessed using a foot pressure plate. The sway path length of the center of pressure and the area of the ellipse defined as the size of the area marked by the center of pressure, were measured as an evaluation of static postural stability. We calculated the "floating toe score (FT score: small FT score indicates insufficient ground contact of the toes)" using the image of the plantar footprint obtained at the postural stability measurement. The rate of FT was elevated at more than 90%, and the FT score in the eyes-closed condition was significantly higher than that in the eyes-open condition in both sexes. The FT score significantly correlated with the center of pressure path and area. Our results suggest that ground contact of the toes is not directly related to static postural stability in children, but it may function to stabilize the body when the condition becomes unstable, such as when the eyes are closed.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural , Dedos do Pé/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Prevalência , Posição Ortostática
15.
Vaccine ; 39(13): 1800-1804, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685777

RESUMO

We calculated the Poisson-regression-adjusted relative risk (RR) of new influenza infection by vaccination, prior infection, and vaccination after prior infection in a large Japanese birth cohort, using data from ≤89,253 children aged 6 months to 3 years. The effectiveness of risk reduction (1 - RR) by vaccination at ages 1.5-3 years was 21%-31%. The RR of new infection after prior infection vs. no prior infection was 2.58-19.3 at age 1-3 years. An analysis of the 1 - RR data stratified by having at least one senior sibling and/or attending nursery school revealed that vaccination reduced the RR by 22%-40%. The 1 - RR of new infection was 21% in 3-year-old children who were vaccinated after prior infection. All these findings are statistically significant. The results consistently indicate that, regardless of having at least one senior sibling, attending nursery school, and/or being previously infected with influenza, infants and toddlers will benefit from influenza vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Japão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escolas Maternais , Vacinação
16.
Pediatr Int ; 63(9): 1026-1032, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the association between maternal allergies and preterm birth by different total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. METHODS: Data of 81 791 pregnant women from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, a prospective birth cohort, were used. Maternal allergic diseases, including a history of bronchial asthma (BA), atopic dermatitis (AD), and allergic rhinitis (AR), were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Total serum IgE levels were measured at the first trimester and obstetrical outcomes from medical records transcripts were analyzed. The association between maternal allergic disease and obstetric outcome, including threatened abortion, preterm labor, early preterm birth (22-33 weeks), and late preterm birth (34-36 weeks), were examined by logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were performed by IgE level. RESULTS: Maternal BA and AR were associated with an increased risk of threatened abortion and preterm labor, but high total IgE level was associated with a decreased risk of preterm labor. There was little difference in associations between allergic disease and threatened abortion and preterm labor by total IgE levels. Although there was no significant association between allergic disease and preterm birth, if total IgE was high, AR was significantly associated with a decreased risk of early preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.86). There was significant evidence for differences associated with total IgE levels (P-values for the interaction of the effects of AD and AR on early preterm birth were 0.039 and 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of allergy on preterm birth might differ depending on the total IgE level.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Nascimento Prematuro , Rinite Alérgica , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(1): e00181, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532618

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to compare cause-specific mortality rates in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without various vascular complications. Methods: In Japanese hospitals, we followed up 30 834 patients with a mean age of 64.4 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.1) years. Patients were followed up from 2003 to 2007 for a median of 7.5 (interquartile range: 6.1-9.7) years. We calculated cause-specific mortality rates (number of deaths/1000 person-years) and confounder-adjusted hazard ratios in patients with macrovascular disease and in those with diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy, allowing for overlap of complications. Results: All-cause mortality rate was highest (51.4) in the nephropathy group, followed by the macrovascular disease group (45.2), the neuropathy group (39.5), the retinopathy group (38.7) and the nonvascular complication group (18.1). In the nephropathy group, morality rates of ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular, and infectious diseases and cancer were also highest among the groups. However, the cancer mortality rate was similar among the vascular complication groups. Relative to the nonvascular complication group, covariate-adjusted hazard ratios for ischaemic heart and cerebrovascular disease mortality were triple to quadruple in the macro- and microvascular complication groups. All-cause mortality rates rose exponentially according to age. Conclusion: Highest risks of all-cause, cancer, and ischaemic heart, infectious, and cerebrovascular disease mortality were determined in Japanese patients with diabetic nephropathy. Although cancer is the primary cause of death in Japanese patients with diabetes, cancer mortality rates are similar among those with and without vascular complications.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Pediatr Int ; 63(6): 710-715, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large changes in height standard deviation score (SDS) have been reported from birth to 3 years of age. We analyzed how early these changes start and whether they are affected by nutrition. METHODS: The longitudinal growth of 1,849 children born between March 1 2007 and August 31 2007 or between March 1, 2009 and August 31 2009 with five records from birth to 3 years of age was analyzed. RESULTS: The height SDS at birth was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) SDS at birth (r = 0.224, P < 0.0001). The height SDS at birth decreased among children with a positive height SDS and increased among children with a negative height SDS. The changes occurred immediately after birth and became more modest as children aged. Regarding the change in the height SDS from birth to 3 years of age, 33.4% of children increased more than 0.5 SDs, 39.8% of children decreased more than 0.5 SDs, and 34.4% of children remained within ±0.5 SDs. The change in height SDS displayed a strong positive correlation with the change in weight during the four periods. From birth till 3 months, from 3 months till 6 months, from 6 months till 1.5 years, and from 1.5 years till 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: The significant positive correlation between height SDS and BMI SDS suggests an effect of children's nutrition status in utero. The height SDS change started immediately after birth and the change was largest from birth to 3 months. A positive correlation between changes in height SDS and weight suggest that growth during early childhood depends on nutritional status.


Assuntos
Estatura , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
19.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(8): 1425-1429, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340268

RESUMO

We aimed to determine mortality risk in underweight patients with diabetic nephropathy for microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. We analyzed mortality and death-cause data from BioBank Japan, with baseline years 2003-2007. We analyzed mortality rates from all causes and ischemic heart disease, according to body mass index (<18.5, 18.5-21.9, 22-24.9 and ≥25 kg/m2 ). The mean (standard deviation) of patient age, body mass index, and glycated hemoglobin at enrollment was 61.6 years (11.7 years), 25.0 kg/m2 (4.4 kg/m2 ) and 7.7% (1.5%), respectively. Hazard ratios of all-cause and ischemic heart disease mortality were highest (1.79 [P = 0.0001] and 2.95 [P = 0.027], respectively) in patients with body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 , as compared with body mass index 22-24.9 kg/m2 . All-cause mortality risk for body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 was similar to that for current smokers (hazard ratio 1.70, P < 0.0001). Underweight could be a predictor of mortality risk in patients with diabetic nephropathy for microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria.

20.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 35(5): 631-639, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the role of the epigenome in allergies has been receiving increasing attention. Although several genes that are methylated in relation to serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration have been reported by epigenome-wide association studies, little is known about the DNA methylation sites associated with the symptoms and severity of cedar pollinosis (CP). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the association between DNA methylation and the symptoms and severity of CP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and nasal mucosa scraping cells (NMSCs). METHODS: We recruited 70 participants during the cedar pollen dispersal season. IgE levels were measured by a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. We analyzed DNA methylation of acyl-CoA thioesterase 7 (ACOT7), mucin 4 (MUC4), schlafen 12 (SLFN12), lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2), and interleukin-4 (IL4) in PBMCs and NMSCs using bisulfite next-generation sequencing; the correlation of DNA methylation with non-specific IgE and cedar pollen-specific IgE levels in peripheral blood samples was also investigated. Symptom severity and DNA methylation were investigated in 15 untreated CP patients. RESULTS: Non-specific IgE levels showed a significant negative correlation with average IL4 methylation in PBMCs (r = -0.46, P < 0.0001) but not with methylation of ACOT7, MUC4, SLFN12, and LPCAT2. Cedar pollen-specific IgE levels showed a significant negative correlation with average IL4 and MUC4 methylation in PBMCs (r = -0.31, P = 0.01 and r = -0.241, P = 0.046, respectively) but not with methylation of ACOT7, SLFN12, and LPCAT2. The methylation of some genes in NMSCs was not significantly correlated with IgE levels. The mean methylation of LPCAT2 in NMSCs showed a decreasing trend with increasing severity of CP (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: LPCAT2 methylation in NMSCs may reflect the severity of CP and could be used as a novel biomarker to identify suitable treatment options for CP.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Rinite Alérgica , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase , Alérgenos , Biomarcadores , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Japão , Pólen
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