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1.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4853, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302012

RESUMO

Sirolimus is used on patients after solid organ transplantation and on lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patients, and therapeutic drug monitoring is required in clinical practice. We have previously reported an accurate method for quantitative determination of sirolimus, but its sample preparation step was complicated. In this study, we developed a modified liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for sirolimus quantification. A supported liquid extraction cartridge was used to purify sirolimus from whole blood and ion suppression was mostly prevented. The validation results fulfilled the acceptable criteria. This method was compared with the antigen conjugated magnetic immunoassay (ACMIA) and our previously reported method, using whole blood samples from LAM patients. Comparison of the Bland-Altman plots of the currently developed method and the previous method revealed no significant difference between the two methods (mean bias, -2.02%; 95% CI, -7.81 to 3.78). The values obtained by using ACMIA were significantly higher than those obtained by using the current method by 13.87% (95% CI, 6.49 to 21.25) due to cross-reactivity. The degree of cross reactivities in LAM patients and in organ transplant patients were similar, and our LC/ESI-MS/MS method precisely measured blood concentrations of sirolimus.

2.
J Atten Disord ; 24(2): 175-191, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056996

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the trend of prescription drugs for children with ADHD in Japan. Method: Using health insurance claims data of 3,672,951 people between January 2005 and December 2015, we investigated the trend of prescription drugs for 7,856 children with ADHD. Results: After approval in 2007, the proportion of prescriptions for methylphenidate-osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system tablets was 31.4% in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, 3.51]) and reached a plateau approximately after 2009 (AOR = 0.96; 95% CI = [0.94, 0.98]). The proportion of prescriptions for atomoxetine increased from 6.1% in 2008 to 21.8% in 2014 (AOR = 1.12; 95% CI = [1.13, 1.18]). The proportion of prescriptions for aripiprazole and ramelteon increased (all trend p < .001). Conclusion: Prescriptions of drugs for children with ADHD have changed. We need to monitor the safety of ADHD medications among children with ADHD.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19075, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836785

RESUMO

Carboxyl-containing metabolites, such as bile acids and fatty acids, have many important functions and microbiota is involved in the production of them. In the previous study, we found that the chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice raised under germ-free conditions provided more severe renal damage than the mice with commensal microbiota. However, the precise influence by the microbiome and carboxyl-containing metabolites to the renal functions is unknown. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel chemical isotope labeling-LC-MS/MS method using the 2-picolylamine and its isotopologue and applied the analysis of effects of microbiome and CKD pathophysiology. The developed semi-quantitative method provided the high accuracy not inferior to the absolute quantification. By comparing of four groups of mice, we found that both microbiota and renal function can alter the composition and level of these metabolites in both plasma and intestine. In particular, the intestinal level of indole-3-acetic acid, short-chain fatty acids and n-3 type of polyunsaturated fatty acid, which play important roles in the endothelial barrier function, were significantly lower in germ-free conditions mice with renal failure. Accordingly, it is suggested these metabolites might have a renoprotective effect on CKD by suppressing epithelial barrier disruption.

4.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(11): 1891-1897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685771

RESUMO

Onset of severe hyponatremia following cisplatin (CDDP) administration has been previously reported. However, the risk factors associated with hyponatremia still remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective, single-center, case-control study to identify independent risk factors of severe hyponatremia in patients with various types of cancers. Adult patients who received intravenous CDDP administration between January 2012 and December 2017 met the inclusion criteria. The investigators recorded patients' demographics and clinical information retrospectively, and assessed the lowest serum sodium level within 21 d of the first CDDP administration. Risk factors for grade ≥3 hyponatremia were examined via a logistic regression analysis. Among a total of 472 patients, fifty patients (10.6%) developed grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Univariate analysis revealed that age (≥65 years), presence of small cell lung or esophageal cancer, and lower sodium concentrations in the serum (<138 mEq/L) were significantly associated with grade 3 and 4 hyponatremia. Additionally, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of small cell lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-10.00) and lower sodium concentrations in the serum (<138 mEq/L) (adjusted odds ratio, 6.18; 95%CI, 3.21-11.90) were independent risk factors of grade 3 and 4 hyponatremia. Thus, serum sodium concentrations in patients with these risk factors should be closely monitored after CDDP administration.

5.
J Lipid Res ; 60(12): 2074-2081, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586016

RESUMO

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive nervous degeneration. Because of the diversity of clinical symptoms and onset age, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult. Therefore, biomarker tests have attracted significant attention for earlier diagnostics. In this study, we developed a simultaneous analysis method for five urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites, which are potential diagnostic biomarkers for a rapid, convenient, and noninvasive chemical diagnosis, using LC/MS/MS. By the method, their urinary concentrations were quantified and the NPC diagnostic performances were evaluated. The developed LC/MS/MS method showed high accuracy and satisfied all analytical method validation criteria. When the urine of healthy controls and patients with NPC was analyzed, three of five urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolite concentrations corrected by urinary creatinine were significantly higher in the patients with NPC. As a result of receiver operating characteristics analysis, these urinary metabolites might have excellent diagnostic marker performance. 3ß-Sulfooxy-7ß-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid showed particularly excellent diagnostic performance with both 100% clinical sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that it is a useful NPC diagnostic marker. The urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites exhibited high NPC diagnostic marker performance and could be used for NPC diagnosis.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658747

RESUMO

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the mutation of cholesterol-transporting proteins. In addition, early treatment is important for good prognosis of this disease because of the progressive neurodegeneration. However, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult due to a variety of clinical spectrum. Lysosphingomyelin-509, which is one of the most useful biomarkers for NPC, was applied for the rapid and easy detection of NPC. The fact that its chemical structure was unknown until recently implicates the unrevealed pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of NPC. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the structure of lysosphingomyelin-509 by various mass spectrometric techniques. As our identification strategy, we adopted analytical and organic chemistry approaches to the serum of patients with NPC. Chemical derivatization and hydrogen abstraction dissociation-tandem mass spectrometry were used for the determination of function groups and partial structure, respectively. As a result, we revealed the exact structure of lysosphingomyelin-509 as N-acylated and O-phosphocholine adducted serine. Additionally, we found that a group of metabolites with N-acyl groups were increased considerably in the serum/plasma of patients with NPC as compared to that of other groups using targeted lipidomics analysis. Our techniques were useful for the identification of lysosphingomyelin-509.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13637, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541125

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to dermal cells, and it is thus important to develop cosmetics that protect the skin from ROS and other stimuli. Repagermanium is a synthetic water-soluble organogermanium polymer, and in this study, we attempted to visualize the incorporation of germanium into normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) using isotope microscopy. In addition, the content of 3-(trihydroxygermyl)propanoic acid (THGP), a hydrolyzed monomer of repagermanium, in NHDFs was determined through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the dose-dependent incorporation of THGP was confirmed. We then evaluated the preventive effects of THGP against ROS-induced NHDF death and confirmed the observed preventive effects through gene profiling and expression analysis. The addition of 0.59-5.9 mM THGP reduced cell death resulting from ROS damage caused by the reaction between xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine and the direct addition of H2O2. Furthermore, this study provides the first demonstration that the effect of THGP was not due to the direct scavenging of ROS, which indicates that the mechanism of THGP differs from that of general antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid. The gene profiling and expression analysis showed that THGP suppressed the expression of the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (NR4A2) gene, which is related to cell death, and the interleukin 6 (IL6) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) genes, which are related to the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the production of IL6 induced by H2O2 was suppressed by the THGP treatment. Our data suggest that the preventive effect of THGP against ROS-induced cell death is not due to antioxidant enzymes or ROS scavenging.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421525

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the transporter involved in the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In the present study, transport assays were conducted using membrane vesicles prepared from human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, thus enabling identification of the novel exporter present in A549 cells. PGE2 transport into A549 vesicles was higher in the presence of a proton (H+)-gradient, thus suggesting the involvement of PGE2H+ symporter in PGE2 transport. Results from our experiments showed enhanced PGE2 release in A549 cells in the presence of H+-gradient ([H+]extracellular < [H+]intracellular). Moreover, in vesicular transport assays, H+-gradient-dependent transport of PGE2 did not show saturation up to 500 µM PGE2, and 10 mM aromatic monocarboxylic acids (acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and p-nitrobenzoic acid) significantly inhibited PGE2 transport by 62-70%. These results suggest, the involvement of monocarboxylate transporters in the H+-gradient-dependent PGE2 export.

9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4199-4206, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We previously synthesized a glucose-conjugated chlorin compound e6 (G-chlorin e6), and reported that it has very strong antitumor effects. The aim of the present study was to synthesize acetylated glucose-conjugated chlorin (AcN003HP) and evaluate its antitumor effect and excretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the antitumor effect of AcN003HP, its IC50 was calculated as well as its accumulation in cancer cells was examined by flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the intracellular localization of AcN003HP. The excretion and antitumor effects of AcN003HP were also evaluated in vivo. RESULTS: AcN003HP showed stronger antitumor effects and accumulation into cancer cells compared to talaporfin sodium, a conventional photosensitizer. AcN003HP was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In a xenograft tumor mouse model, AcN003HP showed longer excretion time from the body than G-chlorin e6, and photodynamic therapy using AcN003HP showed very strong antitumor effects. CONCLUSION: The safety, improved controllability, and robust antitumor effects suggest AcN003HP as a good next-generation photosensitizer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Glucose/síntese química , Glucose/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Porfirinas/administração & dosagem , Porfirinas/síntese química , Porfirinas/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 22(1): 407-417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The dose of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) used to prevent rejection after lung transplantation is often adjusted based on the 12-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-12) of mycophenolic acid (MPA). A limited sampling strategy (LSS) is useful to define the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MPA and mycophenolic acid acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG). Therefore, this study aimed to design a LSS based on multiple linear regression for estimating the AUC0-12 of MPA and AcMPAG at the minimum blood sampling points in Japanese lung transplant patients with concomitant tacrolimus. METHODS: Forty-five lung transplantation recipients were enrolled in a PK study of MPA, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), and AcMPAG. The plasma MPA, MPAG, and AcMPAG concentrations were determined just before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. The AUC0-12 of MPA and AcMPAG was calculated using a linear trapezoidal rule from the plasma concentration of each blood sampling time. LSS was used to develop models for estimated AUC in the model group (n = 23) and was evaluated in the validation group (n = 22). RESULTS: The best three time-point equation was 4.04 + 1.64·C1 + 3.08·C4 + 5.17·C8 for MPA, and -0.13 + 3.01·C1 + 3.51·C4 + 5.74·C8 for AcMPAG. The prediction errors (PE) and the absolute prediction errors (APE) were within the clinically acceptable ± 5% and 15% range, respectively (MPA: PE = 2.00%, APE = 11.66%, AcMPAG: PE = 0.98%, APE = 14.69%). The percentage of estimated AUC0-12 within ± 15% of the observed AUC0-12 was 77.27% for MPA and 81.82% for AcMPAG. CONCLUSION: LSS using three time-point (C1, C4, and C8) provides the most reliable and accurate simultaneous estimation of the AUC0-12 of MPA and AcMPAG in Japanese lung transplant patients.

11.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 379: 114664, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306673

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive inflammatory and fibrotic disease. However, the progression mechanism of NASH is not well understood. Bile acids are endogenous molecules that regulate cholesterol homeostasis, lipid solubilization in the intestinal lumen, and metabolic signaling via several receptors. In this study, we investigated the relationship between bile acid composition and NASH-associated fibrosis using a mouse model fed choline-deficient, L-amino-acid-defined, high-fat diet with 0.1% methionine (CDAHFD). C57BL/6 J mice fed CDAHFD developed NASH and fibrosis within few weeks. With the progress of NASH-associated liver fibrosis, altered bile acid composition was observed in the liver, bile, and peripheral plasma. Decreased mRNA levels of bile acid metabolizing enzymes such as Cyp7a1 and Baat were observed in contrast to increased Sult2a1 level in the liver. Increased mRNA levels of Ostß and Abcc4 and decreased in mRNA levels of Bsep, Abcc2, Ntcp, and Oatp1b2, suggesting that bile acids efflux from hepatocytes into the peripheral plasma rather than into bile. In conclusion, the changes in bile acid metabolizing enzymes and transporters expression, resulting in increasing the total bile acid concentration in the plasma, signify a protection mechanism by the hepatocyte to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH but may promote liver fibrosis.

12.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(6): 911-915, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155535

RESUMO

Oral molecular-targeted agents are used clinically for the treatment of various types of cancer. However, even when treatment is started at the dosage indicated in the medical package insert, we have experienced many cases in which treatment had to be stopped early owing to the occurrence of serious side effects or an insufficient therapeutic effect. In recent years, a wide range of studies has been conducted on the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of oral molecular-targeted therapeutic agents to prevent serious side effects and maximize the therapeutic effect. In Japan, the TDM of imatinib has been covered by insurance since 2012, and the TDM of sunitinib has been covered since 2018. In contrast, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may have severe side effects, but their TDM is not covered by medical insurance. We aimed to identify a safe, highly effective chemotherapy regimen based on scientific evidence gathered from Japanese patients. We examined the relationship between the plasma concentration of drugs and clinical findings, such as side effects and treatment effects, at our hospital. In this symposium review, we introduce our results based on the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Medicina de Precisão , Administração Oral , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacocinética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/farmacocinética
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071967

RESUMO

By using the Warburg effect-a phenomenon where tumors consume higher glucose levels than normal cells-on cancer cells to enhance the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT), we developed a new photosensitizer, glucose-conjugated chlorin e6 (G-Ce6). We analyzed the efficacy of PDT with G-Ce6 against canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of G-Ce6 at 2, 5, and 20 mg/kg was examined in normal dogs, whereas its intracellular localization, concentration, and photodynamic effects were investigated in vitro using CMC cells (SNP cells). G-Ce6 (10 mg/kg) was administered in vivo at 5 min or 3 h before laser irradiation to SNP tumor-bearing murine models. The in vitro study revealed that G-Ce6 was mainly localized to the lysosomes. Cell viability decreased in a G-Ce6 concentration- and light intensity-dependent manner in the PDT group. Cell death induced by PDT with G-Ce6 was not inhibited by an apoptosis inhibitor. In the in vivo study, 5-min-interval PDT exhibited greater effects than 3-h-interval PDT. The mean maximum blood concentration and half-life of G-Ce6 (2 mg/kg) were 15.19 ± 4.44 µg/mL and 3.02 ± 0.58 h, respectively. Thus, 5-min-interval PDT with G-Ce6 was considered effective against CMC.

14.
Ther Drug Monit ; 41(5): 615-619, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sirolimus and tacrolimus require accurate drug dosing based on their target blood levels to produce better clinical outcomes, specifically, the avoidance of drug-induced adverse effects and the maintenance of efficacy. However, because the ideal dose of sirolimus and the schedule for measuring its blood levels are unclear in lung transplant patients, an index is required for estimating sirolimus blood concentrations. The aim of this work is to study the correlation between the trough concentration/dose normalized by body weight (C0/D) ratios of sirolimus and tacrolimus in lung transplant patients. METHODS: Thirteen lymphangiomyomatosis patients who underwent lung transplantation and were treated with sirolimus and tacrolimus from February 2015 to July 2018 were divided into 2 groups, one receiving twice-daily (TD, n = 6) and the other once-daily (OD, n = 7) tacrolimus formulations. The correlation between the C0/D ratio of sirolimus and patient background was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Correlations between sirolimus and tacrolimus C0/D ratios or doses were analyzed by single regression analysis. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between the C0/D ratios of sirolimus and tacrolimus. The regression equations from the initial data of TD and OD groups at steady state were y = 1.880x + 32.636 (adjusted R = 0.743, P = 0.017) and y = 1.684x + 38.816 (adjusted R = 0.919, P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, the regression equations from all data of TD and OD groups were y = 1.883x + 4.170 (adjusted R = 0.546, P < 0.001) and y = 1.950x + 43.188 (adjusted R = 0.898, P < 0.001), respectively. A significant correlation between the dosage of sirolimus and tacrolimus was observed only in the OD group, with relatively low accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Blood sirolimus concentrations can be estimated using the C0/D ratio of tacrolimus, suggesting that the C0/D ratio of tacrolimus is an index of required sirolimus dosage and the frequency of blood sirolimus concentration measurements.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1835, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015435

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of renal failure that urgently necessitates a breakthrough in disease management. Here we show using untargeted metabolomics that levels of phenyl sulfate, a gut microbiota-derived metabolite, increase with the progression of diabetes in rats overexpressing human uremic toxin transporter SLCO4C1 in the kidney, and are decreased in rats with limited proteinuria. In experimental models of diabetes, phenyl sulfate administration induces albuminuria and podocyte damage. In a diabetic patient cohort, phenyl sulfate levels significantly correlate with basal and predicted 2-year progression of albuminuria in patients with microalbuminuria. Inhibition of tyrosine phenol-lyase, a bacterial enzyme responsible for the synthesis of phenol from dietary tyrosine before it is metabolized into phenyl sulfate in the liver, reduces albuminuria in diabetic mice. Together, our results suggest that phenyl sulfate contributes to albuminuria and could be used as a disease marker and future therapeutic target in diabetic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminúria/sangue , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminúria/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/sangue , Tirosina Fenol-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Fenol-Liase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3297-3310, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896946

RESUMO

The nonapeptide hormone oxytocin (OT) has pivotal brain roles in social recognition and interaction and is thus a promising therapeutic drug for social deficits. Because of its peptide structure, however, OT is rapidly eliminated from the bloodstream, which decreases its potential therapeutic effects in the brain. We found that newly synthesized OT analogues in which the Pro7 of OT was replaced with N-( p-fluorobenzyl)glycine (2) or N-(3-hydroxypropyl)glycine (5) exhibited highly potent binding affinities for OT receptors and Ca2+ mobilization effects by selectively activating OT receptors over vasopressin receptors in HEK cells, where 2 was identified as a superagonist ( EMax = 131%) for OT receptors. Furthermore, the two OT analogues had a remarkably long-acting effect, up to 16-24 h, on recovery from impaired social behaviors in two strains of CD38 knockout mice that exhibit autism spectrum disorder-like social behavioral deficits, whereas the effect of OT itself rapidly diminished.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906563

RESUMO

Background: Everolimus is an oral inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, approved for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Recently, personalized medicine through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended in cancer therapy. In this study, the relationship between everolimus blood concentration and clinical outcomes on a long-term were evaluated in Japanese patients with mRCC. Methods: Patients with mRCC were enrolled following treatment with everolimus at Tohoku University Hospital between April 2012 and December 2016. The relationship between everolimus trough blood concentration on day 8 of everolimus therapy and just before discontinuation or dose reduction, and their adverse events were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups based on the median of everolimus blood concentration on day 8 of treatment, and the profiles of adverse events, and efficacy [time to treatment failure (TTF) and progression-free survival (PFS)] were evaluated. Results: The median (range) everolimus blood concentrations on day 8 after starting everolimus administration and just before discontinuation or dose reduction were 15.3 (8.1-28.0) ng/mL and 14.8 (6.4-58.4) ng/mL, respectively, with no significant difference between these values (P = 0.3594). Patients (n = 6) with discontinuation or dose reduction following adverse events in everolimus therapy had significantly higher blood concentrations than patients (n = 4) with dose maintenance on both day 8 (median, 18.0 vs 8.2 ng/mL; P = 0.0139) and just before discontinuation or dose reduction (median, 22.9 vs 9.7 ng/mL; P = 0.0142). Median TTF and PFS of the total patients (n = 10) were 96 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 26-288) and 235 days (95% CI, 28-291), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that TTF of the patients with > 15.3 ng/mL (n = 5) was not significantly different from that of the patients with ≤15.3 ng/mL (n = 5; P = 0.5622). Similarly, PFS of the patients with > 15.3 ng/mL was not significantly different from that of the patients with ≤15.3 ng/mL (P = 0.3436). Conclusions: This study demonstrated the long-term relationship between everolimus blood level and clinical outcomes and adverse events in Japanese patients with mRCC. Thus, TDM in everolimus therapy could be a useful tool for the early prediction of adverse events for Japanese patients with mRCC.

18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1861(5): 1023-1029, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853579

RESUMO

Bile acids are biosynthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and usually localize in the enterohepatic circulation system. This system is regulated by several transporters that are expressed in the liver and intestine. Organic solute transporter (OST) α/ß, which is known as a bidirectional transporter for some organic anions, contributes to the transport of bile acids; however, the transport properties of individual bile acids are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the transport properties of five bile acids (cholic acid [CA], chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA], deoxycholic acid [DCA], ursodeoxycholic acid [UDCA], and lithocholic acid [LCA]) together with their glycine and taurine conjugates mediated by OSTα/ß. Of the unconjugated bile acids, CA, CDCA, DCA, and LCA were taken up by OSTαß/MDCKII cells more rapidly than mock cells, but no significant increase in the uptake of UDCA was observed. On the contrary, all glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids showed a significant increase in the uptake by OSTαß/MDCKII cells. Saturable OSTα/ß-mediated transports of CDCA, DCA, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) were observed. The apparent Michaelis constants of CDCA, DCA, GCDCA, GDCA, GLCA, TCDCA, and TLCA for OSTα/ß were 23.0 ±â€¯4.0, 14.9 ±â€¯1.9, 864.2 ±â€¯80.7, 586.4 ±â€¯43.2, 12.8 ±â€¯0.5, 723.7 ±â€¯4.8, and 23.9 ±â€¯0.3 µM, respectively. However, the transport of other bile acids was not saturable. Our results indicate that OSTα/ß has a low affinity but a high capacity for transporting bile acids.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Humanos , Cinética , Solubilidade
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 494: 58-63, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder with progressive neuronal degeneration. Because conventional diagnostic methods are complicated and invasive, biomarker tests have drawn attention. We aimed to evaluate three urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers for NPC. METHODS: Urine samples from 23 patients with NPC, 28 healthy controls, and 7 patients with inherited metabolic disorders were analyzed. 3ß-Sulfooxy-7ß-N-acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholen-24-oic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates in urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The diagnostic performance of the three metabolites and their total concentration was evaluated. RESULT: Creatinine-corrected concentrations of three metabolites and their total concentration were all significantly higher in NPC patients (0.0098 < P < .0448). The area under the receiver operating curve for all metabolites exceeded 0.95, the clinical specificity was 92-100%, and the clinical sensitivity was ~95%. In the urine of patients with other inherited metabolic diseases, the concentrations of the metabolites were lower than those in the urine of patients with NPC. CONCLUSION: These conjugated cholesterol metabolites in urine can serve as useful diagnostic markers for noninvasive screening of NPC.


Assuntos
Ésteres do Colesterol/urina , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/diagnóstico , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ésteres do Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 484-493, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628065

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant tumor that currently lacks clinically useful biomarkers indicative of early diagnosis or disease status. RCC has commonly been diagnosed based on imaging results. Metabolomics offers a potential technology for discovering biomarkers and therapeutic targets by comprehensive screening of metabolites from patients with various cancers. We aimed to identify metabolites associated with early diagnosis and clinicopathological factors in RCC using global metabolomics (G-Met). Tumor and nontumor tissues were sampled from 20 cases of surgically resected clear cell RCC. G-Met was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and important metabolites specific to RCC were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis for cancer diagnostic ability based on area under the curve (AUC) and clinicopathological factors (tumor volume, pathological T stage, Fuhrman grade, presence of coagulation necrosis and distant metastasis). We identified 58 metabolites showing significantly increased levels in tumor tissues, 34 of which showed potential early diagnostic ability (AUC >0.8), but 24 did not discriminate between tumor and nontumor tissues (AUC ≤0.8). We recognized 6 pathways from 9 metabolites with AUC >0.8 and 7 pathways from 10 metabolites with AUC ≤0.8 about malignant status. Clinicopathological factors involving malignant status correlated significantly with metabolites showing AUC ≤0.8 (p = 0.0279). The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, TCA cycle intermediates, nucleotide sugar pathway and inositol pathway were characteristic pathways for the malignant status of RCC. In conclusion, our study found that metabolites and their pathways allowed discrimination between early diagnosis and malignant status in RCC according to our G-Met protocol.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Metabolômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nefrectomia , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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