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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the poor prognosis and increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer highlight the need for prevention strategies, few lifestyle risk factors for pancreatic cancer have yet been identified. Soybeans contain various bioactive compounds. However, the association between soy food intake and pancreatic cancer risk remains unknown. METHODS: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) is a cohort study conducted in a general Japanese population. To determine the association of soy food intake and pancreatic cancer incidence, we analyzed 90,185 participants who responded to a questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, including dietary factors based on a food-frequency questionnaire in 1995-1998, using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 577 cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. In the multivariate-adjusted model, total soy food intake was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for the highest versus lowest intake quartile: 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.92; P-trend = 0.007). Among soy foods, non-fermented soy food intake showed a statistically significant positive association with pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09-1.81; P-trend = 0.008), whereas fermented soy food intake showed no association (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.73-1.26; P-trend = 0.982). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of soy foods, particularly non-fermented soy foods, might increase pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: This study is the first to report an association between the intake of various soy foods and pancreatic cancer risk. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.

3.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009104

RESUMO

BackgroundShort and long sleep durations are associated with mortality outcomes. The association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes may differ according to sex and age.MethodsParticipants of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC Study) were aged 40-69 years and had completed a detailed questionnaire on lifestyle factors. Sex- and age-stratified analyses on the association between habitual sleep duration and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer and other causes included 46,152 men and 53,708 women without a history of CVD or cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to determine hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.ResultsMean follow-up time was 19.9 years for men and 21.0 years for women. In the multivariable sex-stratified models, and compared with 7 hours, some categories of sleep durations ≥ 8 hours were positively associated with mortality from all-causes, CVD, and other causes in men and women.The sex- and age-stratified analyses did not reveal any major differences in the association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes in groups younger and older than 50 years of age. The only exception was the significant interaction between sleep duration and age in women for mortality from other causes.ConclusionsSleep durations ≥8 hours are associated with mortality outcomes in men and women. Age may be an effect modifier for the association between sleep duration and mortality from other causes in women.

4.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 17, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to concerns of carcinogenicity, it is necessary to assess long-term acrylamide exposure in individuals. Whether the available methods of estimating acrylamide intake can indicate long-term exposure remains unknown. We examined variations in the estimated dietary acrylamide intake of the Japanese population. METHODS: The study included 240 participants aged 40-74 years who were a part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT). Twelve-day dietary records (DRs) were collected over a one-year period, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were collected twice during the year. Dietary acrylamide intake was estimated from an acrylamide content database. Within-individual variations and between-individual variations were calculated using the random effects model. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify foods with large between-individual variations. RESULTS: The ratios of within-individual variance to between-individual variation were 3.2 for men and 4.3 for women. Days of DRs required to estimate the usual individual intake within 20% of the true mean intake with 95% confidence were 60 days for men and 66 days for women. Coffee/cocoa, potato, and green tea contributed to between-individual variations, in that order, and seven foods contributed to 93% of the between-individual variation. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the acrylamide intake using DRs requires an extended data collection period to estimate the intragroup ranking and habitual intake of individuals. Long-term exposure assessments should be based on methods with less potential for measurement errors, such as the use of biomarkers.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053666

RESUMO

Although their functional outcomes remain largely unknown, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) may interact with adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, to modify the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 375 colorectal cancer cases and 750 matched controls to examine the effects of SNPs in the FTO, either alone or in interaction with pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels. Using a conditional logistic regression model, we obtained odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer. Seven SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated a similarly positive association with colorectal cancer, and most evidently for rs1558902, rs8050136, rs3751812, and rs9939609 (Ptrend = 0.02). Of interest, we observed a statistically significant interaction of rs8050136 with plasma total adiponectin levels (Pinteraction = 0.03). Compared to non-carriers in the lowest quintile of plasma total adiponectin, A allele carriers in the same quintile showed a considerably elevated risk of colorectal cancer, with a body mass index-adjusted OR of 2.54 (95% CI, 1.36-4.75). This investigation of the interaction between SNPs in the FTO and pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels has revealed the importance of both genetic and hormonal factors associated with adiposity in colorectal carcinogenesis.

6.
Prev Med ; 133: 106026, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057954

RESUMO

Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for cancer. The degree of risk is increased in subjects showing the flushing response, which is due to aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism. The attributable risk of alcohol drinking for cancer in Japan has not been sufficiently investigated with consideration of flushing response. We followed 78,825 Japanese in JPHC study cohort II. The association between alcohol consumption and cancer incidence was assessed according to self-reported flushing response using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer incidence was also estimated. During 1993-2013 (average follow-up, 16.8 years), 8486 incident cancers (included 4386 alcohol-related cancers) were reported. Half of men and 36% of women had flushing response. In men with flushing response, moderate or higher alcohol drinking increased the risk of alcohol-related cancers compared with non-drinkers (150-299 g/week, HR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.43-1.99; 300-449 g/week, HR 2.02 95% CI, 1.67-2.44; ≥450 g/week, HR 1.75, 95% CI, 1.39-2.21). When flushing response was considered in comparisons between non-drinkers and non-flushers, non-flushing heavy drinkers had a slightly higher PAF than flushers (all cancers: flushers, 2.0% and non-flushers, 2.2%; alcohol-related cancers: flushers, 3.8% and non-flushers, 5.8%). Although the risk of alcohol-related cancer in men with flushing response increased with increasing alcohol consumption, heavy drinkers were also at high risk regardless of flushing response. Considering the PAF of alcohol consumption on cancer, efforts to discourage heavy alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of alcohol-related cancers appear warranted regardless of flushing response.

7.
BMJ ; 368: m34, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between several types of soy products and all cause and cause specific mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study, which includes 11 public health centre areas in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 92 915 participants (42 750 men and 50 165 women) aged 45 to 74 years. EXPOSURES: Intake of total soy products, fermented soy products (natto and miso), non-fermented soy products, and tofu from a five year survey questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality (cancer, total cardiovascular disease, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and injury) obtained from residential registries and death certificates. RESULTS: During 14.8 years of follow-up, 13 303 deaths were identified. In the multivariable adjusted models, intake of total soy products was not significantly associated with total mortality. Compared with the lowest fifth of total soy product intake, the hazard ratios in the highest fifth were 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.06, Ptrend=0.43) in men and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08, Ptrend=0.46) in women. Intake of fermented soy products was inversely associated with all cause mortality in both sexes (highest versus lowest fifth: 0.90 (0.83 to 0.97), Ptrend=0.05 in men, and 0.89 (0.80 to 0.98), Ptrend=0.01 in women). Natto showed significant and inverse associations with total cardiovascular disease related mortality in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study a higher intake of fermented soy was associated with a lower risk of mortality. A significant association between intake of total soy products and all cause mortality was not, however, observed. The findings should be interpreted with caution because the significant association of fermented soy products might be attenuated by unadjusted residual confounding.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Mortalidade , Alimentos de Soja/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/mortalidade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1197, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988393

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common gynaecologic benign tumours, but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. Six previous GWAS identified 33 genetic factors in total. Here, we performed a two-staged GWAS using 13,746 cases and 70,316 controls from the Japanese population, followed by a replication analysis using 3,483 cases and 4,795 controls. The analysis identified 9 significant loci, including a novel locus on 12q23.2 (rs17033114, P = 6.12 × 10-25 with an OR of 1.177 (1.141-1.213), LINC00485). Subgroup analysis indicated that 5 loci (3q26.2, 5p15.33, 10q24.33, 11p15.5, 13q14.11) exhibited a statistically significant effect among multiple leiomyomas, and 2 loci (3q26.2, 10q24.33) exhibited a significant effect among submucous leiomyomas. Pleiotropic analysis indicated that all 9 loci were associated with at least one proliferative disease, suggesting the role of these loci in the common neoplastic pathway. Furthermore, the risk T allele of rs2251795 (3q26.2) was associated with longer telomere length in both normal and tumour tissues. Our findings elucidated the significance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An inverse association has been shown between dietary fiber intake and several noncommunicable diseases. However, evidence of this effect remains unclear in the Asian population. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, as well as the association between fiber intake from dietary sources and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale population-based cohort study (Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study). A validated questionnaire with 138 food items was completed by 92,924 participants (42,754 men and 50,170 women) aged 45-74 y. Dietary fiber intake was calculated and divided into quintiles. HR and 95% CI of total and cause-specific mortality were reported. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 16.8 y, 19,400 deaths were identified. In multivariable adjusted models, total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intakes were inversely associated with all-cause mortality. The HRs of total mortality in the highest quintile of total fiber intake compared with the lowest quintile were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.82; Ptrend <0.0001) in men and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.89; Ptrend <0.0001) in women. Increased quintiles of dietary fiber intake were significantly associated with decreased mortality due to total cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and injury in both men and women, whereas dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with cancer mortality in men but not women. Fiber from fruits, beans, and vegetables, but not from cereals, was inversely associated with total mortality. CONCLUSION: In this large-scale prospective study with a long follow-up period, dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Since intakes of dietary fiber, mainly from fruits, vegetables, and beans were associated with lower all-cause mortality, these food sources may be good options for people aiming to consume more fiber.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 111(3): 974-984, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925977

RESUMO

Although occupational sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality, the association with cancer incidence remains unknown. This study investigated the association between occupational sitting time and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a Japanese population. We evaluated 33 307 participants aged 50-79 years who responded to a questionnaire in 2000-2003 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and were followed until 2013. Participants were grouped by sitting time at work. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer incidence were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. During 10.2 years of follow-up, 3807 newly diagnosed cases of cancer were identified. Occupational sitting time was marginally associated with total cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26; P for trend = .071) in men, but not women. Among findings for cancers at specific sites, long occupational sitting time was associated with increased risk of pancreas cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.17-4.34; P for trend = .021) in men, and lung cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.80 (95% CI, 1.33-5.90; P for trend = .013) in women. Extended sitting time at work was associated with an increased risk of pancreas cancer in men and lung cancer in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Postura Sentada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of meat and fish consumption on cancer risk has been well studied in humans. However, studies related to biliary tract cancer (BTC) are scarce. METHODS: We examined the association between meat and fish consumption and the risk of BTC in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During 1995 and 1999, 43,177 men and 49,323 women ages 45 to 74 years were enrolled and followed up for 607,757.0 person-years (men) and 728,820.3 person-years (women) until 2012, during which time 217 male and 162 female BTC cases were identified. Higher total meat consumption was significantly associated with a decreased BTC risk in men (HR for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; P trend = 0.011) but not in women. Similar association was observed with red meat, but no association was observed with poultry. Fish was not associated with BTC risk. We further analyzed each BTC subtype to confirm the observed association with BTC. However, significant association with each BTC subtype was not observed, although a trend of decreased extrahepatic bile duct cancer risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: BTC risk was lower among men who consumed more meat, particularly red meat, in Japan. IMPACT: This is the first prospective study that evaluated the relationship between meat and BTC. This may provide important suggestions to elucidate the etiology of BTC.

12.
Ocul Surf ; 18(1): 56-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of life-style modalities, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and visual display terminal (VDT) use, on the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: The study included a total of 102,582 participants aged 40-74 years, from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, a large nationwide prospective ongoing Japanese cohort study. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of total and leisure-time physical activity, duration of sedentary behaviors, and VDT use (hours/day) with DED. RESULTS: Among 47,346 men and 55,236 women, 25,234 (8315 males and 16,919 females) cases of DED were documented. Total physical activity was significantly related to decreased DED in both sexes; for the highest vs. lowest total physical activity quartiles, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for DED were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.97; Ptrend<0.03) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95; Ptrend<0.001) for men and women, respectively. Conversely, prolonged sedentary behaviors and VDT use had significantly higher prevalence of DED in both sexes (Ptrend<0.001). Notably, the favorable effect of total physical activity on decreased DED in women was more prevalent with prolonged VDT use (≥2 h/day) (Pinteraction<0.01). In men, the duration of VDT use or sitting was a significant modifier of the inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and DED (Pinteraction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Physical inactivity, prolonged sedentary behaviors, and use of VDT were related to increased susceptibility to DED among middle-aged to older Japanese adults.

13.
Cancer Sci ; 111(2): 334-342, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774932

RESUMO

Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cancer antigen expressed in approximately 80% of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and is secreted into the blood. To confirm the effectiveness of GPC3 as a biomarker in HCC, we analyzed the relationship between GPC3 expression levels in cancer cells and in blood in 56 patients with HCC. Preoperative plasma GPC3 levels were determined with an immunoassay, and expression of GPC3 in resected tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Median plasma GPC3 level in all HCC cases was 4.6 pg/mL, and tended to be higher in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC (HCV group) (9.9 pg/mL) than in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC (HBV group) (2.6 pg/mL) or in those without virus infection (None group) (3.0 pg/mL), suggesting that the virus type most likely influences GPC3 secretion. Median percentage of GPC3+ cells in tumors was also higher in the HCV (26.2%) and HBV (11.1%) groups than in the None group (4.2%). In the HCV group, there was a positive correlation between the two parameters (r = 0.66, P < .01). Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis predicted >10% GPC3+ cells in a tumor if the cut-off value was 6.8 pg/mL (sensitivity 80%, specificity 100%; area under the curve 0.875, 95% confidence interval 0.726-1) in the HCV group. Plasma concentration of GPC3 could be a predictive marker of tumoral GPC3 expression in patients with HCV-related HCC, suggesting a useful biomarker for immunotherapies targeting GPC3, although larger-scale validations are needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Glipicanas/metabolismo , Hepatite C/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glipicanas/sangue , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 420-426, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serologic testing of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody, together with testing of pepsinogen I and II, is now widely used to stratify groups at high risk of gastric cancer in Japan. Those with a negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer, especially "high-negative" (3-<10 U/mL), are speculated to have higher risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to evaluate the association between a high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer and the long-term risk of gastric cancer in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) Cohort II. METHODS: The study population consisted of 19,106 Japanese men and women who were followed from 1993 to 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of gastric cancer for plasma anti-H. pylori IgG titers, together with the severity of atrophic gastritis by pepsinogen I and II levels. A total of 595 cases of gastric cancer occurred during an average of 18 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with those with a low-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer (≤3 U/mL), subjects with a high-negative titer (3-<10 U/mL) showed a significantly elevated risk of gastric cancer [HR = 2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-4.89]. Among those with a high-negative titer, risk increase was observed under moderate or severe atrophic gastritis (HR = 18.73; 95% CI = 8.83-39.70). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that those with a high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer and moderate and severe atrophic gastritis are at increased long-term risk of gastric cancer. IMPACT: Development of moderate or severe atrophic gastritis in subjects with high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer is suggested to increase risk of gastric cancer.

15.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(1): 54-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating a variety of foods has been recommended in the dietary guidelines of many developed nations, as well as global dietary guidelines. We investigated the potential effect of dietary diversity on the risk of total mortality and major causes of mortality in a large-scale cohort study involving the Japanese population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From 1995 to 2012, 79,904 participants (37,240 men and 42,664 women) aged 45 to 74 years, without histories of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or cancer were followed-up for a median of 14.9 years. We used 133 food and beverage items listed on a 5-year follow-up food frequency questionnaire, and the daily frequency of consumption for each item (excluding five alcoholic beverages) was counted. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare the highest and lowest quintiles. RESULTS: An inverse association was identified between total dietary diversity and mortality rates in women (highest quintile HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92; p for trend = 0.002) but the same trend was not observed in men (highest quintile HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.10; p for trend = 0.266). In addition, fruit diversity was associated with lower mortality rates in men (highest quintile HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95; p for trend = 0.006), whereas soy diversity was associated with lower mortality rates in women (highest quintile HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.00; p for trend = 0.004). With regard to men, meat and fish diversity were associated with higher mortality rates (highest quintiles of meat and fish diversity HR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.25] and 1.12 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.22], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that consuming a greater diversity of total foods and increasing the diversity of fruit and soy consumed have considerable public health implications.

16.
J Epidemiol ; 30(1): 46-54, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle and life-environment factors have undergone drastic changes in Japan over the last few decades. Further, many molecular epidemiologic studies have reported that genetic, epigenetic, and other biomarker information may be useful in predicting individual disease risk. METHODS: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) was launched in 2011 to identify risk factors for lifestyle-related disease, elucidate factors that extend healthy life expectancy, and contribute toward personalized healthcare based on our more than 20 years' experience with the JPHC Study. From 2011 through 2016, a baseline survey was conducted at 16 municipalities in seven prefectures across the country. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all registered residents aged 40-74, which mainly asked about lifestyle factors, such as socio-demographic situation, personal medical history, smoking, alcohol and dietary habits. We obtained informed consent from each participant to participate in this long follow-up study of at least 20 years, including consent to the potential use of their residence registry, medical records, medical fee receipts, care insurance etc., and to the provision of biospecimens (blood and urine), including genomic analysis. RESULTS: As of December 31, 2016, we have established a population-based cohort of 115,385 persons (Response rate 44.1%), among whom 55,278 (47.9% of participants) have provided blood and urine samples. The participation rate was slightly higher among females and in the older age group. CONCLUSION: We have established a large-scale population-based cohort for next-generation epidemiological study in Japan.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 712-719, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927373

RESUMO

Earlier cohort studies using conventional regression models have consistently shown an increased cancer risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, reverse causality and residual confounding due to common risk factors could exist, and it remains unclear whether diabetes per se contributes to cancer development. Mendelian randomization analyses might clarify the true association between diabetes and cancer risk. We conducted a case-cohort study with 10,536 subcohort subjects and 3,541 newly diagnosed cancer cases derived from 32,949 eligible participants aged 40-69 years within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. With 29 known type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, we used an inverse variance-weighted method to estimate hazard ratios for the associations of diabetes with risks of total and site-specific cancers. The hazard ratios of cancer per doubling of the probability of diabetes were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.15) overall, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.73-1.59) for the pancreas, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.57-1.14) for the liver and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.74-1.10) for the colorectum. Additional analyses, using publicly available large-scale genome-wide association study data on colorectal cancer in Japan, resulted in a narrower CI (hazard ratio: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93-1.07). In this prospective Mendelian randomization study with a large number of incident cancer cases, we found no strong evidence to support associations between diabetes and overall and site-specific cancer risks. Our findings suggest that there is little evidence to support the genetic role of type 2 diabetes in cancer development in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(1): 7-14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913095

RESUMO

Intake of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and other mutagenic compounds formed during cooking has been hypothesized to be responsible for the positive association observed between red meat and colorectal cancer. We evaluated whether well-done/very well-done preferences for various meat and fish items, higher intakes of meat and fish, and meat-derived and fish-derived HCA are associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA) in a Japanese-Brazilian population. We selected 302 patients with adenoma and 403 control individuals who underwent total colonoscopy between 2007 and 2013, and collected information on aspects of meat intake using a detailed questionnaire. We also estimated HCA intake of the study participants using an HCA database that matched the cooking methods of this population. Latent class analysis on the basis of response to doneness preferences for different cooking methods of commonly consumed meat and fish items identified four distinct subgroups. Compared with the subgroup characterized by a preference for rare/medium well-done cooking for most meat and fish items, the odds ratio of CRA for the well-done/very well-done preference subgroup was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 0.51-2.75). High intake of mixed-meat dishes was suggestively associated inversely with CRA, whereas a high intake of poultry was associated positively with CRA. No clear association with intake of total or specific HCAs and no effect modification by N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylation genotype were observed. We found no statistically significant associations between meat and HCA intake and CRA. These findings do not support a positive association between meat and meat-derived HCA intake and the risk of CRA.

19.
Nutrition ; 69: 110569, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Persistent low-grade inflammation is related to the development of many chronic diseases. The dietary inflammatory index (DII®) is designed to assess the potential effects of diet on an individual's inflammation status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of the DII using inflammation biomarkers in Japanese adults. METHODS: Overall, 565 participants from the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) validation study of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Cohort were included in the present study. This cohort consisted of two independently recruited and examined, cohorts I and II. Dietary records (DR) were collected for 28 d and two FFQs were administered. Blood samples also were obtained for the analysis of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations. DII scores were calculated from DR and FFQ using energy-adjusted dietary intakes by the density method. Higher DII scores indicate a greater proinflammatory potential of the diet. The associations between DII and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed using regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, and amount of physical activity. RESULTS: The associations between DR- and FFQ-derived DII scores were moderate. Higher DR-derived DII scores, representing a more proinflammatory diet, were significantly correlated with IL-6, but not hs-CRP, concentrations in men. The geometric means of IL-6 concentrations in the lowest and highest DII quartiles were 1.05 and 1.33 pg/mL (P = 0.02 for trend) in cohort I, and 1.00 and 1.24 pg/mL (P = 0.03 for trend) in cohort II, respectively. Furthermore, IL-6 concentration appeared to increase across DII quartiles calculated from FFQ in men. However, there was no association between DII and inflammatory biomarkers in women. CONCLUSIONS: Null findings in women may reflect the generally lower levels of chronic systemic inflammation among Japanese versus their Western counterparts. These findings indicate that DII may be applied to measure the potential effects of diet on chronic diseases through inflammatory pathways in Japanese men.

20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(11): 1509-1518, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682257

RESUMO

Importance: Epidemiological evidence regarding the long-term effects of higher dietary protein intake on mortality outcomes in the general population is not clear. Objective: To evaluate the associations between animal and plant protein intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 70 696 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort who were aged 45 to 74 years and had no history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at study baseline. Data were collected from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 1999, with follow-up completed December 31, 2016, during which 12 381 total deaths were documented. Dietary intake information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire and used to estimate protein intake in all participants. Participants were grouped into quintile categories based on their protein intake, expressed as a percentage of total energy. Data were analyzed from July 18, 2017, through April 10, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results: Among the 70 696 participants, 32 201 (45.5%) were men (mean [SD] age, 55.6 [7.6] years) and 38 495 (54.5%) were women (mean [SD] age, 55.8 [7.7] years). Intake of animal protein showed no clear association with total or cause-specific mortality. In contrast, intake of plant protein was associated with lower total mortality, with multivariable-adjusted HRs of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83-0.95) for quintile 2; 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95) for quintile 3; 0.84 (95% CI, 0.77-0.92) for quintile 4; and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.96) for quintile 5, with quintile 1 as the reference category (P = .01 for trend). For cause-specific mortality, this association with plant protein intake was evident for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality (HRs, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.96] to 0.70 [95% CI, 0.59-0.83]; P = .002 for trend). Isocaloric substitution of 3% energy from plant protein for red meat protein was associated with lower total (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.80), cancer-related (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.82), and CVD-related (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86) mortality; substitution for processed meat protein was associated with lower total (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.38-0.75) and cancer-related (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.85) mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large prospective study, higher plant protein intake was associated with lower total and CVD-related mortality. Although animal protein intake was not associated with mortality outcomes, replacement of red meat protein or processed meat protein with plant protein was associated with lower total, cancer-related, and CVD-related mortality.

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