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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between reproductive factors and lung cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, which included 400 incident lung cancer cases among 42,615 never-smoking women followed for a median of 21 years, to examine the associations of reproductive and hormonal factors with lung cancer by histological type using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Longer fertility span ({greater than or equal to}36 years vs. {less than or equal to} 32 years) was associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (HR 1.48; 95% CI 1.07-2.06, P trend = 0.01) but not with all lung cancer or non-adenocarcinoma. Similarly, late age at menopause ({greater than or equal to} 50 years) was associated with increased adenocarcinoma risk (vs. {less than or equal to} 47 years, HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.01-1.96, P trend 0.04). Compared with premenopausal women, women with natural menopause (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.02-3.88) or surgical menopause (HR 2.75; 95% CI 1.33-5.67) were at increased risk of adenocarcinoma. In contrast, breastfeeding was associated with reduced risk of non-adenocarcinoma (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92). No significant association with parity, age at first birth, exogenous hormone use or length of menstrual cycle was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive factors may play a role in lung carcinogenesis. Future studies that include estrogen and progesterone biomarkers may help clarify the role of endogenous hormones in lung carcinogenesis. IMPACT: Fertility span and age at menopause may be useful variables in developing risk prediction models for lung adenocarcinoma among non-smoking women.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5599, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692383

RESUMO

Little is known about the risk of cerebrovascular disease in cancer survivors. We aimed to assess the association between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of stroke using a large-scale, population-based prospective study. 74,530 Japanese aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline study were matched by the status of cancer diagnosis during follow-up using propensity score nearest-neighbor matching with allowance for replacement. A total of 2242 strokes were reported during 557,885 person-years of follow-up. Associations between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on the propensity score-matched pairs. No significant association was observed between the status of cancer diagnosis of all types, gastric, colorectal and lung cancer, and subsequent occurrence of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage. However, analysis by discrete time periods suggested an elevated risk in cancer patients for one to three months after a cancer diagnosis in all stroke (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06, 4.74) and cerebral infarction (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.05, 6.53). This prospective cohort study found no association between the status of cancer diagnosis and the subsequent occurrence of all strokes and its subtypes during the entire follow-up period but suggested an increase in stroke risk during the active phase of malignancy.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4003, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597590

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on depression are not definitively known. In a previous population-based prospective cohort study, we found a reverse J-shaped association of intake of fish and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the intermediate metabolite of EPA and DHA, with major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine the association further in a cross-sectional manner, in the present study we analyzed the level of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs and the risk of MDD in 1,213 participants aged 64-86 years (mean 72.9 years) who completed questionnaires and underwent medical check-ups, a mental health examination, and blood collection. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for MDD according to plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA quartiles. MDD was diagnosed in 103 individuals. There were no significant differences in any n-3 PUFAs (i.e., EPA, DHA, or DPA) between individuals with and without MDD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between any individual n-3 PUFAs and MDD risk. Overall, based on the results of this cross-sectional study, there appears to be no association of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs with MDD risk in the elderly Japanese population.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 782-788, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies examining the associations of sugary drink consumption on colorectal cancer risk have been conducted in Western populations. METHODS: This study consisted of 74,070 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study who completed a food frequency questionnaire (1995-1999). The participants were followed until December 2013 to investigate the associations between sugary drink consumption and colorectal cancer risk using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Among the 74,070 participants, mean age was 56.5 years at baseline, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 and a mean daily consumption of 286 mL/day for men and 145 mL/day for women. During a follow-up of 15 years, 1,648 colorectal cancer cases were identified. No overall greater risk of colorectal cancer was observed among men [multivariable HR = 0.84; 95% confidence of interval (CI), 0.70-1.02; ≥254 mL/day vs. nonconsumers] and women (HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.50, ≥134 mL/day vs. nonconsumers). Sugary drink consumption was associated with colon cancer among women (HR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78, ≥134 mL/day vs. nonconsumers). HRs for proximal colon cancer among women who consumed sugary drinks, as compared with nonconsumers, were 1.47 (95% CI, 1.03-2.10) for sugary drink consumption less than 134 mL/day, and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.01-2.09) for at least 134 mL/day. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective cohort of Japanese with a moderate sugary drink consumption level and low prevalence of obesity, we observed a 36% increased risk of colon cancer in women. IMPACT: Our findings highlight the importance of subsite- and sex-specific investigation.

5.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared working cancer survivors' self-rated health status (SRHS), physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and happiness to those of cancer-free workers. METHODS: A nationwide general population-based cross-sectional study on a sample of Japanese was conducted. Prevalence of deteriorated SRHS, restricted physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived happiness were compared between working cancer survivors and cancer-free workers with multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sociodemographic and health-related backgrounds. RESULTS: Of the 28,311 male and 26,068 female workers, 977 (3.5%) and 1267 (4.9%) were cancer survivors, respectively. Working cancer survivors reported deteriorated SRHS more frequently than cancer-free workers: 21.3% vs. 13.8%, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.64 (1.39-1.95) for men, 23.8% vs. 17.5%, 1.34 (1.16-1.54) for women. Restricted physical functional capacity was reported more frequently in working cancer survivors than cancer-free workers: 6.8% vs. 2.6%, 1.76 (1.34-2.32) for men, 4.9% vs. 2.0%, 2.06 (1.56-2.71) for women. No significant difference was found for depressive symptoms: 21.6% vs. 22.9% in men, 30.0% vs. 28.5% in women. Working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free survivors in men (77.3% vs. 71.7%, 1.21 (1.01-1.45)) but not in women (76.1% vs. 74.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Working cancer survivors had worse SRHS and more restricted physical functional capacity than cancer-free workers. In men, working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free workers. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Continuous support to improve cancer survivors' SRHS and physical functional capacity would be necessary even while they are working.

6.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2664-2673, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348433

RESUMO

Evidence of the association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk from prospective studies is limited. We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and GC risk in a large prospective study. A total of 91 946 eligible Japanese aged 45 to 74 years (42 773 men and 49 173 women) participated in a population-based cohort study (Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study). From a validated food frequency questionnaire with 138 food items, total and food source-specific dietary fiber intake was calculated as exposure. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of GC incidence according to quintile of dietary fiber intake were examined after adjusting for confounding factors. In total, 2228 GC cases (1559 men and 669 women) were observed during the 15.0 years follow-up. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk; however, a marginally increased risk trend because of high HR in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was found in women (HR [95% CI] in Q5 vs Q1: 0.95 [0.79-1.14], P for trend .30 in men, HR [95% CI] 1.25 [0.98-1.61], P for trend .05 in women). Stratification by tumor location did not change the results. A marginal but not significant inverse trend was observed regarding cereal fiber intake and GC risk in men. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm this association.

8.
Cancer Med ; 10(2): 757-771, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preclinical studies suggest that fermented soy foods may have a protective effect against breast cancer, no prospective cohort studies have examined this association. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined the association between fermented and nonfermented soy food intake and breast cancer risk using a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. METHODS: We included a total of 47,614 women aged 45-74 years in an analysis of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for the assessment of dietary intake. Breast cancer incidence was analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During an average of 15.5 years of follow-up, 825 breast cancer cases were newly identified. We found no association of intake of soy foods with breast cancer risk, regardless of fermentation, with multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest quartiles of fermented and nonfermented soy food intake of 0.94 (0.67, 1.32) and 1.15 (0.85, 1.57) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend = 0.305 and 0.393). Unlike nonfermented soy, higher intake of fermented soy foods was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of nonlocalized breast cancer. The HR and 95% CI in the highest compared to lowest intake category of fermented soy foods was 0.53 (0.28, 0.99) versus nonfermented soy foods 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) (p for trend = 0.026 and 0.797). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses showed that fermented soy foods had no association with overall breast cancer but may be associated with decreased risk of nonlocalized breast cancer.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the association between meat intake and mortality due to all-cause and major causes of death using a population-based cohort study in Japan. METHODS: 87,507 Japanese aged between 45 and 74 years old at 5-year follow-up study were followed for 14.0 years on average. Associations between meat intake and mortality risk were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A heavy intake of total meat was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality relative to the lowest quartile intake in men (Q4: HR,1.18; 95%CIs, 1.06-1.31). A higher intake of total meat was associated with a lower risk of stroke mortality in women (Q2: HR, 0.70; 95%CIs, 0.51-0.94, Q3: HR, 0.68; 95%CIs, 0.50-0.95, Q4: HR, 0.66; 95%CIs, 0.44-0.99). A heavy intake of red meat was also associated with all-cause mortality (Q4: HR, 1.13; 95%CIs, 1.02-1.26) and heart disease mortality (Q4: HR, 1.51; 95%CIs, 1.11-2.06) in men but not in women. Heavy intake of chicken was inversely associated with cancer mortality in men. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy intakes of total and red meat were associated with an increase in all-cause and heart disease mortality in men, while total meat intake was associated with a lower risk of stroke mortality in women.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Metab Eng ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220420

RESUMO

ß-Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is, one of the nucleotide compounds, a precursor of NAD+ and has recently attracted attention as a nutraceutical. Here, we develop a whole-cell biocatalyst using Escherichia coli, which enabled selective and effective high production of NMN from the inexpensive feedstock substrates glucose and nicotinamide (Nam). Notably, we identify two actively functional transporters (NiaP and PnuC) and a high-activity key enzyme (Nampt), permitting intracellular Nam uptake, efficient conversion of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP; supplied from glucose) and Nam to NMN, and NMN excretion extracellularly. Further, enhancement of the PRPP biosynthetic pathway and optimization of individual gene expression enable drastically higher NMN production than reported thus far. The strain extracellularly produces 6.79 g l-1 of NMN from glucose and Nam, and the reaction selectivity from Nam to NMN is 86%. Our approach will be promising for low-cost, high-quality industrial production of NMN and other nucleotide compounds using microorganisms.

11.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and mortality among Asians, a population that consumes a large amount of carbohydrates. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score (based on percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and the risk of total and cause-specific mortality among Asians. DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study in Japan with follow-up for a median of 16.9 years involving 43008 men and 50646 women aged 45-75 years. Association of LCD score, LCD score based on animal sources of protein and fat, and LCD score based on plant sources of protein and fat with risk of mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A U-shaped association was observed between LCD score and total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of total mortality for lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.95 (0.91, 1.01), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), and 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) (P-non-linearity <0.01). A similar association was found for mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease. LCD score based on carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat also showed a U-shaped association for total mortality (P-non-linearity <0.01). In contrast, LCD score based on carbohydrate, plant protein, and plant fat was linearly associated with lower total (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile), CVD [0.82 (0.73, 0.92)], heart disease [0.83 (0.71, 0.98)], and cerebrovascular disease [0.75 (0.62, 0.91) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Both LCD with high animal protein and fat and high-carbohydrate diet with low animal protein and fat were associated with higher risk of mortality. Meanwhile, LCD high in plant-based sources of protein and fat was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality.

12.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1169-1177, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020668

RESUMO

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many epidemiological studies have reported the preventive effects of soy products and isoflavones on prostate cancer, our previous studies reported that the association between soy and isoflavones and prostate cancer incidence differed according to stage. It is more important to identify modifiable risk factors related to lethal prostate cancer. Here, we investigated the association between soy, soy products and isoflavones intake and prostate cancer mortality, in a prospective study in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study in 43 580 Japanese men with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease (aged 45-74 years). Participants completed a validated questionnaire which included 138 food items. We followed participants from 1995 to 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prostate cancer mortality were calculated according to quintiles of soy products and isoflavones intake, using Cox hazard proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During 16.9 years follow-up, we registered 221 deaths from prostate cancer. Isoflavones and soy products intake was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death, with multivariate HRQ5 vs. Q1=1.39, 95% CI = 0.87-2.20, p for trend = 0.04 for isoflavones and multivariate HRQ5 vs. Q1=1.76, 95% CI = 1.10-2.82, p for trend = 0.04 for soy food. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that high intake of soy and isoflavones might increase the risk of prostate cancer mortality.

14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association of fermented soy products, separately from total soy products, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total cancer has not been reported. We examined this association in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 79,648 participants (42,788 women; 36,860 men) aged 45-74 years without a history of cancer, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (1995-1998) and were followed to 2009-2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incidence of CVD and total cancer according to quartiles of total soy products, nonfermented soy products, fermented soy products, miso soup, natto, total isoflavones from soy products, isoflavones from nonfermented soy products, and isoflavones from fermented soy products. RESULTS: In women, we observed a significant inverse association between fermented soy product intake and the risk of CVD (multivariate HR in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of fermented soy product intake: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.95; P for trend = 0.010), and also found significant inverse associations for natto and isoflavones among fermented soy products. In site-specific analysis, we observed a similar, significant inverse association between fermented soy product intake and the risk of stroke in women. We found no significant association between any soy product and risk of CVD in men or total cancer in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of fermented soy products such as natto was inversely associated with the risk of CVD in women.

15.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863295

RESUMO

AIM: The fact that low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease is well known, but high-density lipoprotein metabolism has not been fully understood. Apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) is the second-most dominant apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein. We tested the hypothesis that ApoA2 isoforms are inversely associated with myocardial infarction. METHODS: We measured the plasma levels of three ApoA2 isoforms (ApoA2-ATQ/ATQ, ApoA2-ATQ/AT, ApoA2-AT/AT) in nested case-control study samples of 1:2 from the Japan Public Health-Center-based Study (JPHC Study): 106 myocardial infarction incidence cases and 212 controls. RESULTS: ApoA2-AT/AT was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, in a matched model (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.26-6.09 for lowest compared with the highest quartile), but its association was attenuated after adjustment for smoking only (OR=2.13; 95% CI, 0.91-4.97) or drinking only (OR=2.07; 0.91-4.74), and the multivariable OR was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.41-3.57). Neither ApoA2-ATQ/ATQ nor ApoA2-ATQ/AT was associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Our nested case-control study did not show a significant association of ApoA2 isoforms with a risk of myocardial infarction.

16.
Ann Epidemiol ; 51: 1-6, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822852

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although height and body mass index (BMI) are reported to be positively associated with several common cancers, evidence regarding their association with brain tumor risk remains sparse, particularly in Asian populations. In this study, we analyzed the association between height and BMI and brain tumor risk in a Japanese population using a large population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 102,925 participants (48,213 men and 54,712 women) enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were followed from baseline, namely 1990 for cohort I and 1993 for cohort II, until 2012. Information on participants' dietary and lifestyle habits, including height and body weight, was collected through survey questionnaires administered at baseline. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for brain tumor incidence, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 157 (70 men and 87 women) cases of brain tumor were newly diagnosed. BMI showed a statistically insignificant positive association with the risk of brain tumor. In addition, statistically significant positive trends were seen for men and meningioma, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for a BMI of 27.5 to less than 40 versus 18.5 to less than 23 kg per m2 of 2.14 (95% CI = 0.99-4.59) (P = 0.03) and 1.98 (95% CI = 0.84-4.67) (P = 0.046), respectively. In contrast, height showed no clear association with brain tumor risk, overall or in subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a BMI of 18 to less than 23.5 kg per m2, a higher BMI was associated with higher risk of brain tumor, particularly in men and with meningioma.

17.
Cancer Sci ; 111(10): 3862-3872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741012

RESUMO

Although intake of highly sugary foods is considered to be a potential risk factor for colorectal cancer through hyperinsulinemia, the association of sugar intake and colorectal adenoma, a precursor lesion to most colorectal cancer, is poorly understood, particularly in Asian populations. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a Japanese population to investigate the association between dietary sugar intake and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma. Study subjects were selected from participants who underwent magnifying colonoscopy with dye spraying as part of a cancer screening program and who responded to a self-administered questionnaire before the colonoscopy. A total of 738 cases with colorectal adenoma and 697 controls were enrolled. Dietary intakes of glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, and total sugars (sum of these six mono- or disaccharides) were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire, and divided into quartiles based on the distribution among controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of colorectal adenoma were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Total sugar intake was not significantly associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (odds ratio for the highest intake group compared to reference group = 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.73; P for trend = .34). Furthermore, no statistically significant positive associations were observed for any of the six mono- or disaccharides. Findings were similar on additional analyses by site, size, and number of adenomas. Our findings do not support an association between high sugar intake and increased odds ratios of colorectal adenoma.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of fermented and unfermented soy intake, based on the following soy-derived products: tofu, soymilk, natto, and miso, on the risk of liver cancer among Japanese adults. METHODS: 75,089 Participants of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) were followed from the time of the 5-year follow-up questionnaire until the end of 2012-2013. Subjects with available data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status from blood samples (n = 14,016) and those who were anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV) or hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) positive (n = 1033) were also analyzed separately. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During 1,145,453 person-years, 534 newly diagnosed cases of liver cancer were identified in the JPHC Study. For miso intake among men, the multivariate-adjusted highest versus lowest quartile HR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89); p for trend = 0.006. Results were similar in those who were anti-HCV or HBsAg positive, 0.24 (0.08-0.70); p for trend = 0.004 highest versus lowest tertile. For the sub-analysis among only participants with known hepatitis infection status and HCV and HBsAg adjustment, a similar association was observed. In the multivariate complete cohort analysis, among women, the highest intake of fried tofu was inversely associated with the risk of liver cancer, HR = 0.45 (0.26-0.80); p for trend = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between total soy intake, fermented and unfermented, and risk of liver cancer, and only an inverse association between miso intake and liver cancer among men.

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