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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

2.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 40(9): 570-576, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231296

RESUMO

Atelosteogenesis type I (AOI) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the filaminB (FLNB) gene with classic and well-recognizable clinical findings. However, parents affected with a mild phenotype, probably with somatic mosaicism, can generate offspring with a much more severe phenotype of AOI. In the present report, we describe a female newborn with classic AOI leading to early neonatal death, whose diagnostic was based on prenatal radiological findings and on the physical examination of the father. Since her father had limb deformities and corporal asymmetry, suggesting somatic mosaicism, his biological samples were analyzed through a gene panel for skeletal dysplasias. A missense mutation not previously described in the literature was detected in the FLNB gene, affecting ∼ 20% of the evaluated cells and, therefore, confirming the diagnosis of mosaic AOI in the father. The molecular analysis of the father was crucial to suggest the diagnosis of AOI in the newborn, since she died early and there were no biological samples available.

3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(9): 570-575, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977825

RESUMO

Abstract Atelosteogenesis type I (AOI) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the filamin B (FLNB) gene with classic and well-recognizable clinical findings. However, parents affected with a mild phenotype, probably with somatic mosaicism, can generate offspring with a much more severe phenotype of AOI. In the present report, we describe a female newborn with classic AOI leading to early neonatal death, whose diagnostic was based on prenatal radiological findings and on the physical examination of the father. Since her father had limb deformities and corporal asymmetry, suggesting somatic mosaicism, his biological samples were analyzed through a gene panel for skeletal dysplasias. A missense mutation not previously described in the literature was detected in the FLNB gene, affecting ~ 20% of the evaluated cells and, therefore, confirming the diagnosis ofmosaic AOI in the father. The molecular analysis of the father was crucial to suggest the diagnosis of AOI in the newborn, since she died early and there were no biological samples available.


Resumo A atelosteogênese tipo I (AOI) é uma displasia esquelética autossômica dominante causada por mutações no gene filamina B (FLNB) comachados clínicos clássicos e bem reconhecíveis. No entanto, pais afetados com um fenótipo mais leve, provavelmente commosaicismo somático, podem gerar uma prole comumfenótipomuito mais grave de AOI. No presente relato, descrevemos um recém-nascido do sexo feminino comAOI clássica, que levou à morte neonatal precoce, e cujo diagnóstico foi baseado em achados radiológicos pré-natais e no exame físico de seu genitor. Como o genitor apresentava deformidades em membros e assimetria corporal, que sugeriam mosaicismo somático, suas amostras biológicas foram analisadas por meio de um painel de genes para displasias esqueléticas. Umamutação missense, não descrita anteriormente na literatura, foi detectada no gene FLNB, afetando ~ 20% das células avaliadas, e, portanto, confirmando o diagnóstico de AOI em mosaico no genitor. A análise molecular realizada no genitor foi fundamental para sugerir o diagnóstico de AOI na recém-nascida, uma vez que esta morreu precocemente, e não havia amostras biológicas disponíveis.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11138, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042445

RESUMO

Several lines of indirect evidence, such as mutations or dysregulated expression of genes related to cytoskeleton, have suggested that cytoskeletal dynamics, a process essential for axons and dendrites development, is compromised in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, no study has yet examined whether cytoskeleton dynamics is functionally altered in cells from ASD patients. Here we investigated the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) of 13 ASD patients and 8 control individuals by inducing actin filament depolymerization and then measuing their reconstruction upon activation of the RhoGTPases Rac, Cdc42 or RhoA. We observed that stem cells from seven ASD individuals (53%) presented altered dymanics of filament reconstruction, including a patient recently studied by our group whose iPSC-derived neuronal cells show shorten and less arborized neurites. We also report potentially pathogenic genetic variants that might be related to the alterations in actin repolymerization dynamics observed in some patient-derived cells. Our results suggest that, at least for a subgroup of ASD patients, the dynamics of actin polymerization is impaired, which might be ultimately leading to neuronal abnormalities.

5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e324, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly. The most prevalent radiographic findings were rhizomelic shortening of the long bones and narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine. There was motor developmental delay in 18 patients and speech delay in 16 patients. The most common clinical intercurrences were middle ear dysfunction, sleep apnea, limb pain and obesity from 2 to 9 years of age. One patient was large for the gestational age but did not develop obesity. One patient developed hydrocephalus at 10 years old. The current age of the patients varies from 15 months to 36 years. The molecular study performed by Sanger sequencing of the common heterozygous mutation 1138G>A in FGFR3 was positive in all patients. Four cases were inherited, and 35 were sporadic (paternal age from 19 to 66 years). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnoses were made early based on clinical and radiographic findings. All cases were confirmed molecularly. Despite presenting a benign course, it is necessary to establish a systematic protocol for the surveillance of these patients due to the common clinical intercurrences.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , Acondroplasia/patologia , Acondroplasia/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mutação , Radiografia , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 73, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are associated with Pendred syndrome and autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness (DFNB4). Both disorders have similar audiologic characteristics: bilateral hearing loss, often severe or profound, which may be associated with abnormalities of the inner ear, such as dilatation of the vestibular aqueduct or Mondini dysplasia. But, in Pendred syndrome (OMIM #274600), with autosomal recessive inheritance, besides congenital sensorineural deafness, goiter or thyroid dysfunctions are frequently present. The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in SLC26A4 are a frequent cause of hereditary deafness in Brazilian patients. METHODS: Microsatellite haplotypes linked to SLC26A4 were investigated in 68 families presenting autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. In the probands of the 16 families presenting segregation consistent with linkage to SLC26A4, Sanger sequencing of the 20 coding exons was performed. In an additional sample of 15 individuals with suspected Pendred syndrome, because of the presence of hypothyroidism or cochleovestibular malformations, the SLC26A4 gene coding region was also sequenced. RESULTS: In two of the 16 families with indication of linkage to SLC26A4, the probands were found to be compound heterozygotes for probably pathogenic different mutations: three novel (c.1003 T > G (p. F335 V), c.1553G > A (p.W518X), c.2235 + 2 T > C (IVS19 + 2 T > C), and one already described, c.84C > A (p.S28R). Two of the 15 individuals with suspected Pendred syndrome because of hypothyreoidism or cochleovestibular malformations were monoallelic for likely pathogenic mutations: a splice mutation (IVS7 + 2 T > C) and the previously described c.1246A > C (p.T416P). Pathogenic copy number variations were excluded in the monoallelic cases and in those with normal results after Sanger sequencing. Additional mutations in the SLC26A4 gene or other definite molecular cause for deafness were not identified in the monoallelic patients, after exome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic pathogenic mutations in SLC26A4 explained ~ 3% of cases selected because of autosomal recessive deafness. Monoallelic mutations were present in ~ 13% of isolated cases of deafness with cochleovestibular malformations or suspected Pendred syndrome. These data reinforce the importance of mutation screening of SLC26A4 in Brazilian subjects and highlight the elevated frequency of monoallelic patients.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1114, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535311

RESUMO

The original PDF version of this Article contained errors in the spelling of Luiz Carlos Caires-Júnior, Uirá Souto Melo, Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Murilo Sena Amaral, Kayque Alves Telles-Silva, Vanessa van der Linden, Helio van der Linden, João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira, Nivia Maria Rodrigues Arrais, Joanna Goes Castro Meira, Ana Jovina Barreto Bispo, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata-Santos, which were incorrectly given as Luiz Carlos de Caires Jr., UiráSouto Melo, Bruno Silva Henrique Araujo, Alessandra Soares Schanoski, MuriloSena Amaral, Kayque Telles Alves Silva, Vanessa Van der Linden, Helio Van der Linden, João Mendes Ricardo de Oliveira, Nivia Rodrigues Maria Arrais, Joanna Castro Goes Meira, Ana JovinaBarreto Bispo, EsperAbrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata Santos. Furthermore, in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article, the top panel of Fig. 3e was incorrectly labeled '10608-1' and should have been '10608-4', and financial support from CAPES and DECIT-MS was inadvertently omitted from the Acknowledgements section. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 475, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396410

RESUMO

Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) causes early brain development impairment by affecting neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we analyze NPCs from three pairs of dizygotic twins discordant for CZS. We compare by RNA-Seq the NPCs derived from CZS-affected and CZS-unaffected twins. Prior to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection the NPCs from CZS babies show a significantly different gene expression signature of mTOR and Wnt pathway regulators, key to a neurodevelopmental program. Following ZIKV in vitro infection, cells from affected individuals have significantly higher ZIKV replication and reduced cell growth. Whole-exome analysis in 18 affected CZS babies as compared to 5 unaffected twins and 609 controls excludes a monogenic model to explain resistance or increased susceptibility to CZS development. Overall, our results indicate that CZS is not a stochastic event and depends on NPC intrinsic susceptibility, possibly related to oligogenic and/or epigenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 753-760, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178448

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a strikingly heterogeneous group of disorders with a broad range of phenotypic variations. It is also one of the differential diagnoses in bent bone dysplasias along with campomelic dysplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia and can usually be distinguished by decreased bone mineralization and bone fractures. Bent bone dysplasias also include syndromes such as kyphomelic dysplasia (MIM:211350) and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (MIM249710), both of which have been under debate regarding whether or not they are a real entity or simply a phenotypic manifestation of another dysplasia including OI. Bruck syndrome type 2 (BRKS2; MIM:609220) is a rare form of autosomal recessive OI caused by biallelic PLOD2 variants and is associated with congenital joint contractures with pterygia. In this report, we present six patients from four families with novel PLOD2 variants. All cases had multiple fractures. Other features ranged from prenatal lethal severe angulation of the long bones as in kyphomelic dysplasia and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon through classical Bruck syndrome to moderate OI with normal joints. Two siblings with a kyphomelic dysplasia-like phenotype who were stillborn had compound heterozygous variants in PLOD2 (p.Asp585Val and p.Ser166*). One infant who succumbed at age 4 months had a bent bone phenotype phenotypically like skeletal dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (with mesomelic shortening, camptodactyly, retrognathia, cleft palate, skin dimples, but also with fractures). He was homozygous for the nonsense variant (p.Trp561*). Two siblings had various degrees of Bruck syndrome caused by the homozygous missense variant, p.His687Arg. Furthermore a boy with a clinical presentation of moderate OI had a possibly pathogenic homozygous variant p.Trp588Cys. Our experience of six patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in PLOD2 expands the phenotypic spectrum in the PLOD2-related phenotypes. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

10.
Clinics ; 73: e324, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly. The most prevalent radiographic findings were rhizomelic shortening of the long bones and narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine. There was motor developmental delay in 18 patients and speech delay in 16 patients. The most common clinical intercurrences were middle ear dysfunction, sleep apnea, limb pain and obesity from 2 to 9 years of age. One patient was large for the gestational age but did not develop obesity. One patient developed hydrocephalus at 10 years old. The current age of the patients varies from 15 months to 36 years. The molecular study performed by Sanger sequencing of the common heterozygous mutation 1138G>A in FGFR3 was positive in all patients. Four cases were inherited, and 35 were sporadic (paternal age from 19 to 66 years). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnoses were made early based on clinical and radiographic findings. All cases were confirmed molecularly. Despite presenting a benign course, it is necessary to establish a systematic protocol for the surveillance of these patients due to the common clinical intercurrences.

11.
Nat. Commun. ; 9: 475, 2018.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib14938

RESUMO

Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) causes early brain development impairment by affecting neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we analyze NPCs from three pairs of dizygotic twins discordant for CZS. We compare by RNA-Seq the NPCs derived from CZS-affected and CZS-unaffected twins. Prior to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection the NPCs from CZS babies show a significantly different gene expression signature of mTOR and Wnt pathway regulators, key to a neurodevelopmental program. Following ZIKV in vitro infection, cells from affected individuals have significantly higher ZIKV replication and reduced cell growth. Whole-exome analysis in 18 affected CZS babies as compared to 5 unaffected twins and 609 controls excludes a monogenic model to explain resistance or increased susceptibility to CZS development. Overall, our results indicate that CZS is not a stochastic event and depends on NPC intrinsic susceptibility, possibly related to oligogenic and/or epigenetic mechanisms.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 38(7): 751-763, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332257

RESUMO

Brazilians are highly admixed with ancestry from Europe, Africa, America, and Asia and yet still underrepresented in genomic databanks. We hereby present a collection of exomic variants from 609 elderly Brazilians in a census-based cohort (SABE609) with comprehensive phenotyping. Variants were deposited in ABraOM (Online Archive of Brazilian Mutations), a Web-based public database. Population representative phenotype and genotype repositories are essential for variant interpretation through allele frequency filtering; since elderly individuals are less likely to harbor pathogenic mutations for early- and adult-onset diseases, such variant databases are of great interest. Among the over 2.3 million variants from the present cohort, 1,282,008 were high-confidence calls. Importantly, 207,621 variants were absent from major public databases. We found 9,791 potential loss-of-function variants with about 300 mutations per individual. Pathogenic variants on clinically relevant genes (ACMG) were observed in 1.15% of the individuals and were correlated with clinical phenotype. We conducted incidence estimation for prevalent recessive disorders based upon heterozygous frequency and concluded that it relies on appropriate pathogenicity assertion. These observations illustrate the relevance of collecting demographic data from diverse, poorly characterized populations. Census-based datasets of aged individuals with comprehensive phenotyping are an invaluable resource toward the improved understanding of variant pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Exoma , Genética Populacional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Alelos , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo
13.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 101(1): 116-23, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450648

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies are the second highest cause of infant deaths, and, in most cases, diagnosis is a challenge. In this study, we characterize patterns of DNA copy number aberrations in different samples of post-mortem tissues from patients with congenital malformations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing autopsy were cytogenomically evaluated using several methods, specifically, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), microsatellite marker analysis with a MiniFiler kit, FISH, a cytogenomic array technique and bidirectional Sanger sequencing, which were performed on samples of different tissues (brain, heart, liver, skin and diaphragm) preserved in RNAlater, in formaldehyde or by paraffin-embedding. The results identified 13 patients with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Of these, eight presented aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y (two presented inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism). In addition, other abnormalities were found, including duplication of the TYMS gene (18p11.32); deletion of the CHL1 gene (3p26.3); deletion of the HIC1 gene (17p13.3); and deletion of the TOM1L2 gene (17p11.2). One patient had a pathogenic missense mutation of g.8535C>G (c.746C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene consistent with Thanatophoric Dysplasia type I. Cytogenomic techniques were reliable for the analysis of autopsy material and allowed the identification of inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital malformations.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Citogenética/métodos , Genoma Humano , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(6): 1525-31, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038324

RESUMO

Rasopathies are a group of rare disorders characterized by neurocardiofaciocutaneous involvement, and caused by mutations in several genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. In the present study, we characterized growth parameters, body composition, and nutritional aspects of children and adults (n = 62) affected by these disorders, mainly Noonan syndrome, using an indirect method-anthropometry-and a 24-hr recall questionnaire. The growth parameters in our cohort showed short stature, especially in individuals with RAF1 and SHOC2 mutations, lower obesity rates compared to the control population, and BMI scores highest in individuals with BRAF mutations and lowest in individuals with SHOC2. Body composition showed a compromise in the upper arm muscle circumference, with a statistically significant difference in the z-score of triceps skinfold (P = 0.0204) and upper arm fat area (P = 0.0388) between BRAF and SHOC2 groups and in the z-score of triceps skinfold between RAF1 and SHOC2 (P = 0.0218). The pattern of macronutrient consumption was similar to the control population. Our study is the first to address body composition in RASopathy individuals and the data indicate a compromise not only in adipose tissue, but also in muscle mass. Studies using different techniques, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or imaging studies, which give a more precise delineation of fat and non-fat mass, are required to confirm our results, ultimately causing an impact on management strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Fenótipo , Adulto , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/genética
15.
Hum Mutat ; 36(11): 1029-33, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123647

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFC) is a complex disease of still unclear genetic etiology. To investigate the contribution of rare epithelial cadherin (CDH1) gene variants to NSOFC, we target sequenced 221 probands. Candidate variants were evaluated via in vitro, in silico, or segregation analyses. Three probably pathogenic variants (c.760G>A [p.Asp254Asn], c.1023T>G [p.Tyr341*], and c.2351G>A [p.Arg784His]) segregated according to autosomal dominant inheritance in four nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) families (Lod score: 5.8 at θ = 0; 47% penetrance). A fourth possibly pathogenic variant (c.387+5G>A) was also found, but further functional analyses are needed (overall prevalence of CDH1 candidate variants: 2%; 15.4% among familial cases). CDH1 mutational burden was higher among probands from familial cases when compared to that of controls (P = 0.002). We concluded that CDH1 contributes to NSCL/P with mainly rare, moderately penetrant variants, and CDH1 haploinsufficiency is the likely etiological mechanism.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Caderinas/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Variação Genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/química , Linhagem Celular , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Penetrância
16.
J Med Genet ; 52(6): 413-21, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25795793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant, multisystemic disorder caused by dysregulation of the RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Heterozygous, pathogenic variants in 11 known genes account for approximately 80% of cases. The identification of novel genes associated with Noonan syndrome has become increasingly challenging, since they might be responsible for very small fractions of the cases. METHODS: A cohort of 50 Brazilian probands negative for pathogenic variants in the known genes associated with Noonan syndrome was tested through whole-exome sequencing along with the relatives in the familial cases. Families from the USA and Poland with mutations in the newly identified genes were included subsequently. RESULTS: We identified rare, segregating or de novo missense variants in SOS2 and LZTR1 in 4% and 8%, respectively, of the 50 Brazilian probands. SOS2 and LZTR1 variants were also found to segregate in one American and one Polish family. Notably, SOS2 variants were identified in patients with marked ectodermal involvement, similar to patients with SOS1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified two novel genes, SOS2 and LZTR1, associated with Noonan syndrome, thereby expanding the molecular spectrum of RASopathies. Mutations in these genes are responsible for approximately 3% of all patients with Noonan syndrome. While SOS2 is a natural candidate, because of its homology with SOS1, the functional role of LZTR1 in the RAS/MAPK pathway is not known, and it could not have been identified without the large pedigrees. Additional functional studies are needed to elucidate the role of LZTR1 in RAS/MAPK signalling and in the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteínas Son Of Sevenless/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
17.
Immunology ; 127(1): 50-61, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18778287

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most important antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and have a crucial role in T-lymphocyte activation and adaptive immunity initiation. However, DCs have also been implicated in maintaining immunological tolerance. In this study, we evaluated changes in the CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T-cell population after co-culture of lymph node cells from BALB/c mice with syngeneic bone marrow-derived DCs. Our results showed an increase in CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells after co-culture which occurred regardless of the activation state of DCs and the presence of allogeneic apoptotic cells; however, it was greater when DCs were immature and were pulsed with the alloantigen. Interestingly, syngeneic apoptotic thymocytes were not as efficient as allogeneic apoptotic cells in expanding the CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T-cell population. In all experimental settings, DCs produced high amounts of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. The presence of allogeneic apoptotic cells induced interleukin (IL)-2 production in immature and mature DC cultures. This cytokine was also detected in the supernatants under all experimental conditions and enhanced when immature DCs were pulsed with the alloantigen. CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T-cell expansion during co-culture of lymph node cells with DCs strongly suggested that the presence of alloantigen enhanced the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro. Our data also suggest a role for both TGF-beta and IL-2 in the augmentation of the CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) population.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Imunofenotipagem , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Linfonodos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fagocitose/imunologia
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