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1.
Brain ; 142(7): 2127-2136, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096266

RESUMO

Discrepancies in efficacy between single-dose and repeated administration of oxytocin for autism spectrum disorder have led researchers to hypothesize that time-course changes in efficacy are induced by repeated administrations of the peptide hormone. However, repeatable, objective, and quantitative measurement of autism spectrum disorder's core symptoms are lacking, making it difficult to examine potential time-course changes in efficacy. We tested this hypothesis using repeatable, objective, and quantitative measurement of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. We examined videos recorded during semi-structured social interaction administered as the primary outcome in single-site exploratory (n = 18, crossover within-subjects design) and multisite confirmatory (n = 106, parallel-group design), double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trials of repeated intranasal administrations of oxytocin (48 IU/day) in adult males with autism spectrum disorder. The main outcomes were statistical representative values of objectively quantified facial expression intensity in a repeatable part of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: the maximum probability (i.e. mode) and the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression and the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of happy expression. Our recent study revealed that increases in these indices characterize autistic facial expression, compared with neurotypical individuals. The current results revealed that oxytocin consistently and significantly decreased the increased natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression compared with placebo in exploratory (effect-size, -0.57; 95% CI, -1.27 to 0.13; P = 0.023) and confirmatory trials (-0.41; -0.62 to -0.20; P < 0.001). A significant interaction between time-course (at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) and the efficacy of oxytocin on the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression was found in confirmatory trial (P < 0.001). Post hoc analyses revealed maximum efficacy at 2 weeks (P < 0.001, Cohen's d = -0.78; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.35) and deterioration of efficacy at 4 weeks (P = 0.042, Cohen's d = -0.46; 95% CI, -0.90 to -0.01) and 6 weeks (P = 0.10, Cohen's d = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.77 to 0.08), while efficacy was preserved at 2 weeks post-treatment (i.e. 8 weeks) (P < 0.001, Cohen's d = -1.24; 95% CI, -1.71 to -0.78). Quantitative facial expression analyses successfully verified the positive effects of repeated oxytocin on autistic individuals' facial expressions and demonstrated a time-course change in efficacy. The current findings support further development of an optimized regimen of oxytocin treatment.

2.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 39(2): 72-77, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712295

RESUMO

Studies of eye movement have become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Measures of eye movement have been applied to higher brain functions such as cognition, social behavior, and higher-level decision-making. With the development of eye trackers, a growing body of research has described eye movements in relation to mental disorders, reporting that the basic oculomotor properties of patients with mental disorders differ from those of healthy controls. Using discrimination analysis, several independent research groups have used eye movements to differentiate patients with schizophrenia from a mixed population of patients and controls. Recently, in addition to traditional oculomotor measures, several new techniques have been applied to measure and analyze eye movement data. One research group investigated eye movements in relation to the risk of autism spectrum disorder several years prior to the emergence of verbal-behavioral abnormalities. Research on eye movement in humans in social communication is therefore considered important, but has not been well explored. Since eye movement patterns vary between patients with mental disorders and healthy controls, it is necessary to collect a large amount of eye movement data from various populations and age groups. The application of eye trackers in the clinical setting could contribute to the early treatment of mental disorders.

3.
Cell Rep ; 24(11): 2838-2856, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208311

RESUMO

Compelling evidence in Caucasian populations suggests a role for copy-number variations (CNVs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). We analyzed 1,108 ASD cases, 2,458 SCZ cases, and 2,095 controls in a Japanese population and confirmed an increased burden of rare exonic CNVs in both disorders. Clinically significant (or pathogenic) CNVs, including those at 29 loci common to both disorders, were found in about 8% of ASD and SCZ cases, which was significantly higher than in controls. Phenotypic analysis revealed an association between clinically significant CNVs and intellectual disability. Gene set analysis showed significant overlap of biological pathways in both disorders including oxidative stress response, lipid metabolism/modification, and genomic integrity. Finally, based on bioinformatics analysis, we identified multiple disease-relevant genes in eight well-known ASD/SCZ-associated CNV loci (e.g., 22q11.2, 3q29). Our findings suggest an etiological overlap of ASD and SCZ and provide biological insights into these disorders.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13046, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158644

RESUMO

Reelin protein (RELN), an extracellular matrix protein, plays multiple roles that range from embryonic neuronal migration to spine formation in the adult brain. Results from genetic studies have suggested that RELN is associated with the risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ). We previously identified a novel exonic deletion of RELN in a patient with SCZ. High-resolution copy number variation analysis revealed that this deletion included exons 52 to 58, which truncated the RELN in a similar manner to the Reln Orleans mutation (Relnrl-Orl). We examined the clinical features of this patient and confirmed a decreased serum level of RELN. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the exonic deletion of RELN in SCZ, we conducted behavioral and neurochemical analyses using heterozygous Relnrl-Orl/+ mice. These mice exhibited abnormalities in anxiety, social behavior, and motor learning; the deficits in motor learning were ameliorated by antipsychotics. Methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and dopamine release were significantly reduced in the Relnrl-Orl/+ mice. In addition, the levels of GABAergic markers were decreased in the brain of these mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the exonic deletion of RELN plays a pathological role, implicating functional changes in the dopaminergic and GABAergic systems, in the pathophysiology of SCZ.

5.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 278: 35-41, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981940

RESUMO

Resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed dysfunctional thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between thalamocortical FC and cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized that aberrant thalamocortical FC is related to attention deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty-eight patients with schizophrenia and 38 matched healthy controls underwent rs-fMRI and task fMRI while performing a Flanker task. We observed decreased left thalamic activation in patients with schizophrenia using task fMRI to determine the thalamic seed. A seed-based analysis using this seed was performed in the whole brain to assess differences in thalamocortical FC between the groups. Significantly worse performance was observed in the patient group. The rs-fMRI analysis revealed significantly increased FC between the left thalamus seed and the occipital cortices/postcentral gyri in patients when compared to controls. In the patient group, significant positive correlations were observed between the degree of FC from the left thalamus to the bilateral occipital gyri, which correspond to the visual cortex, and the Flanker effect. No significant correlation was detected in the control group. These results indicate that aberrant FC between the left thalamus and the visual cortex is related to attention deficits in schizophrenia.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955161

RESUMO

Although small-scale studies have described the effects of oxytocin on social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no large-scale study has been conducted. In this randomized, parallel-group, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in Japan, 106 ASD individuals (18-48 y.o.) were enrolled between Jan 2015 and March 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to a 6-week intranasal oxytocin (48IU/day, n = 53) or placebo (n = 53) group. One-hundred-three participants were analyzed. Since oxytocin reduced the primary endpoint, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) reciprocity, (from 8.5 to 7.7; P < .001) but placebo also reduced the score (8.3 to 7.2; P < .001), no between-group difference was found (effect size -0.08; 95% CI, -0.46 to 0.31; P = .69); however, plasma oxytocin was only elevated from baseline to endpoint in the oxytocin-group compared with the placebo-group (effect size -1.12; -1.53 to -0.70; P < .0001). Among the secondary endpoints, oxytocin reduced ADOS repetitive behavior (2.0 to 1.5; P < .0001) compared with placebo (2.0 to 1.8; P = .43) (effect size 0.44; 0.05 to 0.83; P = .026). In addition, the duration of gaze fixation on socially relevant regions, another secondary endpoint, was increased by oxytocin (41.2 to 52.3; P = .03) compared with placebo (45.7 to 40.4; P = .25) (effect size 0.55; 0.10 to 1.0; P = .018). No significant effects were observed for the other secondary endpoints. No significant difference in the prevalence of adverse events was observed between groups, although one participant experienced temporary gynecomastia during oxytocin administration. Based on the present findings, we cannot recommend continuous intranasal oxytocin treatment alone at the current dose and duration for treatment of the core social symptoms of high-functioning ASD in adult men, although this large-scale trial suggests oxytocin's possibility to treat ASD repetitive behavior.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 17: 563-569, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201642

RESUMO

Background: The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotic medication on the volumes of subcortical structures in schizophrenia is inconsistent among previous reports. We implemented a large sample analysis utilizing clinical data from 11 institutions in a previous meta-analysis. Methods: Imaging and clinical data of 778 schizophrenia subjects were taken from a prospective meta-analysis conducted by the COCORO consortium in Japan. The effect of duration of illness and daily dose and type of antipsychotics were assessed using the linear mixed effect model where the volumes of subcortical structures computed by FreeSurfer were used as a dependent variable and age, sex, duration of illness, daily dose of antipsychotics and intracranial volume were used as independent variables, and the type of protocol was incorporated as a random effect for intercept. The statistical significance of fixed-effect of dependent variable was assessed. Results: Daily dose of antipsychotics was positively associated with left globus pallidus volume and negatively associated with right hippocampus. It was also positively associated with laterality index of globus pallidus. Duration of illness was positively associated with bilateral globus pallidus volumes. Type of antipsychotics did not have any effect on the subcortical volumes. Discussion: A large sample size, uniform data collection methodology and robust statistical analysis are strengths of the current study. This result suggests that we need special attention to discuss about relationship between subcortical regional brain volumes and pathophysiology of schizophrenia because regional brain volumes may be affected by antipsychotic medication.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/patologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
8.
Brain Behav ; 5(10): e00375, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26516610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Response conflict involves selectively attending to relevant information and suppressing distracting, irrelevant information. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) is considered to be involved in response conflict. However, it remains unclear which white matter connectivity is associated with response conflict. This study aimed to delineate the neural connectivity of response conflict in healthy subjects and investigate the association between white matter microstructure and performance of a response conflict task. METHOD: Twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the Flanker task and diffusion MRI. We identified the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) using fMRI. Furthermore, we delineated the white matter connectivity between the pre-SMA and the cingulum bundle (CB), which is located in the MFC, using probabilistic tractography. We calculated the mean diffusivity (MD), index of white matter microstructure, of this tract and evaluate the association between MD and performance of the Flanker task. RESULT: The mean MD of this tract was significantly and positively associated with performance of the Flanker task. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests the white matter connectivity between the pre-SMA and the CB is related to the response conflict in healthy subjects and finer white matter microstructure is associated with smaller response conflict.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/anatomia & histologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Conectoma , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 232(12): 2127-37, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25533998

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypnotics are widely used to treat insomnia but adverse effects of different hypnotics, especially benzodiazepine receptor agonists, are getting more attention lately. The effects of novel hypnotics have not been fully examined. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effects of two hypnotics, ramelteon and triazolam, on driving performance, cognitive function, and equilibrium function. METHODS: In this double-blinded, three-way crossover trial, 17 healthy males received acute doses of 8 mg ramelteon, 0.125 mg triazolam, and placebo. The subjects were administered three driving tasks-road-tracking, car-following, and harsh-braking-using a driving simulator and three cognitive tasks-Continuous Performance Test, N-back Test, and Trail-Making Test-at baseline and at 1 and 4 h post-dosing. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores and computerized posturography were also assessed. RESULTS: In the driving simulations, ramelteon and triazolam increased the number of subjects who slid off the road. Triazolam increased the standard deviation of lateral position compared to ramelteon and placebo at 1 h post-dosing. Ramelteon and triazolam significantly increased the time to complete of Trail-Making Test part A and the environmental area in posturography compared to placebo at 1 and 4 h post-dosing. Ramelteon and triazolam significantly increased subjective sleepiness compared to placebo at 1 h post-dosing. CONCLUSIONS: Ramelteon may affect road-tracking performance, visual attention and/or psychomotor speed measured by Trail-Making Test part A, and body balance in acute dosing. Lower dose of triazolam also impaired performance worse than ramelteon. Physicians should consider risks and benefits when prescribing both drugs, especially in the initial period of administration.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Indenos/farmacologia , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazolam/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Fases do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 28(5): 523-8, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23813948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether a lower initial dose of mirtazapine can lessen the harmful effect on driving performance or not in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial. METHODS: Thirteen healthy men received 8 days of continuous nocturnal doses of mirtazapine at 7.5 mg or 15 mg, or placebo. At baseline and on days 2 and 9, subjects performed three driving tasks (road-tracking, car-following, and harsh-braking tasks) using a driving simulator and a Continuous Performance Test. Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) scores were also assessed. In the mirtazapine 7.5 mg series, 15 mg of mirtazapine was additionally administered on day 9, followed by all the same assessments on day 10. RESULTS: Mirtazapine 7.5 mg had no significant effects on any tasks except for SSS compared with placebo. Mirtazapine 15 mg impaired road-tracking task and SSS. The increase in mirtazapine dose also had no significant effects on any tasks compared with those before dose increase. CONCLUSIONS: Mirtazapine 7.5 mg did not cause driving impairment compared with mirtazapine 15 mg, while both doses of mirtazapine produced subjective somnolence. The increase in mirtazapine had no detrimental effects on psychomotor performance. Initial low-dose mirtazapine may be safer for automobile driving than the normal starting dose.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Mianserina/análogos & derivados , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mianserina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mirtazapina , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
11.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 28(3): 281-6, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated treatments with the sedative antidepressants mirtazapine and trazodone on driving performance and cognitive function. METHODS: Nineteen healthy men received continuous nocturnal doses of 15-mg mirtazapine , 25-mg trazodone, or placebo for 8 days in a double-blinded, three-way crossover trial. Subjects were asked to perform three driving tasks (road tracking, car following, and harsh braking) using a driving simulator and cognitive tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test, and N-back Test) at baseline and on Days 2 and 9. Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores were also assessed. RESULTS: Mirtazapine significantly increased the standard deviation of lateral position in the road-tracking task as compared with trazodone on Day 2. Mirtazapine significantly increased Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores as compared with trazodone and placebo. For the remaining tasks, no significant effects of treatment were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Acute treatment of mirtazapine impaired road-tracking performance and increased sleepiness, but sedative effects disappeared under repeated administrations. Trazodone did not affect driving performance or cognitive function under acute or repeated administrations. Both initial sedative effects and pharmacological profiles should be taken into consideration when using sedative antidepressants.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Mianserina/análogos & derivados , Trazodona/farmacologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Masculino , Mianserina/administração & dosagem , Mianserina/efeitos adversos , Mianserina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mirtazapina , Fases do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Trazodona/administração & dosagem , Trazodona/efeitos adversos
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