Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 870
Filtrar
1.
Toxicology ; 456: 152785, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872730

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR), a recognized neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals, is widely used in industry and in food generated through Maillard reaction. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of the cellular defense system and activates antioxidants and cytoprotective genes. The exact roles of Nrf2 in environmental electrophile-induced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the roles of Nrf2 in ACR-induced neurotoxicity including degeneration of monoaminergic axons and sensorimotor dysfunction. Male 10-week-old C57BL/6JJcl Nrf2-knockout mice and wild type (WT) counterparts were each divided into four groups of 12 and provided with drinking water containing acrylamide at 0, 67, 110 or 200 ppm for four weeks. The effects of acrylamide were examined by landing foot spread test, immunohistochemistry for noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT)-containing axons and Iba1-positive microglia in the prefrontal cortex as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on antioxidant, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes in the prefrontal cortex. Relative to the wild type, exposure of Nrf2-knockout mice to acrylamide increased hindlimb splay length, microglial area and process length as well as decreasing the density of NA and 5-HT-immunoreactive axons to a greater extent. Moreover, deletion of Nrf2 gene suppressed acrylamide-induced mRNA upregulation of Nrf2-antioxidants, NAD(P): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as well as anti-inflammtory markers such as, arginase-1 (Arg1), found in the inflammatory zone-1 (Fizz1), chitinase-like 3 (Chi3l3), interleukin-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα), cluster of differentiation  206 (CD206) and tranforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFß1) while enhancing acrylamide-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-α) and iducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the prefrontal cortex. The results demonstrate susceptibility of mice lacking the Nrf2 gene to acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation with the activation of microglia. Moreover, the results suggest the role of Nrf2 not only in induction of antioxidant gene expression, but also in suppression of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672789

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer remains intractable owing to the lack of effective therapy for unresectable cases. Activating mutations of K-ras are frequently found in pancreatic cancers, but these have not yet been targeted by cancer therapies. The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a crucial role in mediating the oxidative stress response, which also contributes to cancer progression. Nrf2 activation reprograms the metabolic profile to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. A recent report suggested that K-ras- and Nrf2-active lung cancer cells are sensitive to glutamine depletion. This finding led to the recognition of glutaminase inhibitors as novel anticancer agents. In the current study, we used murine pancreatic cancer tissues driven by mutant K-ras and p53 to establish cell lines expressing constitutively activated Nrf2. Genetic or pharmacological Nrf2 activation in cells via Keap1 deletion or Nrf2 activation sensitized cells to glutaminase inhibition. This phenomenon was confirmed to be dependent on K-ras activation in human pancreatic cancer cell lines harboring mutant K-ras, i.e., Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 in response to DEM pretreatment. This phenomenon was not observed in BxPC3 cells harboring wildtype K-ras. These results indicate the possibility of employing Nrf2 activation and glutaminase inhibition as novel therapeutic interventions for K-ras mutant pancreatic cancers.


Assuntos
Glutaminase/genética , Mutação , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Animais , Benzenoacetamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Malatos/farmacologia , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770117

RESUMO

Novel antiviral agents for influenza, which poses a substantial threat to humans, are required. Cyclobakuchiols A and B have been isolated from Psoralea glandulosa, and cyclobakuchiol C has been isolated from P. corylifolia. The structural differences between cyclobakuchiol A and C arise due to the oxidation state of isopropyl group, and these compounds can be derived from (+)-(S)-bakuchiol, a phenolic isoprenoid compound present in P. corylifolia seeds. We previously reported that bakuchiol induces enantiospecific anti-influenza A virus activity involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. However, it remains unclear whether cyclobakuchiols A-C induce anti-influenza A virus activity. In this study, cyclobakuchiols A, B, and C along with cyclobakuchiol D, a new artificial compound derived from cyclobakuchiol B, were synthesized and examined for their anti-influenza A virus activities using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. As a result, cyclobakuchiols A-D were found to inhibit influenza A viral infection, growth, and the reduction of expression of viral mRNAs and proteins in influenza A virus-infected cells. Additionally, these compounds markedly reduced the mRNA expression of the host cell influenza A virus-induced immune response genes, interferon-ß and myxovirus-resistant protein 1. In addition, cyclobakuchiols A-D upregulated the mRNA levels of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, an Nrf2-induced gene, in influenza A virus-infected cells. Notably, cyclobakuchiols A, B, and C, but not D, induced the Nrf2 activation pathway. These findings demonstrate that cyclobakuchiols have anti-influenza viral activity involving host cell oxidative stress response. In addition, our results suggest that the suitably spatial configuration between oxidized isopropyl group and phenol moiety in the structure of cyclobakuchiols is required for their effect.

6.
Circulation ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626882

RESUMO

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial condition with both genetic and exogenous causes. The contribution of tissue specific functional networks to the development of atherosclerosis remains largely unclear. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise central regulators and networks leading to atherosclerosis. Methods: Based on several hundred genes known to affect atherosclerosis risk in mouse (as demonstrated in knock-out models) and human (as shown by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)) liver gene regulatory networks were modeled. The hierarchical order and regulatory directions of genes within the network were based on Bayesian prediction models as well as experimental studies including chromatin immunoprecipitation DNA-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq), ChIP mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS), overexpression, siRNA knockdown in mouse and human liver cells, and knockout mouse experiments. Bioinformatics and correlation analyses were used to clarify associations between central genes and CAD phenotypes in both human and mouse. Results: The transcription factor MAFF interacted as a key driver of a liver network with three human genes at CAD GWAS loci and eleven atherosclerotic murine genes. Most importantly, expression levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene correlated with MAFF in 600 CAD patients undergoing bypass surgery (STARNET) and a hybrid mouse diversity panel involving 105 different inbred mouse strains. Molecular mechanisms of MAFF were tested under non-inflammatory conditions showing a positive correlation between MAFF and LDLR in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, after LPS stimulation (inflammatory conditions) an inverse correlation between MAFF and LDLR in vitro and in vivo was observed. ChIP-MS revealed that the human CAD GWAS candidate BACH1 assists MAFF in the presence of LPS stimulation with respective heterodimers binding at the MAF recognition element (MARE) of the LDLR promoter to transcriptionally downregulate LDLR expression. Conclusions: The transcription factor MAFF was identified as a novel central regulator of an atherosclerosis/CAD relevant liver network. MAFF triggered context specific expression of LDLR and other genes known to affect CAD risk. Our results suggest that MAFF is a missing link between inflammation, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and a possible treatment target.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1258, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627673

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 165: 289-298, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545311

RESUMO

Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (NFE2L1) is a key transcription factor that regulates cellular adaptive responses to various stresses. Our previous studies revealed that adult adipocyte-specific Nfe2l1-knockout [Nfe2l1(f)-KO] mice show adipocyte hypertrophy and severe adipose inflammation, which can be worsened by rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist. To further assess the crucial roles of NFE2L1 in adipocytes, we investigated the effect of CL316243, a ß3 adrenergic agonist that promotes lipolysis via a post-translational mechanism, on adipose inflammation in juvenile Nfe2l1(f)-KO mice. In contrast to adult mice, 4-week-old juvenile Nfe2l1(f)-KO mice displayed a normal fat distribution but reduced fasting plasma glycerol levels and elevated adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration in inguinal and gonadal WAT. In addition, Nfe2l1(f)-KO mice had decreased expression of multiple lipolytic genes and reduced lipolytic activity in WAT. While 7 days of CL316243 treatment showed no significant effect on adipose inflammation in Nfe2l1-Floxed control mice, the same treatment dramatically alleviated macrophage infiltration and mRNA expression of inflammation and pyroptosis-related genes in WAT of Nfe2l1(f)-KO mice. Together with previous findings in adult mice, the current study highlights that NFE2L1 plays a fundamental regulatory role in lipolytic gene expression and thus might be an important target to improve adipose plasticity and lipid homeostasis.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572743

RESUMO

The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) Infrasound Sensor Network contains 30 infrasound sensors which are distributed all over Japan especially in Shikoku Island. At all infrasound stations installed with three-axis accelerometers to measure the peak ground acceleration (PGA). Many earthquakes were detected by our system after establishing of the network since 2016. In this study we will focus on all the possibilities for infrasound detection generated from earthquakes using KUT sensor network and International Monitoring system (IMS) stations for the earthquakes which were detected in southern part of Japan during 2019. As for earthquakes with strike-slip mechanisms the P-waves could not be detected by our sensors. In addition, The conversion from seismic to acoustic waves can be happened through the generating of the T-phase from oceanic earthquakes. On 9 May 2019, progressive multi-channel cross correlation (PMCC) method applied infrasound and hydroacoustic waves from two earthquakes happened in west of Kyushu Island as the T-phase was well-recorded at H11N station near Wake Island. Moreover, infrasound propagation modeling is applied to the reconstructed atmosphere profile by Ground to Space Model (AVO-G2S) to confirm the infrasound arrivals, furthermore the 3D ray tracing process and the calculations by using the transmission loss equation with normal modes and parabolic equation methods are investigated. The study confirmed the infrasound generation scenario from the T-phase of oceanic propagation.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0236907, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428613

RESUMO

Identification of the population frequencies of definitely pathogenic germline variants in two major hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) genes, BRCA1/2, is essential to estimate the number of HBOC patients. In addition, the identification of moderately penetrant HBOC gene variants that contribute to increasing the risk of breast and ovarian cancers in a population is critical to establish personalized health care. A prospective cohort subjected to genome analysis can provide both sets of information. Computational scoring and prospective cohort studies may help to identify such likely pathogenic variants in the general population. We annotated the variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from a dataset of 3,552 whole-genome sequences obtained from members of a prospective cohorts with genome data in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project (TMM) with InterVar software. Computational impact scores (CADD_phred and Eigen_raw) and minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of pathogenic (P) and likely pathogenic (LP) variants in ClinVar were used for filtration criteria. Familial predispositions to cancers among the 35,000 TMM genome cohort participants were analyzed to verify the identified pathogenicity. Seven potentially pathogenic variants were newly identified. The sisters of carriers of these moderately deleterious variants and definite P and LP variants among members of the TMM prospective cohort showed a statistically significant preponderance for cancer onset, from the self-reported cancer history. Filtering by computational scoring and MAF is useful to identify potentially pathogenic variants in BRCA genes in the Japanese population. These results should help to follow up the carriers of variants of uncertain significance in the HBOC genes in the longitudinal prospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
12.
EBioMedicine ; 64: 103209, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythrocyte mass contributes to maintaining systemic oxygen delivery and blood viscosity, with the latter being one of the determinants of blood pressure. However, the physiological response to blood pressure changes under anaemic conditions remain unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that anaemia decreases blood pressure in human patients and mouse models. Analyses of pathways related to blood pressure regulation demonstrate that anaemia enhances the expression of the gene encoding the vasopressor substance renin in kidneys. Although kidney juxtaglomerular cells are known to continuously produce renin, renal interstitial fibroblasts are identified in the present study as a novel site of renin induction under anaemic hypotensive conditions in mice and rats. Notably, some renal interstitial fibroblasts are found to simultaneously express renin and the erythroid growth factor erythropoietin in the anaemic mouse kidney. Antihypertensive agents but not hypoxic stimuli induced interstitial renin expression, suggesting that blood pressure reduction triggers interstitial renin induction in anaemic mice. The interstitial renin expression was also detected in injured fibrotic kidneys of the mouse and human, and the renin-expressing interstitial cells in murine fibrotic kidneys were identified as myofibroblasts originating from renal interstitial fibroblasts. Since the elevated expression levels of renin in fibrotic kidneys along with progression of renal fibrosis were well correlated to the systemic blood pressure increase, the renal interstitial renin production seemed to affect systemic blood pressure. INTERPRETATION: Renal interstitial fibroblasts function as central controllers of systemic oxygen delivery by producing both renin and erythropoietin. FUNDING: Grants-in-Aid from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (17K19680, 15H04691, and 26111002) and the Takeda Science Foundation.

13.
Hum Genome Var ; 8(1): 2, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452237

RESUMO

Bone dysplasias are a group of rare hereditary diseases, with up to 436 disease types. Perinatal diagnosis is clinically important for adequate personalized management and counseling. There are no reports focused on pathogenic variants of bone dysplasias in the general population. In this study, we focused on autosomal recessive bone dysplasias. We identified pathogenic variants using whole-genome reference panel data from 3552 Japanese individuals. For the first time, we were able to estimate the carrier frequencies and the proportions of potential patients. For autosomal recessive bone dysplasias, we detected 198 pathogenic variants of 54 causative genes. We estimated the variant carrier frequencies and the proportions of potential patients with variants associated with four clinically important bone dysplasias: osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), hypophosphatasia (HPP), asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (ATD), and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC). The proportions of potential patients with OI, ATD, and EvC based on pathogenic variants classified as "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" by InterVar were closer to the reported incidence rates in Japanese subjects. Furthermore, the proportions of potential patients with HPP variants classified as "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" in InterVar and "pathogenic" in ClinVar were closer to the reported incidence rates. For bone dysplasia, the findings of this study will provide a better understanding of the variant types and frequencies in the Japanese general population, and should be useful for clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, and personalized medicine.

15.
Exp Anim ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487610

RESUMO

Clarification of the criteria for managing animal health is essential to increase the reliability of experiments and ensure transparency in animal welfare. For experiments performed in space, there is no consensus on how to care for animals owing to technical issues, launch mass limitation, and human resources. Some biological processes in mammals, such as musculoskeletal or immune processes, are altered in the space environment, and mice in space can be used to simulate morbid states, such as senescence acceleration. Thus, there is a need to establish a novel evaluation method and evaluation criteria to monitor animal health. Here, we report a novel method to evaluate the health of mice in space through a video downlink in a series of space experiments using the Multiple Artificial-gravity Research System (MARS). This method was found to be more useful in evaluating animal health in space than observations and body weight changes of the same live mice following their return to Earth. We also developed criteria to evaluate health status via a video downlink. These criteria, with "Fur condition" and "Respiratory" as key items, provided information on the daily changes in the health status of mice and helped to identify malfunctions at an early stage. Our method and criteria led to the success of our missions, and they will help establish appropriate rules for space experiments in the future.

16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(1): 591, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514124

RESUMO

Mt. Shinmoedake, a part of the Mt. Kirishima cluster of volcanoes in Kyushu, Japan, erupted on 10 March 2018. Our infrasound sensor network located at a distance of more than 200 km from the source detected signals emitted by an explosive eruption of Mt. Shinmoedake. The arrival time of the signals is divided into three time intervals. To reveal how the observed infrasound signals propagated from the source to the sensors, we carry out three-dimensional ray tracing on the basis of the Hamilton equations including the vertical profiles of the temperature and wind around the ray path. We present formulas for calculating travel time and distance of infrasound from a source to an observation site and its turning altitude in the atmosphere. We have identified four kinds of signals, namely, the waves propagated in the troposphere undergoing multiple refraction and those refracting from the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the lower thermosphere. Brief discussion is devoted to some of the unidentified signals.

17.
Life Sci ; 269: 119075, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) is an essential growth factor for erythroid cells and is mainly secreted from the kidneys and subsidiarily from the livers of adult mammals in an anemia/hypoxia-inducible manner. AIM AND METHOD: To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of stress-inducible and cell type-specific Epo gene transcription, the rate-limiting step of EPO production, we investigated the sufficiency of a 180-kb genomic fragment flanking the mouse Epo gene locus for recapitulating endogenous Epo gene function by a transgene complementation strategy. KEY FINDINGS: While Epo gene-deficient mice exhibited lethal anemia in utero with defects in erythroblast proliferation and maturation, Epo-knockout mice integrated with the 180-kb Epo transgene showed normal erythropoiesis throughout life. In the transgene-rescued mice, liver-specific deletion of the transgene by the Cre-loxP recombination system caused neonatal anemia with erythropoietic defects in the liver but not in the spleen, indicating the essential function of hepatic EPO on normal erythropoiesis in the liver, which is the major erythropoietic site in late embryonic and neonatal stages. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that the 180 kb Epo gene flanking region contains the fully functional Epo gene unit and that EPO from the liver dominantly stimulates hepatic erythropoiesis but contributes less to erythropoiesis in other organs.


Assuntos
Anemia/prevenção & controle , Eritropoese , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Transgenes/fisiologia , Anemia/genética , Anemia/patologia , Animais , Eritropoetina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 226, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431880

RESUMO

The complete human genome sequence is used as a reference for next-generation sequencing analyses. However, some ethnic ancestries are under-represented in the reference genome (e.g., GRCh37) due to its bias toward European and African ancestries. Here, we perform de novo assembly of three Japanese male genomes using > 100× Pacific Biosciences long reads and Bionano Genomics optical maps per sample. We integrate the genomes using the major allele for consensus and anchor the scaffolds using genetic and radiation hybrid maps to reconstruct each chromosome. The resulting genome sequence, JG1, is contiguous, accurate, and carries the Japanese major allele at most loci. We adopt JG1 as the reference for confirmatory exome re-analyses of seven rare-disease Japanese families and find that re-analysis using JG1 reduces total candidate variant calls versus GRCh37 while retaining disease-causing variants. These results suggest that integrating multiple genomes from a single population can aid genome analyses of that population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genoma Humano , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
19.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298526

RESUMO

The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of genes involved in antioxidant defenses to modulate fundamental cellular processes such as mitochondrial function and glutathione metabolism. Previous reports proposed that mitochondrial ROS production and disruption of the glutathione pool activate the Nrf2 pathway, suggesting that Nrf2 senses mitochondrial redox signals and/or oxidative damage and signals to the nucleus to respond appropriately. However, until now it has not been possible to disentangle the overlapping effects of mitochondrial superoxide/ hydrogen peroxide production as a redox signal from changes to mitochondrial thiol homeostasis on Nrf2. Recently, we developed mitochondria-targeted reagents that can independently induce mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production (MitoPQ), or selectively disrupt mitochondrial thiol homeostasis (MitoCDNB). Using these reagents, here we have determined how enhanced generation of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, or disruption of mitochondrial thiol homeostasis affect activation of the Nrf2 system in cells, which was assessed by Nrf2 protein level, nuclear translocation and expression of its target genes. We found that selective disruption of the mitochondrial glutathione pool and inhibition of its thioredoxin system by MitoCDNB led to Nrf2 activation, while using MitoPQ to enhance production of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide alone did not. We further showed that Nrf2 activation by MitoCDNB requires cysteine sensors of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). These findings provide important information on how disruption to mitochondrial redox homeostasis is sensed in the cytoplasm and signaled to the nucleus.

20.
Mol Cell Biol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257504

RESUMO

Nrf2 is essential for cytoprotection against carcinogens, and through systemic Nrf2-knockout mice, Nrf2-deficient cells were shown to be susceptible to chemical carcinogens and prone to developing cancers. However, the oncogenic potential of Nrf2-deficient epithelial cells surrounded by normal cells in the esophagus could not be assessed by previous models, and the fate of Nrf2-deficient cells in such situations remains elusive. In this study, therefore, we generated mice that harbor almost equal levels of Nrf2-deficient and Nrf2-intact cells in the basal layer of the esophageal epithelium utilizing inducible Cre-mediated recombination of Nrf2 alleles in adults through moderate use of tamoxifen. In this mouse model, Nrf2-deleted epithelial cells were maintained with no obvious decrease or phenotypic changes for 12 weeks under unstressed conditions. Upon exposure to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), the Nrf2-deleted cells accumulated DNA damage and selectively disappeared from the epithelium, so almost all 4NQO-induced tumors originated from Nrf2-intact cells and not from Nrf2-deleted cells. We propose that Nrf2-deleted cells do not undergo carcinogenesis due to selective elimination upon exposure to 4NQO, indicating that cellular Nrf2 abundance and the epithelial environment determine the cell fate or oncogenic potential of esophageal epithelial cells in 4NQO-induced carcinogenesis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...