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1.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424780

RESUMO

Osimertinib is a molecularly targeted agent used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation. However, its efficacy and safety profile when patients have poor performance status (PS) is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an open-label, multi-center, single-arm phase II study to evaluate its efficacy and safety in EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS scores of between 2 and 4. Patients received 80 mg of osimertinib once daily. Our primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Eighteen patients were enrolled between June 2017 and November 2018. The median age was 77 years (range: 55-85 years). Ten, six, and two patients had PS scores of 2, 3, and 4, respectively. All patients had adenocarcinoma with common EGFR mutations and had been treated with first- or second-generation EGFR- tyrosine kinase inhibitors previously. The overall median progression-free survival was 7.0 months (90% confidence interval: 5.5-8.9 months). The overall response rate and median overall survival were 53% and 12.7 months, respectively. Moreover, improved PS scores were observed in 72% of the patients. Although the incidence of grade 3 adverse events was low, with no grade 4 or 5 events observed, three patients required treatment cessation due to the development of interstitial lung disease. Osimertinib therapy could be beneficial for EGFR T790M mutation-positive advanced NSCLC patients with poor PS. This trial was registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials on March 12, 2019 (trial no. jRCT1041180081).

2.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546520914911, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pitch velocity is associated with elbow injuries among skillful baseball players. However, the relationship between pitch velocity and throwing elbow injuries among youth players has not yet been clarified. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of pitch velocity on medial elbow pain and medial epicondyle abnormality among youth baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: The participants consisted of 256 elementary school players (mean age, 11 ± 1 years; range, 9-12 years). The medial aspect of the elbow was evaluated using ultrasound imaging. A questionnaire was used to investigate past or present pain in the elbow, background of the players (age, height, body mass index, and years of baseball experience), and playing environment (number of days of practice in a week, experience as a pitcher, and cryotherapy of the shoulder and elbow after practice). Positioning of the scapula, range of motion in shoulder internal/external rotations and hip internal rotation, angle of the straight-leg raise, and heel-to-buttock distance were measured. The pitch velocity was recorded using a pitch velocity radar gun. The relationship between these variables and the presence of medial epicondyle abnormality, as well as past or present elbow pain, were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: A medial epicondyle abnormality was observed in 130 players (51%), elbow pain in the past in 65 players (25%), and elbow pain during the examination in 14 players (5%). Sixty-nine players (27%) experienced elbow pain either in the past or during examination. Abnormality of the medial epicondyle had a relationship with the pitch velocity (odds ratio [OR], 1.1 for increase of 1 km/h; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P < .0001) and the number of practice days in a week (OR, 1.8 for increase of the practice days; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5; P < .0001). Pitch velocity was also significantly related with past pain, present pain, and past and/or present pain of the elbow (OR [km/h], 1.1, 1.1, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, 1.0-1.2, 1.1-1.2; P < .0001, P = .002, P < .0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Pitch velocity was significantly associated with abnormality of the medial epicondyle and elbow pain. A 10-km/h increase in pitch velocity would increase the risk of medial epicondyle abnormality and medial elbow pain by 3 times.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902674, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of pemetrexed plus cisplatin versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with pathologic stage II-IIIA nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized, open-label, phase III study at 50 institutions within 7 clinical study groups in Japan. Patients with completely resected pathologic stage II-IIIA (TNM 7th edition) nonsquamous NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive either pemetrexed (500 mg/m2, day 1) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m2, day 1) or vinorelbine (25 mg/m2, days 1 and 8) plus cisplatin (80 mg/m2, day 1) with stratification by sex, age, pathologic stage, EGFR mutation, and institution. These treatments were planned to be given every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival in the modified intent-to-treat population, excluding ineligible patients. RESULT: Between March 2012 and August 2016, 804 patients were enrolled (402 assigned to vinorelbine plus cisplatin and 402 assigned to pemetrexed plus cisplatin). Of 784 eligible patients, 410 (52%) had stage IIIA disease and 192 (24%) had EGFR-sensitive mutations. At a median follow-up of 45.2 months, median recurrence-free survival was 37.3 months for vinorelbine plus cisplatin and 38.9 months for pemetrexed plus cisplatin, with a hazard ratio of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.20; 1-sided P = .474). Grade 3-4 toxicities reported more frequently for vinorelbine plus cisplatin than for pemetrexed plus cisplatin were febrile neutropenia (11.6% v 0.3%, respectively), neutropenia (81.1% v 22.7%, respectively), and anemia (9.3% v 2.8%, respectively). One treatment-related death occurred in each arm. CONCLUSION: Although this study failed to show the superiority of pemetrexed plus cisplatin for patients with resected nonsquamous NSCLC, this regimen showed a better tolerability as adjuvant chemotherapy.

4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a paradigm shift to platinum combination therapy together with an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI). Bevacizumab is expected to enhance not only chemotherapy but also the efficacy of ICIs through blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated immunosuppression. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 study (APPLE, WJOG11218L, JapicCTI-194565) to evaluate the additional effect of bevacizumab administered together with platinum combination therapy and the ICI atezolizumab in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cytotoxic chemotherapy-naive patients aged 20 years or older with a performance status of 0 or 1 are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either atezolizumab plus pemetrexed/carboplatin or atezolizumab, pemetrexed/carboplatin, and bevacizumab. Patients with genetic driver alterations such as those affecting EGFR or ALK are included if they have experienced disease progression or unacceptable adverse effects during treatment with at least one approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor. After 4 cycles of induction therapy, maintenance therapy with atezolizumab plus pemetrexed or with atezolizumab, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab is administered for up to 2 years until evidence of disease progression or development of unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point is progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: This is a phase 3 study to investigate the effect of adding bevacizumab to an ICI and platinum/pemetrexed combination therapy. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide a new standard treatment for cytotoxic chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 370, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are highly responsive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, it has been reported that approximately 15-30% of patients treated with EGFR-TKIs experience central nervous system (CNS) progression, and patients with EGFR mutations exhibit a higher incidence of brain metastasis than those without such mutations. The efficacy of osimertinib for treating CNS metastasis has been reported, but its efficacy for CNS metastasis in radiotherapy-naïve patients is unclear. METHODS: In the present prospective two-cohort phase II trial, 65 patients (T790M cohort, 40 patients; first-line cohort, 25 patients) with radiotherapy-naïve CNS metastasis of EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will be included. Patients will be treated once-daily with osimertinib 80 mg. The primary endpoint is the response rate of brain metastasis as assessed using the PAREXEL criteria. Key secondary endpoints are progression-free survival and the response rate of brain metastasis as assessed using the RECIST criteria. We will exploratorily analyze the relationships of the blood concentration of osimertinib with its efficacy against brain metastasis of NSCLC and the accumulation of osimertinib in cerebrospinal fluid and evaluate tumor-derived DNA from plasma specimens for mutations in EGFR and other genes. Recruitment, which in October 2016, is ongoing. DISCUSSION: Although previous reports revealed the efficacy of osimertinib for CNS metastasis, these reports only involved subgroup analysis, and the efficacy of osimertinib for patients with previously untreated CNS metastasis remains unclear. The OCEAN study is the only trial of osimertinib for patients with untreated brain metastasis of NSCLC. This study should provide novel data about osimertinib. If the results of the OCEAN study are positive, then avoidance of radiotherapy will be recommended to patients harboring EGFR mutations and brain metastasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN identifier: UMIN000024218 (date of initial registration: 29 September 2016). jRCT identifier: jRCTs071180017 (date of initial registration: 13 February 2019).

6.
Oncologist ; 25(4): 306-e618, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297438

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Alectinib confers a pronounced survival benefit in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive non-small cell lung cancer and a poor performance status. Survival benefit of alectinib for patients with a poor performance status was consistent regardless of the presence of central nervous system metastases. BACKGROUND: We previously reported a marked objective response rate (ORR) and safety for alectinib treatment in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a poor performance status (PS) in the Lung Oncology Group in Kyushu (LOGiK) 1401 study. It remained unclear, however, whether alectinib might also confer a long-term survival benefit in such patients. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ALK rearrangement-positive advanced NSCLC and a PS of 2, 3, or 4 (n = 12, 5, and 1, respectively) were enrolled in LOGiK1401 between September 2014 and December 2015 and received alectinib. We have now updated the survival data for the study. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for all patients was 27.3 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.1-30.8 months), and the median survival time (MST) and the 3-year overall survival rate were 30.3 months (95% CI, 11.5 months to not reached) and 43.8% (95% CI, 20.8-64.7%), respectively. This survival benefit was similarly manifest in patients with a PS of 2 (MST, 20.5 months) and those with a PS of ≥3 (MST, not reached). PFS did not differ between patients with or without central nervous system (CNS) metastases at baseline (median of 17.5 and 16.2 months, respectively, p = .886). CONCLUSION: Alectinib showed a pronounced survival benefit for patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC and a poor PS regardless of the presence of CNS metastases, a patient population for which chemotherapy is not indicated.

7.
Oncologist ; 25(4): e679-e683, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although predictive value of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been suggested by several studies, their assessments were insufficient because patients were categorized only by the occurrence of irAEs. It has not been elucidated whether irAEs also play a significant role even in responders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2015 and September 2018, 106 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with ICIs were enrolled in our prospective biomarker study. Twenty-three of these were responders, defined as those with complete or partial response. We investigated the proportion of irAEs among overall and responders. For responders, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival of ICIs were compared between those with and without irAEs. As an exploratory analysis, we measured 41 proteins from peripheral blood before and after ICI treatment. RESULTS: The proportion of irAEs was significantly higher in responders than nonresponders (65.2% vs. 19.3%, p < .01). Among responders, clinical characteristics did not differ regardless of the occurrence of irAEs. However, there was a significant difference in PFS among responders (irAE group 19.1 months vs. non-irAE group 5.6 months; hazard ratio: 0.30 [95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.85]; p = .02). Of 41 protein analyses, fibroblast growth factor-2 at baseline and monocyte chemoattractant protein fold change showed significant differences between them (p < .04). CONCLUSION: Although this is a small sample-sized study, irAE might be a predictive factor of durable efficacy, even in patients who responded to ICIs. Investigation into the significance of irAEs in responders will contribute to the establishment of optimal administration of ICI. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Although the predictive value of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been suggested by several studies, it has not been elucidated whether irAEs also play a significant role even in responders. This study showed that more than 60% of responders had irAEs. It demonstrated the strong correlation between irAEs and efficacy even in responders. Investigation into the significance of irAEs in responders will contribute to the establishment of optimal administration of ICI.

8.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246224

RESUMO

Introduction TAS-114 is a potent inhibitor of deoxyuridine triphosphatase, which is a gatekeeper protein preventing uracil and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) misincorporation into DNA. TAS-114 has been suggested to enhance the antitumor activity of 5-FU. This randomized, phase 2 study investigated TAS-114 plus S-1 (TAS-114/S-1) vs. S-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Patients with advanced NSCLC, previously treated with ≥ 2 regimens, were randomized 1:1 to receive TAS-114 (400 mg)/S-1 (30 mg/m2) or S-1 (30 mg/m2). Progression-free survival (PFS, independent central review) was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety. Results In total, 127 patients received treatment. Median PFS was 3.65 and 4.17 months in the TAS-114/S-1 and S-1 groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.88; P = 0.2744). DCR was similar between groups (TAS-114/S-1 80.3%, S-1 75.9%) and median OS was 7.92 and 9.82 months for the TAS-114/S-1 and S-1 groups, respectively (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80-2.14; P = 0.1431). The ORR was higher in the TAS-114/S-1 group than the S-1 group (19.7% vs. 10.3%), and more patients with tumor shrinkage were observed in the TAS-114/S-1 group. Incidence rates of anemia, skin toxicities, and Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events were higher in the TAS-114/S-1 group compared with the monotherapy group. Conclusions Although the TAS-114/S-1 combination improved the response rate, this did not translate into improvements in PFS. Clinical Trial Registration No. NCT02855125 (ClinicalTrials.gov) registered on 4 August 2016.

9.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281306

RESUMO

Water and energy systems are interdependent: water is utilized in each stage of energy production, and energy is required to extract, treat, and deliver water for many uses. However, energy and water systems are usually developed and managed independently. In the quest to develop environmentally friendly and energy-efficient solutions for water and energy issues, photoelectrochemical (PEC) energy conversion and microbial electrochemical (MEC) systems show profound potential for addressing environmental remediation problems and harvesting energy simultaneously. Herein, PEC, MEC, and their variant hybrid systems toward energy conversion and environmental remediation are summarized and discussed.

10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1867-1874, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Molecular targeted agents have been successfully developed against solid tumors and their use is also being investigated for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We have previously reported von Hippel Lindau (VHL) mutations detected by massive parallel sequencing technology in samples of patients with MPM. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to investigate the therapeutic approaches in VHL-mutant MPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three MPM cell lines with or without a VHL mutation were used and the effects of molecular-targeted agents on growth inhibition were evaluated. Based on the characteristics of the molecular targeted agents that exhibited growth inhibitory effect, the effects of knockdown by siRNA were also evaluated. RESULTS: NCI-H28 MPM cells harboring the VHL L89H mutation were sensitive to YC-1, known as an inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and YC-1treatment induced massive apoptosis in a dose-and-time-dependent manner. Knockdown of HIF-1α by siRNA partially inhibited the growth of NCI-H28 cells, suggesting that an additional blockade may be required to completely inhibit growth signaling. CONCLUSION: The VHL mutation may predict tumor responses to YC-1, a HIF-1α inhibitor.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Indazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/patologia , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 337-343, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151185

RESUMO

The outcomes of osteosarcoma with poor prognostic factors, such as poor responders, metastatic disease at diagnosis, and relapsed or refractory disease, are poor. We reviewed the clinical records of the patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma at our institute between 2004 and 2018 who received high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in our institute. Ten patients of osteosarcoma with poor responder, refractory status, and metastatic disease at diagnosis received high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT. Four patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT with the conditioning regimen consisted of thiotepa and melphalan (MEL). Five patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT with the conditioning regimen consisted of intravenous busulfan (BU) and MEL. One patient underwent tandem high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT with BU and MEL followed by carboplatin and etoposide. None of the ten patients died of regimen related toxicities. None of the five patients with poor responders who underwent high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT as part of consolidation therapy died of disease after ASCT. High-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT might be effective for poor responders in osteosarcoma.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; : e196828, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163097

RESUMO

Importance: Few clinical trials have been specifically designed for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the anticipated increase in the number of such patients has prompted a search for new treatment options that provide a greater palliative benefit. Objective: To determine whether treatment with carboplatin plus pemetrexed followed by pemetrexed maintenance is noninferior compared with docetaxel monotherapy with regard to overall survival (OS) for elderly patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, multicenter, noninferiority phase 3 randomized clinical trial was conducted at 79 institutions in Japan. Cytotoxic chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and age of 75 years or older were enrolled between August 2013 and February 2017. Data were analyzed from November 2018 to February 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either docetaxel monotherapy (60 mg/m2) every 3 weeks or 4 cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve of 5) plus pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) administered every 3 weeks followed by maintenance therapy with the same dose of pemetrexed for 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was OS analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis with a noninferiority margin of 1.154 for the upper limit of the 95% CI of the hazard ratio (HR) estimated with a stratified Cox regression model. Results: Of the 433 enrolled patients, 250 (57.7%) were male, and the median (range) age was 78 (75-88) years. The median OS was 15.5 months (95% CI, 13.6-18.4) in the docetaxel group (n = 217) and 18.7 months (95% CI, 16.0-21.9) in the carboplatin-pemetrexed group (n = 216), with a stratified HR for OS of 0.850 (95% CI, 0.684-1.056; P for noninferiority = .003). Progression-free survival was also longer in the carboplatin-pemetrexed group (unstratified HR, 0.739; 95% CI, 0.609-0.896). Compared with those in the docetaxel group, those in the carboplatin-pemetrexed had lower rates of leukopenia (60 of 214 [28.0%] vs 147 of 214 [68.7%]) and neutropenia (99 of 214 [46.3%] vs 184 of 214 [86.0%]) of grade 3 or 4 and of febrile neutropenia (9 of 214 [4.2%] vs 38 of 214 [17.8%]) and higher rates of thrombocytopenia (55 of 214 [25.7%] vs 3 of 214 [1.4%]) and anemia (63 of 214 [29.4%] vs 4 of 214 [1.9%]) of grade 3 or 4. Dose reductions were less frequent with carboplatin-pemetrexed. Conclusion and Relevance: Carboplatin-pemetrexed treatment followed by pemetrexed maintenance is a valid option for first-line treatment of elderly patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Trial Registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: UMIN000011460.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152703

RESUMO

The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in elderly and poor performance status (PS) patients is controversial, because clinical evidence is limited. This study aimed to find a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies in these patient populations. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who were ≥ 75 years of age or classified as PS 2 and received anti-PD-1 antibody treatment between December 2015 and May 2018. We evaluated the association between the efficacy of the anti-PD-1 antibody in these patients and the clinical variables thought to affect ICI efficacy. A total of 235 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies, among whom 31 patients were ≥ 75 years of age and 22 were PS 2. A Cox proportional hazard model showed that only high levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly associated with a shorter progression-free survival in patients aged ≥ 75 years and those with PS 2. Among these cohorts, the overall response rate to anti-PD-1 treatment tended to be lower when serum VEGF was high compared to patients with low serum VEGF. Our results demonstrate that serum VEGF concentration may be a negative predictive biomarker in elderly and poor PS advanced NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody treatment. This finding may help identify patients who will not benefit from anti-PD-1 antibody therapy.

14.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e13696, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196880

RESUMO

This prospective observational study analyzed the pharmacokinetics of busulfan in Japanese children and evaluated the predicting accuracy of previous pediatric PPK models of busulfan. This study enrolled five patients (aged 2-12 years, BW 14-48 kg) receiving a busulfan-based conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our hospital between January 2017 and December 2018. All patients received a 2-hour intravenous busulfan infusion four times daily for a total of 16 doses. After the infusions, 51 plasma samples were collected with the plasma busulfan concentration measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PPK model fitting was analyzed using the (%MPE) and the (%MAPE). Limited sampling strategies for estimating busulfan AUC were also evaluated. High interpatient variability was observed in the PK parameters. The most suitable PPK model that reflected our data was McCune's two-compartment model (%MPE -8.7, %MAPE 19.3). A combination sampling method using the busulfan concentration at 2 and 6 hours after the start of the first busulfan dose was found to be able to estimate AUC4 day . These results provide useful information on busulfan therapeutic drug monitoring in the Japanese pediatric population.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 103, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitizing mutation, exon 19 deletion consists of several molecular variants. Influences of these variants on clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors remain elusive. METHODS: West Japan Oncology Group 8114LTR is a prospective, multi-institutional biomarker study. Treatment naïve, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR-sensitizing mutation received afatinib monotherapy. We conducted a preplanned subset analysis of patients harboring exon 19 deletion. Tumor tissue exon 19 deletion molecular variants were identified by blocking-oligo-dependent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by Luminex Technology. Plasma cfDNA was also obtained before and after the treatment and EGFR mutations were detected with multiplexed, pico-droplet digital PCR assay. RESULTS: Among 57 registered patients, twenty-nine patients were exon 19 deletion. Tissue DNA and cfDNA were available in 26 patients. Among the detected seven molecular variants, the most frequent was p.E746_A750delELREA (65.4%). According to the various classifications of molecular variants, twenty one (80.8%) were classified into 15-nucleotide deletion, one (3.8%) into 18-nucleotide deletion, and four patients (15.4%) into other insertion/substitution variant subgroups. The patient subgroup with 15-nucleotide deletion showed significantly longer progression-free survival than patients in other mixed insertion/substitution variant subgroup (p = 0.0244). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical significance of molecular variants of exon 19 deletion on the first line afatinib monotherapy is reported here for the first time. Further investigation is needed for development of better therapeutic strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry at 2014/12/4 (UMIN000015847).

16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that chemotherapy after immune checkpoint inhibitors may confer an improved response for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, potential selection bias in such studies has not been addressed. We therefore applied propensity score analysis to investigate the efficacy of chemotherapy after PD-1 inhibitor treatment (CAP) compared with chemotherapy alone. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study for patients treated at 47 institutions across Japan between April 1, 2014 and July 31, 2017. Eligible patients had advanced or recurrent NSCLC who have undergone chemotherapy. Patients subsequently treated with chemotherapy (docetaxel with or without ramucirumab, S-1 or pemetrexed) either after PD-1 inhibitor therapy (CAP cohort) or alone (control cohort) were included. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was applied to adjust for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 1439 patients (243 and 1196 in the CAP and control cohorts, respectively) was available for unadjusted analysis. Several baseline characteristics-including age, histology, EGFR or ALK genetic alterations, and brain metastasis-differed significantly between the two cohorts. After adjustment for patient characteristics with the IPW method, ORR was 18.9% for the CAP cohort and 11.0% for the control cohort (ORR ratio 1.71; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.46; p=0.004). IPW-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves showed that median progression-free survival (PFS) for the CAP and control cohorts was 2.8 and 2.7 months (IPW-adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.12; p=0.55), and median overall survival (OS) was 9.2 and 10.4 months (IPW-adjusted HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.28; p=0.63), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for selection bias by propensity score analysis, CAP showed a significantly higher ORR compared with chemotherapy alone, with the primary end point of ORR being achieved. However, these results did not translate into a PFS or OS advantage, suggesting that prior administration of PD-1 inhibitors may result in a synergistic antitumor effect with subsequent chemotherapy, but that such an effect is transient. CAP therefore does not appear to achieve durable tumor control or confer a lasting survival benefit.

17.
Cancer ; 126(9): 1940-1948, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsy allows the identification of patients whose tumors harbor specific mutations in a minimally invasive manner. No prospective data have been available for the efficacy of osimertinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who develop resistance to first- or second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and who test positive for the TKI resistance-conferring T790M mutation of EGFR by liquid biopsy. Therefore, a phase 2 study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in such patients. METHODS: Eligible patients had advanced or recurrent NSCLC with known TKI-sensitizing mutations of EGFR, had documented disease progression after treatment with at least 1 first- or second-generation EGFR TKI, and were positive for the T790M mutation in plasma according to the Cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 (Roche Diagnostics) or droplet digital polymerase chain reaction analysis. Patients were treated with osimertinib (80 mg/d) until disease progression. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) in patients positive for T790M in plasma by the Cobas assay. RESULTS: Between June 2016 and November 2017, 276 patients were screened for their T790M status with a liquid biopsy. Seventy-four patients were positive for T790M in plasma, and 53 of these individuals were enrolled in the study. The ORR for evaluable patients positive for T790M in plasma by the Cobas assay (n = 49) was 55.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2%-69.3%). The median progression-free survival for all evaluable patients (n = 52) was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.9-12.6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the utility of liquid biopsy for the detection of T790M with the Cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2. Plasma genotyping with this assay is informative for treatment selection in clinical practice when tumor sampling is not feasible.

18.
Cancer Med ; 9(6): 2122-2133, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999390

RESUMO

Noninvasive diagnostics using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are expected to be useful for decision making in precision cancer therapy. AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase is associated with tumor progression, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and drug resistance, and is a potential therapeutic target. However, the epithelial markers generally used for CTC detection may be not enough to detect AXL-expressing CTCs due to EMT. Here, we evaluated the detection of AXL-expressing CTCs using the mesenchymal marker vimentin with a microcavity array system. To evaluate the recovery of cancer cells, spike-in experiments were performed using cell lines with varying cytokeratin (CK) or vimentin (VM) expression levels. With high CK and low VM-expressing cell lines, PC-9 and HCC827, the recovery rate of AXL-expressing cancer cells was 1%-17% using either CK or VM as markers. Whereas, with low CK and high VM-expressing cell lines, MDA-MB231 and H1299, it was 52%-75% using CK and 72%-88% using VM as a marker. For clinical evaluation, peripheral blood was collected from 20 non-small cell lung cancer patients and CTCs were detected using CK or VM as markers in parallel. Significantly more AXL-expressing single CTCs were detected in VM-positive than CK-positive CTCs (P < .001). Furthermore, CTC clusters were identified only among VM-positive CTCs in 20% of patients. Patients with one or more prior treatments harbored significantly more VM-positive AXL-expressing CTCs, suggesting the involvement of these CTCs in drug resistance. These results indicate the necessity of integrating mesenchymal markers with CTC detection and this should be further evaluated clinically.

19.
Future Oncol ; 16(4): 49-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922425

RESUMO

Aim: Acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors is inevitable in non-small-cell lung cancer. To inform subsequent treatment decisions, we retrospectively assessed therapies following afatinib in Japanese patients from LUX-Lung 3. Patients & methods: LUX-Lung 3 was a randomized, open-label, Phase III study of afatinib versus cisplatin/pemetrexed in treatment-naive patients with EGFR mutation-positive (EGFRm+) advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Results: Among 47 Japanese patients who discontinued first-line afatinib, 91/81/62% received ≥one/two/three subsequent therapies. The most common second-line therapies were platinum-based chemotherapy (38%) and a first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (17%). Median overall survival (afatinib vs cisplatin/pemetrexed) was 47.8 versus 35.0 months (not significant). Conclusion: First-line afatinib does not appear to diminish suitability for subsequent therapies in EGFRm+ non-small-cell lung cancer.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2198-2203, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944689

RESUMO

Diarylamines and related scaffolds are among the most common chemotypes in modern drug discovery. While they can potentially possess two chiral axes, there are no studies on their enantioselective synthesis, as these axes typically possess lower stereochemical stabilities. Herein, we report a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed atroposelective electrophilic halogenation of N-aryl quinoids, a class of compounds that are analogous to diarylamines. This chemistry yields a large range of stereochemically stable N-aryl quinoids in excellent yields and atroposelectivity. This work represents the first example of the atroposelective synthesis of a diarylamine-like scaffold and will serve as a gateway to fundamental and applied studies on the scarcely studied chirality of these ubiquitous chiral scaffolds.

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