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1.
Anal Biochem ; 633: 114423, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662572

RESUMO

A method was developed for determination of proteinaceous free amino acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The guanidino group of arginine in amino acid samples was modified with 1,2-cyclohexanedione at room temperature under basic conditions, and all amino acids were directly derivatized with isobutyl chloroformate. The amino acid derivatives formed were analyzed by GC-MS. The method developed was applied successfully for the determination of amino acids in the Japanese alcoholic beverage, sake.

2.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 127-135, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559598

RESUMO

Heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK L-137) promotes immune function in animals. In healthy people, T-cell proliferation was shown to be enhanced by taking 10 mg HK L-137 daily for 12 weeks. However, the safety and efficacy of higher doses or longer treatments have not yet been investigated in humans. To investigate the high-dose and long-term use effects of HK L-137 on immune-related safety and on host intestinal bacterial flora, 15 healthy volunteers took a daily HK L-137 (50 mg) preparation for 4 weeks. An additional 29 participants who regularly visited a clinic for health care took HK L-137 (10 mg) daily for 12 months. Measures for anthropometrics, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were taken at scheduled timepoints for all participants. Stool and blood samples were also collected and evaluated for microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); isolated T-cells were assessed for levels of proliferation induced by phytohemagglutinin in the long-term study. Adverse events or shifts in clinical measures from normal ranges due to the dietary intervention were not observed in the high-dose or long-term studies. Long-term intake also did not result in immune exhaustion due to any chronic immunostimulation; ex vivo T-cell proliferation was significantly greater at 12 months than at baseline (p < 0.01). In addition, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in stool samples was significantly lower at 12 months than at baseline (p < 0.05) due to the long-term intake of the HK L-137. Lastly, fecal SCFA concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) at 6 months than at baseline. From these data, it can be concluded that the efficacy of HK L-137 is maintained with no overt adverse effects as a result of high-dose and/or long-term consumption.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16535, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400739

RESUMO

Adaptive immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) dynamics remain largely unknown. The neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are helpful for understanding the pathology. Using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus, serum sample neutralization values in symptomatic COVID-19 patients were measured using the chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT). At least two sequential serum samples collected during hospitalization were analyzed to assess NAbs neutralizing activity dynamics at different time points. Of the 11 patients, four (36.4%), six (54.5%), and one (9.1%) had moderate, severe, and critical disease, respectively. Fifty percent neutralization (N50%-CRNT) was observed upon admission in 90.9% (10/11); all patients acquired neutralizing activity 2-12 days after onset. In patients with moderate disease, neutralization was observed at earliest within two days after symptom onset. In patients with severe-to-critical disease, neutralization activity increased, plateauing 9-16 days after onset. Neutralization activity on admission was significantly higher in patients with moderate disease than in patients with severe-to-critical disease (relative % of infectivity, 6.4% vs. 41.1%; P = .011). Neutralization activity on admission inversely correlated with disease severity. The rapid NAb response may play a crucial role in preventing the progression of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411312

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study performed at Toyama University Hospital included consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. RNAemia was detected in 19.6% (11/56) patients on admission, and subsequently in 1.0% (1/25), 50.0% (6/12), and 100.0% (4/4) moderate, severe, and critically ill patients, respectively. Patients with RNAemia required more frequent oxygen supplementation (90.0% vs. 13.3%), ICU admission (81.8% vs. 6.7%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (27.3% vs. 0.0%). Among patients with RNAemia, the median viral loads of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were collected around the same time as the serum sample were significantly higher in critically ill (5.4 log10 copies/µl; interquartile range [IQR]: 4.2-6.3) than in moderate-severe cases (2.6 log10 copies/µl; [IQR: 1.1-4.5]; p = 0.030) and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (6.2 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 6.0-6.5]) than in survivors (3.9 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 1.6-4.6]; p = 0.045). This study demonstrated a relatively high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity. Moreover, among the patients with RNAemia, the viral loads of NP swabs were correlated with disease severity and mortality, suggesting the potential utility of combining serum testing with NP tests as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19, with higher quality than each separate test.

7.
Gastric Cancer ; 24(5): 1102-1114, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-uninfected individuals, diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) was reported as the most common type of cancer. However, the carcinogenic mechanism of Hp-uninfected sporadic DGC is largely unknown. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing of Hp-uninfected DGCs and Hp-uninfected normal gastric mucosa. For advanced DGCs, external datasets were also analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (aged 29-78 years) with DGCs and nine normal subjects (28-77 years) were examined. The mutation burden in intramucosal DGCs (10-66 mutations per exome) from individuals aged 29-73 years was not very different from that in the normal gastric glands, which showed a constant mutation accumulation rate (0.33 mutations/exome/year). Unbiased dN/dS analysis showed that CDH1 somatic mutation was a driver mutation for intramucosal DGC. CDH1 mutation was more frequent in intramucosal DGCs (67%) than in advanced DGCs (27%). In contrast, TP53 mutation was more frequent in advanced DGCs (52%) than in intramucosal DGCs (0%). This discrepancy in mutations suggests that CDH1-mutated intramucosal DGCs make a relatively small contribution to advanced DGC formation. Among the 16 intramucosal DGCs (median size, 6.5 mm), 15 DGCs were pure signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) with reduced E-cadherin expression and a low proliferative capacity (median Ki-67 index, 2.4%). Five SRCCs reviewed endoscopically over 2-5 years showed no progression. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired E-cadherin function due to CDH1 mutation was considered as an early carcinogenic event of Hp-uninfected intramucosal SRCC. Genetic and clinical analyses suggest that Hp-uninfected intramucosal SRCCs may be less likely to develop into advanced DGCs.

8.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1122-1125, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853730

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the nasopharyngeal viral load at discharge or time of discontinued isolation in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to our hospital and discharged under the current symptom-based criteria in Japan. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hospitalized at Toyama University Hospital were included in the analysis. Nasopharyngeal viral load was measured when symptom-based criteria for discharge or end of isolation in the accommodations were met, and examined the relationship between viral load and days after onset or age. From the perspective of virus isolation limit, the amount of infectious viral load was defined at 50 copies/µL by nasopharyngeal sample. Thirty-three patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in the analysis, after excluding critical and fatal cases. Mean nasopharyngeal viral load at discharge or end of isolation was 1.90 log-copies/µL, and 64% of patients were discharged with over 50 copies/µL. No correlation was apparent between age and viral load at discharge, and viral load remained relatively high at discharge or end of isolation in all age groups. Although attempts at infectious virus isolation are necessary, infection control precautions even after discharge or discontinued isolation in accommodations may be needed, as the date of onset mostly depended on self-reporting by patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Japão , SARS-CoV-2 , Carga Viral
9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 1819-1826, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655718

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the differences in the prevalence, severity, and prognostic impact of malnutrition between patients with new-onset heart failure (HF) and worsening of chronic HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In older (≥60 years) hospitalized patients with acute HF, malnutrition was assessed according to the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). A score <92 was defined as malnutrition. The primary endpoint was a composite endpoint, including cardiac death or rehospitalization for HF. Among 210 patients, 37% (52/142) of patients with new-onset HF and 31% (21/68) of patients with worsening of chronic HF had malnutrition (P = 0.41). The GNRI classification was comparable between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant difference in the incidence of the composite endpoint in patients with new-onset HF (GNRI < 92 vs. GNRI ≥ 92: 50% vs. 32%, P = 0.007), but not in patients with worsening of chronic HF (GNRI < 92 vs. GNRI ≥ 92: 67% vs. 68%, P = 0.91). The adjusted Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that a GNRI of <92 was an independent prognostic factor for the composite endpoint in patients with new-onset HF only. CONCLUSIONS: Among older hospitalized patients with acute HF, the prevalence and severity of malnutrition were comparable between the two categories of patients. Malnutrition was an independent prognostic factor in patients with new-onset HF, while clinical prognosis was poor in patients with worsening of HF, irrespective of malnutrition. The prognostic impact of malnutrition differs between new-onset HF and worsening of chronic HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Desnutrição , Idoso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico
10.
Respir Investig ; 59(3): 270-290, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642231

RESUMO

Cough and sputum are common complaints at outpatient visits. In this digest version, we provide a general overview of these two symptoms and discuss the management of acute (up to three weeks) and prolonged/chronic cough (longer than three weeks). Flowcharts are provided, along with a step-by-step explanation of their diagnosis and management. Most cases of acute cough are due to an infection. In chronic respiratory illness, a cough could be a symptom of a respiratory infection such as pulmonary tuberculosis, malignancy such as a pulmonary tumor, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, drug-induced lung injury, heart failure, nasal sinus disease, sinobronchial syndrome, eosinophilic sinusitis, cough variant asthma (CVA), atopic cough, chronic laryngeal allergy, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and post-infectious cough. Antibiotics should not be prescribed for over-peak cough but can be considered for atypical infections. The exploration of a single/major cause is recommended for persistent/chronic cough. When sputum is present, a sputum smear/culture (general bacteria, mycobacteria), cytology, cell differentiation, chest computed tomography (CT), and sinus X-ray or CT should be performed. There are two types of rhinosinusitis. Conventional sinusitis and eosinophilic rhinosinusitis present primarily with neutrophilic inflammation and eosinophilic inflammation, respectively. The most common causes of dry cough include CVA, atopic cough/laryngeal allergy (chronic), GER, and post-infectious cough. In the last chapter, future challenges and perspectives are discussed. We hope that the clarification of the pathology of cough hypersensitivity syndrome will lead to further development of "pathology-specific non-specific therapeutic drugs" and provide benefits to patients with chronic refractory cough.


Assuntos
Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pneumologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Escarro , Doença Aguda , Asma , Doença Crônica , Tosse/classificação , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Japão , Masculino , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1119-1121, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the standard method for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This PCR test can be positive even in patients who have recovered from the disease, and the duration for achieving viral clearance has not been clarified yet. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 3, 2020, and June 17, 2020, at the Toyama University Hospital and the Toyama Rehabilitation Home. We collected the data of patients with COVID-19, analyzing the duration until twice-consecutive negative qRT-PCR test. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were enrolled. The median duration of the twice-consecutive negative qRT-PCR test was 29.0 d (interquartile range: 25.75-35.25). The longest duration of viral shedding was 73 d. The duration of viral clearance was significantly longer in the older (>65 years) group than in the younger group (34.5 d vs. 25.0 d, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that viral clearance tends to be sustained in the older adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 33-35, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746092

RESUMO

As of October 2020, there is still no specific drug to treat COVID-19 as it rages worldwide. Favipiravir, indicated for the treatment of new and re-emerging influenza infections, has been suggested to be effective against SARS-CoV-2, although this is not yet fully validated. We administered favipiravir to a 64-year-old female patient with COVID-19. Her symptoms resolved quickly after the start of treatment, with reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load, but she developed a fever again on day 12. Since the fever was relieved by discontinuation of favipiravir, and based on positive results with a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test, we diagnosed her with favipiravir-induced drug fever. A decrease in the serum concentration of favipiravir was observed along with resolution of the fever. The present case suggests that drug fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of relapsing fever episodes in COVID-19 patients receiving favipiravir.


Assuntos
Amidas/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/farmacologia , Amidas/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 13, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linezolid is administered as a fixed dose to all patients despite evidence of overexposure and thrombocytopenia in renal impairment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk of thrombocytopenia and the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and to propose alternate dosing regimens in patients with renal impairment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients ≥13 years old for whom serum linezolid trough concentration (Cmin) was measured during linezolid treatment. Patients with episodes of infection were divided into groups by presence of renal impairment (RI group) or absence of renal impairment (non-RI group), and by use of Cmin-based TDM (TDM group) or not (non-TDM group) during linezolid treatment. RESULTS: In the 108 patients examined by multivariable analyses, renal impairment was independently associated with increased risk of thrombocytopenia (OR 3.17, 95%CI 1.10-9.12) and higher Cmin. Analysis of the utility of TDM in the RI group showed that clinical failure rate was significantly lower in the TDM subgroup than in the non-TDM subgroup. Furthermore, in the RI group, dosage adjustments were needed in 90.5% of the TDM subgroup. All episodes administered a reduced dose of 300 mg every 12 h in the RI group showed Cmin ≥ 2.0 mg/L. Additional analysis of 53 episodes in which Cmin was measured within 48 h after starting administration showed that the initial standard dose for 2 days was sufficient to rapidly reach an effective therapeutic concentration in the RI group. CONCLUSIONS: Empirical dose reduction to 300 mg every 12 h after administration of the initial fixed dose for 2 days and Cmin-based TDM may improve safety outcomes while maintaining appropriate efficacy among patients with renal impairment.

14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(1): E62-E68, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Although tissue protrusion (TP) between the stent struts after stent implantation has been implicate as a potential factor of stent failure, the incidence, natural history, and predictive factor of TP after stent implantation remains unclear. This prospective study evaluated the fate of TP after drug-eluting stent (DES) deployment using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHOD AND RESULT: This study analyzed TP for 42 lesions after DES in which three serial OCTs, including preprocedure, postprocedure, and 1-month after the procedure were performed. TP was classified into the five groups: (a) persistent, (b) progressive, (c) healed, (d) regressive, and (e) late-acquired. Immediately after the procedure, 100 TPs in 37 lesions (88%) were identified. Of those, 53 (53%) were persistent, 3 (3%) were progressive, 20 (20%) were healed, and 24 (24%) were regressed at 1-month follow-up. Seven TPs in five patients (13%) were observed only at 1-month follow-up (late-acquired). CONCLUSION: In lesions with late-acquired TP, calcified nodule was identified as an underlying plaque morphology on preprocedural OCT. A serial OCT analysis found TP occurred not only immediately after DES implantation, but also 1-month after DES implantation.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(5): 2295-2300, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609520

RESUMO

Linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia is related to linezolid exposure, baseline platelet count and patient background. Although the relationship usually reflects the time of onset of thrombocytopenia, if the platelet maturation process is taken into account, the platelet decrease can be considered to have started at the beginning of treatment. To predict linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia, classification and regression tree (CART) analysis based on machine learning has been applied to identify predictive factors and cutoff values. We examined 74 patient data with or without linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia. Linezolid concentration and platelet count change, baseline platelet count, age, body weight and creatinine clearance estimate were evaluated as predictive factors for linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia. CART analysis selected the final tree containing two cutoff values: a platelet count reduction to less than 2.3% from baseline at 96 h after the initial dose and a linezolid concentration greater than or equal to 13.5 mg/L at 96 h after the initial dose. The targets for therapeutic intervention were concluded to be the linezolid concentration and the platelet change from baseline at 96 h after the initial dose. These cutoff values occur prior to the onset of thrombocytopenia and should be monitored to avoid linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Trombocitopenia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linezolida/efeitos adversos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Contagem de Plaquetas , Fatores de Risco , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente
16.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(1): 8-19, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639713

RESUMO

Foam nests of frogs are natural biosurfactants that contain potential compounds for biocompatible materials, Drug Delivery System (DDS), emulsifiers, and bioremediation. To elucidate the protein components in the foam nests of Rhacophorus arboreus, which is an endemic Japanese frog species commonly seen during the rainy season, we performed amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using intact foam nests. Many proteins were detected in these foam nests, ranging from a few to several hundred kDa, with both essential and non-essential amino acids. Next, we performed transcriptome analysis using a next-generation sequencer on total RNAs extracted from oviducts before egg-laying. The soluble foam nests were purified by LC-MS and analyzed using Edman degradation, and the identified N-terminal sequences were matched to the transcriptome data. Four proteins that shared significant sequence homologies with extracellular superoxide dismutase of Nanorana parkeri, vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 homolog of Xenopus tropicalis, ranasmurfin of Polypedates leucomystax, and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin of Sorex araneus were identified. Prior to purification of the foam nests, they were treated with both a reducing reagent and an alkylating agent, and LC-MS/ MS analyses were performed. We identified 22 proteins in the foam nests that were homologous with proteinase inhibitors, ribonuclease, glycoproteins, antimicrobial protein and barrier, immunoglobulin-binding proteins, glycoprotein binding protein, colored protein, and keratin-associated protein. The presence of these proteins in foam nests, along with small molecules, such as carbohydrates and sugars, would protect them against microbial and parasitic attack, oxidative stress, and a shortage of moisture.


Assuntos
Anuros/metabolismo , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Oviductos/metabolismo , Proteoma , Animais , Anuros/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 2699-2708, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olanzapine 10 mg is recommended for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there is a possibility that 5 mg can be expected to be sufficiently effective. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine 5 mg for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. METHODS: A single-arm prospective trial of olanzapine 5 mg every 24 h for 72 h was conducted to treat breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving carboplatinbased chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was total control (i.e., no emesis, no nausea, and no rescue medications) over 72 h. The secondary endpoints were early efficacy using the nausea scores at 30, 60, and 120 min after taking olanzapine from baseline and adverse events. RESULTS: Among 84 potentially eligible patients, 19 patients who took olanzapine for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting were examined. The total control rate was 32% (95% CI: 13- 57%), 65% (95% CI: 38-89%), 65% (95% CI: 38-89%), and 29% (95% CI: 10-56%) during 2-24, 24-48, 48-72 h, and overall period, respectively. The nausea scale significantly reduced after 30 min (P=0.0078), and the scale had been reduced by 67% from the baseline after 60 min. The adverse event of somnolence of any grade was observed in 13 (68%) patients, 6 (32%) of whom had grade 2 and 1 (5%) grade 3 somnolence. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine 5 mg did not show the expected effect on the complete disappearance of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting within 24 h.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Antineoplásicos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
18.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245869, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481903

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Degenerative aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a chronic progressive disease that resembles atherosclerosis development. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is reportedly associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. This study aimed to examine the development of AS in patients with myeloperoxidase-AAV (MPO-AAV) with renal involvement at more than 1 year after the onset of vasculitis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of clinical records of MPO-AAV patients with renal involvement without AS at the onset of vasculitis who were treated in three hospitals and three dialysis clinics. RESULTS: The study included 97 MPO-AAV patients with renal involvement and 230 control patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among them, 64 patients had AS. The prevalence rates of AS were 28.9% and 15.7% in MPO-AAV and control patients, respectively (p = 0.006). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that MPO-AAV, dialysis dependence, and hypertension were independently associated factors for AS. In MPO-AAV patients, systolic blood pressure was positively significantly associated with AS, whereas glucocorticoid dose of induction therapy was negatively significantly associated. The use of cyclophosphamide tended to be negatively associated with AS. The survival rate was significantly lower for patients with AS than for those without AS. CONCLUSIONS: The AS prevalence rate was significantly higher in MPO-AAV patients at more than 1 year after the onset of vasculitis than in control CKD patients. Therefore, regular monitoring of echocardiography during MPO-AAV treatment is suggested.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Rim/patologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Virol J ; 18(1): 16, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen, which makes manipulating it relatively difficult due to its infectious nature. METHODS: To circumvent the need for BSL-3 laboratories, an alternative assay was developed that avoids live virus and instead uses a recombinant VSV expressing luciferase and possesses the full length or truncated spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions, a chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT) for SARS-CoV-2 was developed. The neutralization values of the serum samples collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative donors against the pseudotyped virus infection evaluated by the CRNT were compared with antibody titers determined from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). RESULTS: The CRNT, which used whole blood collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was also examined. As a result, the inhibition of pseudotyped virus infection was specifically observed in both serum and whole blood and was also correlated with the results of the IFA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the CRNT for COVID-19 is a convenient assay system that can be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory with high specificity and sensitivity for evaluating the occurrence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Convalescença , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Luminescência , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 165-171, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aims of this study were (a) to assess the development ratio of hyponatremia during treatment with linezolid and (b) to evaluate the relationship between the risk of hyponatremia and linezolid exposure and patient background. METHOD: Clinical data including linezolid serum concentrations and serum sodium values were collected at Toyama University Hospital and Kyorin University Hospital. Data from 89 patients were used for the analysis, and a nadir serum sodium level ≤130 mmol/L during the treatment with linezolid was defined as hyponatremia. Mann-Whitney's U test was used to evaluate the effects of the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) of linezolid at the nadir sodium level, clinical characteristics (e.g. laboratory data), and baseline serum sodium levels on the development of hyponatremia. RESULTS: The hyponatremia was occurred in 21 of 89 patients (23.6%). Data are compared for baseline and nadir serum sodium levels of patients with and without hyponatremia. In both groups, nadir serum sodium levels were significantly different from those of the baseline values (P < 0.05). The values of AUC0-12, accumulated AUC, baseline serum sodium levels and age were significantly different between patients with and without hyponatremia (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Linezolid exposure, age, and baseline sodium levels were detected as the risk factors for linezolid-related hyponatremia. Our findings suggest that regular monitoring of serum sodium levels is desirable during treatment with linezolid, especially for the elderly and patients with low serum sodium levels before the start of linezolid administration.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Idoso , Humanos , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Linezolida/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sódio
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