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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(6): 531-543, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854285

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the effects of calyculin A, a phosphatase inhibitor, on motility, protein phosphorylation, and the distribution of phospho-(Ser/Thr) PKA substrates in frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa that are actually used by most farmers for breeding. The data showed that calyculin A, which has been reported to have a positive effect on the motility of ejaculated fresh spermatozoa, distinctly decreased the motility of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa even if a cell activator, such as caffeine, was present in the incubation medium and that the suppressive effect of calyculin A was dose-dependent and continued for at least 200 min. Immunoblot analyses revealed that de novo protein phosphorylation was not detected in spermatozoa exposed to caffeine or dbcAMP (a cell-permeable cAMP analog), while the addition of calyculin A to the medium brought about the appearance of several phosphorylated proteins at 50 kDa and 75 kDa, suggesting that 50 kDa and 75 kDa proteins, which were phosphorylated by activation of cAMP-dependent PKA, were not dephosphorylated and were accumulated in spermatozoa due to the suppression of calyculin A-sensitive protein phosphatases. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that calyculin A caused, alone or in conjunction with caffeine or dbcAMP, the accumulation of phospho-PKA substrates at the annulus, although caffeine or dbcAMP alone did not. This study suggested that calyculin A decreases the motility of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa concomitant with the accumulation of phospho-(Ser/Thr) PKA substrates at the annulus of flagella.

2.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 26433-26443, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615078

RESUMO

Organic semiconductors are promising candidates as platforms for room temperature polaritonic devices. An issue for practical implementation of organic polariton devices is the lowering of condensation threshold. Here we investigate anisotropic light-matter coupling characteristics in an organic crystal microcavity showing strong molecular orientation. Furthermore, the below-threshold excitation dynamics are investigated to clarify the spontaneous transition pathways from reservoir to polariton states. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal that photonic/excitonic hybrid transition processes coexist in the microcavity system. This finding provides valuable insights into a detailed understanding of polariton dynamics and help in the design of polaritonic devices showing a low-threshold condensed phase.

3.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 27127-27136, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615134

RESUMO

Microwave transmission measurements were performed for a three-dimensional (3D) layer-by-layer chiral photonic crystal (PhC), whose photonic band structure contains 3D singular points, Weyl points. For the frequency and wavevector in the vicinity of a Weyl point, the transmitted intensity was found to be inversely proportional to the square of the propagation length. In addition, the transmitted wave was well-collimated in the plane parallel to the PhC layers, even for point-source incidence. When a plane wave was incident on the PhC containing metal scatters, the planar wavefront was reconstructed after the transmission, indicating a cloaking effect.

4.
Anal Sci ; 37(10): 1373-1377, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629359

RESUMO

Tube radial distribution chromatography based on the tube radial distribution flow, or annular flow, in an open-tubular capillary has been reported, where the annular flow is created through phase-separation multiphase flow. We have proposed the first-ever procedure for consecutive sample injection analysis using chromatography. In basic terms, a commercially available HPLC system could be used with a sample injector (0.2 µL volume) and a fused-silica capillary tube (250 cm long) as a separation column instead of a normal packed one, while the built-in detection cell was replaced by improved on-capillary detection. A ternary mixed solution of water/acetonitrile/ethyl acetate (3:8:4 volume ratio) was delivered into the capillary tube as an eluent at a flow rate of 2.0 µL min-1. Model sample solutions of 1-naphthol and 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were consecutively analyzed by the present chromatography with a processing rate of 6 samples per hour. Simple and rapid consecutive analysis could be performed because washing and initialization of the separation tube was no longer necessary. The obtained results provide clues to developing new methodologies which combine features of both chromatography (separation) and the flow injection method (consecutive analysis).

5.
Chem Asian J ; 16(8): 926-930, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687793

RESUMO

The magnetic circularly polarized luminescence (MCPL) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of achiral (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrinato)platinum(II), PtOEP, and [2-(4',6'-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C2' ]platinum(II) acetylacetonate-O,O, F2 -ppyPt(acac), in toluene and dichloromethane solutions were recorded under an external magnetic field of 1.6 T with N-up and S-up Faraday geometries. The MCPL signs of PtOEP and F2 -ppyPt(acac) were controlled solely by changing the N-up and S-up geometries. The MCPL/PL wavelengths of F2 -ppyPt(acac) in solutions were varied by the ratio of the monomeric and excimeric species.

6.
Andrology ; 9(3): 977-988, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The isolation and characterization of sperm subpopulations that can achieve fertilization is a major challenge of assisted reproduction methods. We focused on the microfluidic sperm sorter as a novel tool for collecting highly motile spermatozoa from heterogeneous semen samples. OBJECTIVES: This study primarily aims to obtain baseline information on sorted spermatozoa according to its characteristics and in vitro life span. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Frozen-thawed bull semen was subjected to microfluidic sperm sorting using diffuser-type microfluidic sperm sorter (DMSS). After sorting, samples were collected as the sorted spermatozoa and unsorted residual spermatozoa and incubated at 37°C for subsequent evaluation. The samples were assessed at different time points (0 or 1, 6, and 24 h) in terms of motility, which was measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), membrane integrity, mitochondrial function, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production after sorting (0 h). To determine the characteristics and efficiency of DMSS sorting, the sorted spermatozoa were compared with samples collected using the swim-up method, a conventional method in motile sperm selection. RESULTS: A comparison between the sorted and residual spermatozoa demonstrated significantly higher motility parameters, membrane integrity, and mitochondrial function of the sorted spermatozoa until 6 h after incubation. The time course decrement of membrane and mitochondrial status were subjected to curve fitting and theoretically supported. Sperm ATP production measured immediately after sorting showed higher ATP generation of the sorted spermatozoa compared with the unsorted, frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The motility parameters and mitochondrial activity of DMSS-sorted spermatozoa were higher than the swim-up-collected spermatozoa (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results indicate that DMSS sorting can strictly select highly motile spermatozoa with the ability to maintain its membrane integrity and mitochondrial function related to ATP production. We speculate that the device that is able to sort high-quality spermatozoa can have great potential in assisted reproduction.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 15(19): 3037-3043, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749058

RESUMO

Treatment of a meso-diarylporphyrin with PhI(OAc)2 in the presence of BF3 ⋅ OEt2 and propionic acid affords the corresponding porphyrinquinone in a high yield (91%). A novel quinone derived from meso-meso ß-ß doubly-fused diporphyrin was obtained as the sole byproduct (16% yield), which exhibits strong panchromatic absorption between 300 and 1000 nm. It has a low HOMO-LUMO gap owing to expanded and low-symmetry π-planes.

8.
Chemistry ; 26(16): 3633-3640, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880373

RESUMO

Facile redox-induced aromatic-antiaromatic interconversions were accomplished by using ß-tetracyano-21,23-dithiaporphyrin (CN4 S2 Por). Introduced cyano groups not only increased the reduction potential of the porphyrin core but also stabilized the antiaromatic isophlorin (CN4 S2 Iph) by π conjugation. The reduction of CN4 S2 Por with hydrazine in polar solvents quantitatively affords CN4 S2 Iph, even under ambient conditions. CN4 S2 Iph retains a nearly planar conformation and exhibits considerable antiaromaticity. Aerobic oxidation of CN4 S2 Iph to CN4 S2 Por occurs in nonpolar solvents. This study was conducted to contribute to the understanding of the structure-antiaromaticity relationship.

9.
Opt Express ; 27(24): 35548-35554, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878724

RESUMO

An organic dye-doped polymer laser with a novel wavelength-tuning mechanism is proposed. This device is a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser realized by using a couple of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), on which a dye-doped polymer thin film and a polydimethylsiloxane film are deposited individually. One of the DBRs is electrically driven to vary the effective cavity length. Under the optical excitation, tunable lasing operation with high stability can be achieved when immersion oil is used for the refractive index matching in the cavity. Since the device operation mechanism proposed here is quite simple, it is promising for designing a compact laser device with wide, precise, and electrically driven wavelength tunability.

10.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 10: 91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807306

RESUMO

Background: The application of cryopreservation and artificial insemination technology have contributed to the advancement of animal reproduction. However, a substantial proportion of spermatozoa undergoes alterations and loses their fertility during cryopreservation, rendering the frozen-thawed semen impractical for routine use. Cryopreservation is known to reduce sperm lifespan and fertility. Variation in cryosurvival of spermatozoa from different sires and even with the individual sire is common in artificial insemination (AI) centers. Our goal is to improve post-thawed semen quality by optimization of cryopreservation technique through sperm selection prior to cryopreservation process. Results: Our strategy of sperm selection based on rheotaxis and thermotaxis (SSRT) on macrosale in a rotating fluid flow demonstrated the ability to maintain the original pre-freezing structural integrity, viability and biological function related to fertilization competence. This strategy has a positive effect on the cryosurvival and fertilizing abilities of spermatozoa as supported by the improvement on pregnancy rate of Japanese Black heifers and Holstein repeat breeders. This technique protected further sublethal damage to bovine spermatozoa (higher % cryosurvival than the control) and resulted in the improvement of DNA integrity. Prefreeze selected spermatozoa demonstrated slower and controlled capacitation than unprocessed control which is thought to be related to sperm longevity and consequently to appropriate timing during in vivo fertilization. Conclusions: These results provide solid evidence that improvement of post-thawed semen quality by SSRT method is beneficial in terms of cryosurvival, longevity of post-thawed sperm, and optimization of in vivo fertilization, embryo development and calving as supported by the favorable results of field fertility study.

11.
Anal Sci ; 35(11): 1279-1282, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308295

RESUMO

A polyethylene glycol/citrate mixed solution was fed into a single channel of a Y-type micro-channel on a microchip as an aqueous two-phase system. A phase separation multi-phase flow with a liquid-liquid interface was generated due to a phase transformation. An annular flow, one of the flow types in the phase separation multi-phase flow, was observed through bright-field microscopy. The flow consisted of citrate-rich inner and polyethylene glycol-rich outer phases. We attempted to separate and collect the two phases in the single channel into two separate Y-type channels. When the pressure losses for the separated channels were not very different, we observed symmetric flow in the Y-type channel. When the pressure losses were quite different, the polyethylene glycol-rich phase with higher viscosity was selectively distributed to the separated channel with lower pressure loss. Thus, the polyethylene glycol-rich phase was successfully and intentionally collected from the chosen Y-type channel via the creation of annular flow in the single channel.

12.
Anal Sci ; 35(7): 803-806, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905903

RESUMO

A tube radial distribution chromatography (TRDC) method based on phase-separated multiphase flow created through phase transformation via temperature change has been developed. These systems typically required a temperature-controlling device containing a water bath and a stirrer. Herein, we proposed a novel TRDC system without a cooling device, where the phase transformation was achieved via pressure loss in a capillary tube of 50 µm inner diameter and 550 cm length. Model analytes were successfully separated with the developed TRDC system, which provided a simplified platform and helped to clarify the operating principle of TRDC based on phase transformation in a capillary tube.

13.
Chemistry ; 25(13): 3240-3243, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609157

RESUMO

Dinuclear rare-earth (TbIII , YIII ) triple-decker complexes with a fused diporphyrin (FP) and two tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) ligands were synthesized in neutral, dianionic, and diprotonated forms. The neutral forms have large open shell biradical character, as determined from the temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and theoretical calculations. The coupling value (J=-1.4 kcal mol-1 , -487 cm-1 ) of the radical centers in the neutral form of the YIII complex indicates weak pairing interactions. Theoretical calculations on the neutral form reveal a significant biradical character (y=68 %). Furthermore, the TbIII complex exhibits multi-redox states, having more than eight clear peaks in the voltammetry curves. The optical (3700 nm, 0.33 eV) and electrochemical measurements (3400 nm, 0.36 eV) indicate that the neutral form has very small HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Despite the large biradical character, the neutral complexes are thermally stable and do not decompose on heating at 120 °C. These complexes with unique characteristics are promising candidates for use in molecular electronics, optics, and spintronics.

14.
Anal Sci ; 35(3): 249-256, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318490

RESUMO

Two solutions that are individually fed at the same flow rate into two separate microchannels of a microchip, combine to form a single channel (a Y-type microchannel). This flow is either parallel for immiscible solutions or initially parallel, but then becomes homogeneous through diffusion, for miscible solutions. However, a new type of microfluidic behavior in a Y-type microchannel that was neither parallel nor homogeneous flow has been observed using, for example, water/acetonitrile (3:4.5, v/v) and acetonitrile/ethyl acetate (3.5:4, v/v) mixed solutions. Each mixed solution was marked with distinctive dyes and delivered at the same flow rate into a Y-type microchannel under laminar flow conditions. In the single channel, the two phases were initially observed to flow in parallel, but then apparently swapped to flow on the opposite wall while retaining parallel flow with a slight change in the components of the two phases. We have named this type of laminar flow "microfluidic inverted flow" for ternary water/hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvent mixed solutions. The inverted flow of a ternary water/acetonitrile/ethyl acetate system was examined in detail under various flow conditions. We also proposed a concept of response microfluidic analysis based on such microfluidic inverted flow.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14273, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250059

RESUMO

We fabricated a simple microfluidic device for separation of bovine oocytes based on the oocyte quality to improve the conception rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) by using good quality oocytes. The microfluidic device separates oocytes based on sedimentation rate differences in a sucrose buffer, which is dependent on oocyte quality. The microfluidic device has a 700 µm width, 1 mm height, and 10 mm long separation channel. Oocytes were injected from the upper half of the separation channel, and they flowed while sinking. The outlets of the separation channel were divided into upper and lower chambers. Good quality oocytes settled faster than poor quality oocytes in sucrose buffer; therefore, good quality oocytes were collected from the lower outlet. We performed IVF after the microfluidic separation of oocytes. The developmental rate to blastocysts of oocytes collected from the lower outlet was significantly higher than those collected from the upper outlet (36.0% vs. 14.1%). This result was comparable to that in the BCB staining method performed as a comparison method (BCB+ : 35.7%, BCB-: 15.4%). These findings indicate that our microfluidic device could be applied to oocyte separation and contribute to improvement of in vitro embryo production system.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Oócitos/citologia , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Feminino , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Opt Lett ; 43(8): 1714-1717, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652347

RESUMO

We investigated optical gain and lasing characteristics of a polymer thin film co-doped with Rhodamine 6G and 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye molecules. By the co-doping of these dyes, the optical gain coefficient and its spectral range were enhanced and widened, respectively. These results cannot be accounted for by the linear combination of the optical gain properties of single-doped films. Owing to this high-gain and wide-band optical amplification property, a distributed feedback lasing with a low threshold of 70 µJ/cm2 as well as a widely tunable wavelength range of 587-613 nm was achieved. We attribute this amplification property of the co-doped film, which cannot be achieved with the single-doped films, to the appearance of a coupled excited state between the two molecules.

17.
Opt Lett ; 43(5): 1047-1050, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489777

RESUMO

Investigation of physics on light-matter interaction and strong coupling formation in organic microcavities is important to characterize the device structure enabling efficient room-temperature polariton condensation. In this study, we evaluate quantitatively the light-matter interaction parameters for three types of organic single-crystal microcavities and discuss the effects of microcavity structures on the strong coupling formation. We found that improvement in cavity quality factor causes a reduction in the photon damping constant, which results in an increase in the Rabi splitting energy. Moreover, when we used a metal thin film as the cavity mirror, it was revealed that the exciton damping became 30 times stronger than that in a dielectric mirror cavity. These experimental findings are very intriguing to achieve low-threshold or electrically pumped organic polariton devices.

18.
Chem Asian J ; 13(13): 1692-1698, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575725

RESUMO

Molecular structures for three oxidation forms (anion, radical, and cation) of terbium(III) bis(porphyrinato) double-decker complexes have been systematically studied. We found that the redox state controls the azimuthal rotation angle (φ) between the two porphyrin macrocycles. For [TbIII (tpp)2 ]n (tpp: tetraphenylporphyrinato, n=-1, 0, and +1), φ decreases at each stage of the oxidation process. The decrease in φ is due to the higher steric repulsion between the phenyl rings on the porphyrin macrocycle and the ß hydrogen atoms on the other porphyrin macrocycle, which results from the shorter interfacial distance between the two porphyrin macrocycles. Conversely, φ=45° for both [TbIII (oep)2 ]-1 and [TbIII (oep)2 ]0 (oep: octaethylporphyrinato), but φ=36° for [TbIII (oep)2 ]+1 . Theoretical calculations suggest that the smaller azimuthal rotation angle of the cation form is due to the electronic interaction in the doubly oxidized ligand system.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(14): E3087-E3096, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555773

RESUMO

Selection of functional spermatozoa plays a crucial role in assisted reproduction. Passage of spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract requires progressive motility to locate the oocyte. This preferential ability to reach the fertilization site confers fertility advantage to spermatozoa. Current routine sperm selection techniques are inadequate and fail to provide conclusive evidence on the sperm characteristics that may affect fertilization. We therefore developed a selection strategy for functional and progressively motile bovine spermatozoa with high DNA integrity based on the ability to cross laminar flow streamlines in a diffuser-type microfluidic sperm sorter (DMSS). The fluid dynamics, with respect to microchannel geometry and design, are relevant in the propulsion of spermatozoa and, consequently, ultrahigh-throughput sorting. Sorted spermatozoa were assessed for kinematic parameters, acrosome reaction, mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA integrity. Kinematic and trajectory patterns were used to identify fertility-related subpopulations: the rapid, straighter, progressive, nonsinuous pattern (PN) and the transitional, sinuous pattern (TS). In contrast to the conventional notion that the fertilizing spermatozoon is always vigorously motile and more linear, our results demonstrate that sinuous patterns are associated with fertility and correspond to truly functional spermatozoa as supported by more live births produced from predominant TS than PN subpopulation in the inseminate. Our findings ascertain the true practical application significance of microfluidic sorting of functional sperm characterized by sinuous trajectories that can serve as a behavioral sperm phenotype marker for fertility potential. More broadly, we foresee the clinical application of this sorting technology to assisted reproduction in humans.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial , Nascido Vivo , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/citologia
20.
Nanoscale ; 9(30): 10674-10683, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616952

RESUMO

Detection and use of physical noise fluctuations in a signal provides significant advantages in the development of bio- and neuro-sensing and functional mimicking devices. Low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials are a good candidate for use in noise generation due to the high surface sensitivity of these materials, which may themselves serve as the main building blocks of these devices. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of a molecule with high redox activity to a carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor provides tunable current fluctuation noise. A unique charge-trap state in the vicinity of the CNT surface due to the presence of the single molecule is the origin of the noise, which generates a prominent and unique slow discrete random telegraph signal in the device current. The power spectral density reveals the peculiar frequency limit of the fluctuation for different types of molecules depending on their redox activity and adsorption configuration. These results indicate that the detected noise will provide new opportunities to obtain electronic information for a single molecule combined with a nanotube surface, and that controllability of the noise may contribute to the expansion of noise utilization in future bio-inspired devices.

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