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1.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(10): 1601-1607, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outdoor exercise often proceeds in rainy conditions. However, there are very few studies reporting the physiological effects of cold with rain or wet-cold exposure on humans during exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rain on physiological responses during running exercise at 80% V̇Omax in the cold. METHODS: Twelve healthy men (age: 21.7±3.3 years; height: 1.760±0.085 m; body weight: 68.8±7.1 kg; maximal oxygen consumption: 67.3±5.00 mL/kg/min) exercised on a treadmill at 80% V̇Omax intensity for 60 minutes with rain (RAIN) or not (CON) at 5 °C. RESULTS: Rectal temperature was significantly lower in RAIN than in CON at 10, 40, 50, and 60 minutes (P<0.05). Mean weighted skin temperature was significantly lower in RAIN than in CON during exercise (P<0.05). Oxygen consumption and rating of perceived exertion were significantly higher in RAIN than in CON at 50 and 60 minutes (P<0.05). Plasma lactate was significantly higher in RAIN than in CON at 10 minutes and from 40 to 60 minutes (P<0.05). Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in RAIN than in CON at 10 minutes and from 40 to 60 minutes (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rain increased heat loss during the early phase of exercise in the cold, then heat production increased and transiently suppressed cold stress. However, with time, body heat loss intensified due to increasing wet area, and then energy expenditure and plasma lactate increased due to cold stress. Therefore, rain may decrease exercise performance and affect sport safety.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Chuva , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea , Adulto Jovem
2.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(2): 167-177, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756312

RESUMO

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are increasingly being used for wastewater reclamation treatment for their high removal of pathogens and suspended solids. However, breakage of UF membrane fibers could allow leakage of pathogens into the permeate and create health risks in the use of reclaimed water. Here, we assessed the log10 reduction value (LRV) of human enteric viruses and microbial indicators of new and aged UF modules in a pilot-scale UF process to evaluate the influence of fiber breakage. Norovirus genotypes I and II, Aichi virus, and Escherichia coli were not detected in any permeate samples of intact UF modules, but were detected in samples of damaged UF modules. LRVs of all microorganisms assayed decreased as fiber breakage of new UF modules increased, with maximum decreases of > 3.3 log10. Fiber breakage in the aged UF modules did not decrease LRVs of somatic coliphages and MS2, but breakage in the new UF modules did decrease them. Intact new UF modules gave higher LRVs than intact aged UF modules. When the LRV of intact UF module was assumed to be 1 or 2 log10, increasing fiber breakage did not significantly decrease the predicted LRV, but when it was ≥ 3 log10, it did decrease LRV, in good agreement with measured LRVs in the degraded UF modules. These results suggest that the LRV of intact UF modules affects the decrease in LRV and confirm the leakage of human enteric viruses following fiber breakage in UF modules of different ages in the UF process of wastewater reclamation.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Kobuvirus/química , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Membranas Artificiais , Norovirus/química , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ultrafiltração/instrumentação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Purificação da Água/instrumentação
3.
Environ Technol ; 40(19): 2527-2537, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471753

RESUMO

Evaluating the reduction of virus load in water reclamation plants is important to ensuring the hygienic safety of the reclaimed water. A virus-spiking test is usually used to estimate virus reduction but is not practicable at large-scale plants. Thus, we evaluated virus reduction by ultrafiltration (UF) plus ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at a large-scale reclamation plant (1000 m3/d) by quantifying indigenous F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs). To detect the infectious FRNAPH, we used both plaque assay and integrated culture-reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction combined with the most probable number assay, which can detect infectious FRNAPH genotypes. For comparison, we determined reductions of indigenous FRNAPHs and spiked MS2 at a small-scale pilot plant (10 m3/d) at the same time. Reductions by UF were not significantly different among the bacteriophages at pilot plants. This result suggests that indigenous bacteriophages could be used for evaluating virus reduction by UF at large-scale plants. Indigenous Genotype I (GI) FRNAPH showed the highest UV resistance, followed by GII, GIII, and GIV. The resistance of GI-FRNAPH was equivalent to that of spiked MS2. The reduction of the total infectious FRNAPHs determined by plaque assay was affected by the predominant FRNAPH genotype, presumably because of their different UV resistances. Our results reveal that indigenous GI-FRNAPH can be a good alternative indicator to spiked MS2 in view of virus reduction during water reclamation. The reclaimed water from our large-scale reclamation plant could be used for irrigation because the expected reduction (6.3 log10) of indigenous GI-FRNAPH achieved the Title 22 (>5 log10).


Assuntos
Fagos RNA , Vírus , Genótipo , Ultrafiltração , Águas Residuárias
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205535

RESUMO

This study investigated the removal characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and their precursors at three pilot-scale water reclamation plants. These plants applies different integrated membrane systems: (1) microfiltration (MF)/nanofiltration (NF)/reverse osmosis (RO) membrane; (2) sand filtration/three-stage RO; and (3) ultrafiltration (UF)/NF and UF/RO. Variable removal of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by the RO processes could be attributed to membrane fouling and the feed water temperature. The effect of membrane fouling on N-Nitrosamine removal was extensively evaluated at one of the plants by conducting one month of operation and chemical cleaning of the RO element. Membrane fouling enhanced N-Nitrosamine removal by the pilot-scale RO process. This finding contributes to better understanding of the variable removal of NDMA by RO processes. This study also investigated the removal characteristics of N-Nitrosamine precursors. The NF and RO processes greatly reduced NDMA formation potential (FP), but the UF process had little effect. The contributions of MF, NF, and RO processes for reducing FPs of NDMA, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine and N-Nitrosodiethylamine were different, suggesting different size distributions of their precursors.


Assuntos
Filtração/métodos , Nitrosaminas/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Dimetilnitrosamina , Membranas Artificiais , Nitrosaminas/síntese química , Osmose , Projetos Piloto , Temperatura Ambiente , Ultrafiltração , Água
5.
Food Environ Virol ; 10(4): 353-364, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151619

RESUMO

Certain enteric viruses that are present in the water environment are potential risk factors of waterborne infections. To better understand the impact of viruses in water, both enteric viruses and their potential indicators should be comparatively investigated. In this study, occurrences of GI- and GII-noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV), rotavirus (RoV), Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enterovirus (EV), and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were quantitatively determined in surface water samples in Japan. Additionally, the genotype distribution of GI- and GII-NoVs was determined using a next-generation amplicon sequencing. PMMoV was the most abundant virus regardless of season and location, indicating its usefulness as an indicator for the viral contamination of water. Other potential indicators, AiV and EV, were less abundant than GII-NoV. Viruses other than PMMoV showed seasonality, i.e., EV and other viruses (NoVs, SaV, RoV, and AiV-1) became prevalent during summer and winter, respectively. SaV showed a relatively high abundance at a location that was affected by untreated wastewater. Regarding NoV genotypes, GI.1, GI.2, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17 were found from the surface water samples. GII.4 and GII.17 seemed to have contributed to the high abundance of GII-NoV in the samples. Interestingly, GII.17 strains became prevalent in the water samples before becoming prevalent among gastroenteritis patients in Japan. These findings provide further insights into the properties of viruses as contaminants in the water environment.


Assuntos
Água Doce/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Tobamovirus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Estações do Ano , Tobamovirus/genética , Poluição da Água
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161087

RESUMO

Inoue, K, Yamashita, N, Kume, M, and Yoshida, T. Differences in the repeated sprint performance between the first and latter halves of trials under conditions of several thermal states in exercising muscles. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of thermal states in exercising muscle on repeated sprint cycling (RSC) performance differ between the first and latter half of trials. Nine male subjects performed 8 × 8 seconds of RSC with a 40-second rest period. The subjects wore water-perfused trousers with water at 6° C (COLD), 17° C (COOL), 30° C (WARM), or 44° C (HOT). During the first half of trials, the peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), and sum of work output (SWO) were significantly (p < 0.05) greater under the WARM and HOT conditions than under the COLD and COOL conditions, and a difference in the PPO and MPO between WARM and HOT was noted in the second sprint bout during the first half of the exercise. However, during the latter half of trials, there was no significant difference in the PPO, MPO, and SWO among the 4 conditions. The tympanic temperature (Tty) was significantly elevated under the HOT condition but fell under the COLD and COOL conditions, whereas the Tty under the WARM condition did not change significantly (p < 0.05) during the experiment. The total sweat loss was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the HOT condition than in the other conditions. These results suggest that the effect of thermal states in exercising muscle on the RSC performance is greater in the first half of exercise than in the latter half, possibly because of the elevation of the core temperature and sweat loss under HOT conditions.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 615: 964-971, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751447

RESUMO

Fifty-five pharmaceuticals were monitored at four rivers and inlets and/or outlets of three sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Yodo River watershed, Japan over 17 sampling events. Twenty-six quantified pharmaceuticals were classified by source and fate. The load per person (LPP) of nine pharmaceuticals, including six with observed mass balance in studied river stretch of <80%, was appreciably lower in river water (RW) than in the effluent (EF) of STPs (RW/EF <0.5), indicating that they were susceptible to in-stream attenuation in the study area, while the others were relatively conservative. The LPP of 12 pharmaceuticals in RW were within ±50% of that in EF. Because their mass loadings in rivers were correlated with human population in the catchment and most people use the sewer system, the major source of the 12 pharmaceuticals was considered to be STPs. The LPP of the three most labile pharmaceuticals in STPs (caffeine, theophylline, and acetaminophen) was >1.5 in RW/EF and <1.0 in RW/influent (IF) of STPs. Poorly treated sewage discharged from households without using the sewer system was considered to be influential source of the three pharmaceuticals. The LPP (RW/EF) of caffeine, a pharmaceutical contained in food and beverage, was considerably higher than that of the other two, and this is attributable to untreated gray water discharged at households using the night-soil treatment system. The LPP of two veterinary drugs (sulfamonomethoxine and lincomycin) were >1.5 (RW/EF) and >1.0 (RW/IF). Their mass loadings in rivers showed a positive correlation with swine population in the catchment, although sulfamonomethoxine is equally used in both cattle and swine farming. This was attributable to application of cattle excrement as manure, and lability of sulfamonomethoxine during composting processes. The major source of the two veterinary drugs was considered to be on-site treatment facilities of swine urine.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Rios/química
8.
Chemosphere ; 197: 467-476, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366959

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of the addition of two coagulants-polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and chitosan-into the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process on membrane fouling and the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Their addition at optimized dosages improved the permeability of the membrane by reducing the concentration of soluble microbial products in mixed liquor, the content of inorganic elements, and irreversible fouling of the membrane surface. During long-term operation, the addition of PACl increased removal efficiencies of tetracycline, mefenamic acid, atenolol, furosemide, ketoprofen, and diclofenac by 17-23%. The comparative evaluation using mass balance calculations between coagulation-MBR (with PACl addition) and control-MBR (without PACl addition) showed that enhanced biodegradability played a key role in improving removal efficiencies of some PPCPs in coagulation-MBR. Coagulation-MBR also had higher oxygen uptake rates and specific nitrification rates of microorganisms. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of MBR with coagulation reduced membrane fouling, lengthening operation period of the membrane, and improved the removal of some PPCPs as a result of enhanced biodegradability.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cosméticos/análise , Membranas Artificiais , Purificação da Água
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 58(9): 1197-1203, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28409513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals who exercise outdoors in winter expose themselves to cold conditions, which have detrimental effects on physiological responses and exercise performance. Many runners wear arm warmers to protect against cold. However, the effects of these warmers remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of arm insulation on physiological responses during running in a cold environment. METHODS: Twelve healthy men (mean±SD age, 22.4±3.9 years; height, 1.71±0.07 m; mass, 66.9±8.1 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 52.3±4.79 mL/kg/min) ran on a treadmill at an intensity of 70% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 minutes in a climatic chamber at 5 °C wearing (ARM) or not wearing (CON) a tight-fitting polyester sleeve on the forearm. RESULTS: During the first 10 minutes of exercise, esophageal temperature was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ARM than in CON. Weighted mean skin temperature was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ARM than in CON. Thermal sensation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ARM than in CON during rest and during the first 10 minutes of exercise. Plasma lactate concentration was significantly lower (P<0.05) in ARM than in CON at 10 minutes, and plasma norepinephrine concentration was significantly lower (P<0.05) in ARM than in CON at 10 and 20 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher esophageal temperature and thermal sensation and lower plasma norepinephrine concentration indicate that arm insulation suppressed cold stress and attenuated the production of plasma lactate in the early stages of exercise.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Corrida/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Descanso/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(2): 1903-1913, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103120

RESUMO

Little is known about the mechanisms influencing the differences in attenuation of antibiotics between rivers. In this study, the natural attenuation of four antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, sulfapyridine, and sulfamethoxazole) during transport along the Thames River, UK, over a distance of 8.3 km, and the Katsura River, Japan, over a distance of 7.6 km was compared. To assist interpretation of the field data, the individual degradation and sorption characteristics of the antibiotics were estimated by laboratory experiments using surface water or sediment taken from the same rivers. Azithromycin, clarithromycin, and sulfapyridine were attenuated by 92, 48, and 11% in the Thames River stretch. The first-order decay constants of azithromycin and sulfapyridine were similar to those in the Katsura River, while that of clarithromycin was 4.4 times higher. For sulfamethoxazole, the attenuation was limited in both rivers. Loss of sulfapyridine was attributed to both direct and indirect photolysis in the Thames River, but to only direct photolysis in the Katsura River. Loss of azithromycin and clarithromycin was attributed to sorption to sediment in both rivers. The probable explanation behind the difference in loss rates of clarithromycin between the two rivers was considered to be sediment sorption capacity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrologia , Japão , Modelos Teóricos , Fotólise , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(9): 442, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791526

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Filtração/métodos , Rios/química , Ultrafiltração , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos , Qualidade da Água/normas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 605-606: 18-25, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651209

RESUMO

We carried out batch experiments using biomass from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to study the influence of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on the removal of 45 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Kinetic parameters such as biodegradation constants and adsorption coefficients with and without AOB inhibition were estimated. No significant differences in adsorption tendency were found, but the biodegradability of most compounds was enhanced when ammonia was completely oxidized, indicating that AOB present in MBR played a critical role in eliminating the PPCPs. Moreover, target PPCPs were degraded in 2 stages, first by cometabolic degradation related to AOB growth, and then by endogenous respiration by microorganisms in the absence of other growth substrate. The compounds were classified into 3 groups according to removal performance and cometabolic degradation. Our approach provides new insight into the removal of PPCPs via cometabolism and endogenous respiration under AOB enrichment cultures developed in MBR.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Cosméticos/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Amônia/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cinética , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias/química
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 143: 38-45, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499129

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are widespread in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to obtain information on the occurrence of bacteria with antimicrobial resistance and their multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) patterns in a river basin in Japan. In addition, the occurrence of fecal bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) in the aquatic environment was determined. Among the Escherichia coli isolates recovered from river samples upstream, 55% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 18% were MAR. Among the E. coli isolates recovered from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples, 74% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 46% were MAR. These findings suggest that the presence of WWTP effluent will increase the degree of contamination with MAR in the aquatic environment. Among the ampicillin-resistant isolates recovered from river samples, 21% isolates were judged as ESBL-producing and none (0%) was judged as MBL-producing. Among the ampicillin-resistant isolates recovered from WWTP effluent samples, 21% were judged as ESBL-producing and 1% was judged as MBL-producing. As for the hospital wastewater samples, 48% were judged as ESBL-producing and 3% were judged as MBL-producing. The percentage of ESBLs and MBL production was highest in hospital wastewater samples. All of the ESBL-producing isolates detected had resistance to ampicillin, cephazolin, and cefpodoxime and many ESBL-producers had resistance not only to beta-lactams but also to other kinds of antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and quinolones. The frequency of detection of MBL-producers was much lower than that of ESBL-producers and MBL-producers were not detected in the river samples. However, the detection in WWTP effluent samples indicated that bacteria with MBL were present downstream of the WWTP at low concentrations. Thus, ESBLs and MBL have already been spread around aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
14.
Food Environ Virol ; 9(4): 453-463, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455611

RESUMO

The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Aichi virus (AiV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were targeted in addition to the main enteric viruses of concern for risk management, namely, norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II (GI and GII) and rotavirus (RoV). PMMoV, which is a plant pathogenic virus and is present at high concentrations in water contaminated by human feces, has been suggested as a useful viral indicator. We also investigated the reduction of a spiked model virus (F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2) to measure the effect of viral inactivation by both qPCR and plaque assay. Efficiencies of removal of NoV GI, NoV GII, RoV, and AiV by UF with and without CS were >0.5 to 3.7 log10, although concentrations were below the detection limit in permeate water. PMMoV was the most prevalent virus in both feed and permeate water following UF, but CS pretreatment could not significantly improve its removal efficiency (mean removal efficiency: UF, 3.1 log10; CS + UF, 3.4 log10; t test, P > 0.05). CS increased the mean removal efficiency of spiked MS2 by only 0.3 log10 by qPCR (t-test, P > 0.05), but by 2.8 log10 by plaque assay (t-test, P < 0.01). This difference indicates that the virus was inactivated during CS + UF. Our results suggest that PMMoV could be used as an indicator of removal efficiency in water reclamation processes, but cultural assay is essential to understanding viral fate.


Assuntos
Água Doce/química , Água Doce/virologia , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Inativação de Vírus , Vírus/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Japão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água/instrumentação
15.
Chemosphere ; 179: 347-358, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384602

RESUMO

We investigated the concentrations of 57 target compounds in the different treatment units of various biological treatment processes in South Korea, including modified biological nutrient removal (BNR), anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A2O), and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems, to elucidate the occurrence and removal fates of PPCPs in WWTPs. Biological treatment processes appeared to be most effective in eliminating most PPCPs, whereas some PPCPs were additionally removed by post-treatment. With the exception of the MBR process, the A2O system was effective for PPCPs removal. As a result, removal mechanisms were evaluated by calculating the mass balances in A2O and a lab-scale MBR process. The comparative study demonstrated that biodegradation was largely responsible for the improved removal performance found in lab-scale MBR (e.g., in removing bezafibrate, ketoprofen, and atenolol). Triclocarban, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracycline were adsorbed in large amounts to MBR sludge. Increased biodegradability was also observed in lab-scale MBR, despite the highly adsorbable characteristics. The enhanced biodegradation potential seen in the MBR process thus likely plays a key role in eliminating highly adsorbable compounds as well as non-degradable or persistent PPCPs in other biological treatment processes.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos/normas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Adsorção , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 573: 810-816, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27592468

RESUMO

Photoproducts of pharmaceuticals have been studied in order not to overlook their potential risks to aquatic organisms. However, no studies have verified an equation for predicting the fate of photoproducts in aquatic environment (Poiger equation) by field measurements, leaving uncertainties in its practical utility. Therefore, we conducted this study to test the applicability of the Poiger equation to 3-ethylbenzophenone (EBP), a photoproduct of ketoprofen (KTP). Photolysis experiments determined the fraction of KTP transformed into EBP as 0.744±0.074 and the quantum yield of EBP degradation as 0.000418±0.000090. Field studies in urban rivers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) revealed that EBP was produced by sunlight, mainly in the rivers, but also appreciably in outdoor primary and secondary clarifiers in the WWTPs. We developed a model in the secondary clarifiers, disinfection tanks, and rivers by incorporating the Poiger equation, which was effective at predicting the concentrations of EBP in the river waters and wastewaters. Thus, our first trial of verification by field measurements enhanced the practical utility of the Poiger equation, though further study including several photoproducts should be conducted.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Cetoprofeno/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Cidades , Cetoprofeno/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Fotólise , Rios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(14): 4244-4252, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208125

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: F-specific RNA phages (FRNAPHs) are considered potential viral indicators of water pollution due to their occurrence and stability in water environments. However, their suitability as viral indicators is not fully elucidated because the characteristics of FRNAPHs are variable depending on the genotype. In this study, for the characterization of infectious FRNAPH genotypes, integrated culture reverse transcription-PCR coupled with the most probable number approach was applied to surface water samples. Further, to recover low concentrations of FRNAPH genotypes, an FRNAPH recovery method was developed. The novel FRNAPH recovery method using a noncharged microfiltration membrane could effectively recover FRNAPH strains without inactivation, while a method using an electronegative microfiltration membrane resulted in the inactivation of some strains. Infectious FRNAPH genotypes in surface water samples were successfully quantified with an efficiency comparable to that of the conventional plaque assay. Genotype I (GI) and GII FRNAPHs tended to be predominant at locations impacted by treated and untreated municipal wastewater, respectively. The numbers and proportions of infectious FRNAPHs tended to be higher during the winter season when water temperature decreased. IMPORTANCE: Properties of FRNAPHs are highly variable depending on their genotypes. Previous typing methods for FRNAPHs are not quantitative and/or are based on molecular assays, which cannot differentiate infective strains from inactive strains. Due to the reasons mentioned above, the utility of FRNAPHs as viral indicators of water pollution has not been fully validated. In this study, a quantitative genotyping method for infectious FRNAPHs was developed and applied to surface water samples. The method enabled characterization of infectious FRNAPH genotypes in terms of their occurrence and seasonality. Moreover, comparison of the method to a conventional molecular assay (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR) enabled characterization of their stability. Our approach can provide novel findings for further validation of FRNAPHs as viral indicators of water pollution.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Fagos RNA/classificação , Fagos RNA/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Fagos RNA/genética , Estações do Ano
18.
Environ Technol ; 37(21): 2793-801, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26979931

RESUMO

When ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes that are able to effectively reduce viruses are installed in a waste water reclamation system, the security of sanitation safety for water-borne diseases is essential. It is important to understand the behaviour of enteric viruses such as Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Norovirus (NV), the detection rate of which is relatively high in sewage. This study focused on the UF membrane process for the reclaimed water treatment process, and investigated the removal performance in NV type GI and GII in the UF membrane process by performing coagulation and sedimentation as the pre-treatment process in a pilot-plant by considering the concentration fluctuation of the influent. The removal ratio of GI and GII by the UF membrane process alone was 3.3 ± 0.7 Log in GI and 3.6 ± 1.0 Log in GII, and no clear difference in the removal ratio by NV species type was observed. The removal ratio of NV GII was increased by about 0.6 Log on average (4.2 ± 1.1 Log) compared with the UF membrane process only when the coagulation and sedimentation process were conducted as pre-treatment. However, there was no significant difference in the removal of NV GI by conducting the coagulation and sedimentation process.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Esgotos/virologia , Microbiologia da Água
19.
Chemosphere ; 138: 770-6, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26291758

RESUMO

A year-round monitoring survey of sewage flowing into sewage treatment plants located in urban Japan was conducted by targeting seven representative pharmaceutical components-atenolol (ATL), ciprofloxacin (CFX), clarithromycin (CTM), diclofenac (DCF), diltiazem (DTZ), disopyramide (DSP), and sulpiride (SPR)-detected in the river environment. For each of these components, two types of predicted concentration were estimated on the basis of two types of data (the shipping volume and sales volume of each component). The measured concentration of each component obtained through the survey and the two types of estimated predicted concentration of each component were then compared. The correspondence ratio between the predicted concentration estimated from the shipping volume of the component and the measured concentration (predicted concentration/measured concentration) was, for ATL, 3.1; CFX, 1.4; CTM, 1.4; DCF, 0.2; DTZ, 0.9; DSP, 11.6; and SPR, 1.1. The correspondence ratio between the predicted concentration estimated from the sales volume of the component and the measured concentration was, for ATL, 0.5; CFX, 1.1; CTM, 0.8; DCF, 0.1; DTZ, 0.2; DSP, 0.7; and SPR, 0.8. Although a generally corresponding trend was seen regardless of whether the prediction was based on shipping volume or sales volume, the predicted concentrations estimated from the shipping volumes of all components expect DSP were found, to our knowledge for the first time in Japan, to correspond better than those based on sales volumes to the measured concentrations. These findings should help to improve the prediction accuracy of concentrations of pharmaceutical components in river waters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Japão , Rios/química
20.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0131412, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26110817

RESUMO

This is the first report of the detection of two new anti-influenza drugs, peramivir (PER) and laninamivir (LAN), in Japanese sewage effluent and river waters. Over about 1 year from October 2013 to July 2014, including the influenza prevalence season in January and February 2014, we monitored for five anti-influenza drugs-oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), zanamivir (ZAN), PER, and LAN-in river waters and in sewage effluent flowing into urban rivers of the Yodo River system in Japan. The dynamic profiles of these anti-influenza drugs were synchronized well with that of the numbers of influenza patients treated with the drugs. The highest levels in sewage effluents and river waters were, respectively, 82 and 41 ng/L (OS), 347 and 125 ng/L (OC), 110 and 35 ng/L (ZAN), 64 and 11 ng/L (PER), and 21 and 9 ng/L (LAN). However, application of ozone treatment before discharge from sewage treatment plants was effective in reducing the levels of these anti-influenza drugs in effluent. The effectiveness of the ozone treatment and the drug dependent difference in susceptibility against ozone were further evidenced by ozonation of a STP effluent in a batch reactor. These findings should help to promote further environmental risk assessment of the generation of drug-resistant influenza viruses in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Antivirais/análise , Ciclopentanos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Guanidinas/análise , Rios/química , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zanamivir/análogos & derivados , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Japão , Limite de Detecção , Oseltamivir/análogos & derivados , Oseltamivir/análise , Ozônio/química , Medição de Risco , Purificação da Água , Zanamivir/análise
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