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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to find a difference in the total number, prevalence, and common locations of CMBs between PD and DLB and evaluate 99 mTc-ECD SPECT subtraction images of these two diseases. METHODS: We examined 112 patients with PD (53 males and 59 females; age: 77.4±3.6 years) and 28 age-matched patients with DLB (15 males and 13 females; age: 77.1±6.7 years) using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 99 mTc-ECD SPECT subtraction imaging. RESULTS: The total number of CMBs was higher in patients with DLB (41.2%) than in those with PD (11.5%), and the prevalence was significantly higher in the former (0.7±1.1) than the latter (0.2±0.5, p <  0.05). The odds ratio was 5.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-17.4). Furthermore, CMBs were commonly located in the basal ganglia of patients with PD (6 out of 87 patients) but in the occipital lobe of patients with DLB (8 out of 17 patients). 99 mTc-ECD SPECT subtraction imaging indicated lower cerebral blood flow in the posterior cingulate gyrus among the patients with CMB-positive DLB than among those with CMB-positive PD; additionally, the cerebral blood flow was lower in the bilateral basal ganglia and midbrain among patients with CMB-positive DLB compared to those with CMB-negative DLB. CONCLUSION: A reduction in occipital glucose metabolism may be related to CMBs in the occipital lobe of patients with DLB.

2.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 19, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549111

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) triggers the cascade of events leading to preeclampsia. Edaravone is a powerful free radical scavenger used for the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion diseases due to its anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we investigate the effect of edaravone (3 mg/kg) on different maternal and fetal outcomes of RUPP-induced placental ischemia mice model. RUPP surgery was performed on gestation day (GD) 13 followed by edaravone injection from GD14 to GD18, sacrifice day. The results showed that edaravone injection significantly decreased the maternal blood pressure (113.2 ± 2.3 mmHg) compared with RUPP group (131.5 ± 1.9 mmHg). Edaravone increased fetal survival rate (75.4%) compared with RUPP group (54.4%), increased fetal length, weights, and feto-placental ratio (7.2 and 5.7 for RUPP and RUPP-Edaravone groups, respectively) compared with RUPP group. In addition, RUPP resulted in many fetal morphological abnormalities as well as severe delayed ossification, however edaravone decreased the morphological abnormalities and increased the ossification of the fetal endoskeleton. Edaravone improved the histopathological structure of the maternal kidney and heart as well as decreased the elevated blood urea and creatinine levels (31.5 ± 0.15 mg/dl (RUPP), 25.6 ± 0.1 mg/dl (RUPP+edaravone) for urea and 5.4 ± 0.1 mg/dl (RUPP), 3.5 ± 0.1 mg/dl (RUPP+edaravone) for creatinine) and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression in the maternal kidney. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that our RUPP mice model recapitulated preeclampsia symptoms and edaravone injection ameliorated most of these abnormalities suggesting its effectiveness and potential application in preeclampsia treatment regimes.

3.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 36(2): 84-88, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492011

RESUMO

Only a few studies have investigated changes in the dose of long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (LAI-SGAs) over the long term in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined longitudinal changes in antipsychotic dose over a 3-year period in patients with schizophrenia who had been taking LAI-SGAs for at least 1 year. We compared the total daily chlorpromazine equivalent dose of antipsychotics at 12, 24 and 36 months with the baseline dose at 3 months after initiation of LAI-SGAs. We also performed multiple regression analysis to explore factors associated with change in total daily dose 12 months after treatment initiation. A total of 154 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference in total daily antipsychotic dose between 3 months and 12, 24 or 36 months after treatment initiation. Total daily dose was increased in 43 (27.9%), 31 (34.8%) and 22 patients (36.7%) at 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. Age and total antipsychotic dose at 3 months were significantly negatively associated with change in total daily dose. Antipsychotic dose was basically unchanged during long-term treatment in patients treated with LAI-SGAs in the maintenance phase, although there was an increase in some patients.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105583, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between stroke etiology and clot pathology remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed histological analysis of clots retrieved from 52 acute ischemic stroke patients using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry (CD42b and oxidative/hypoxic stress markers). The correlations between clot composition and the stroke etiological group (i.e., cardioembolic, cryptogenic, or large artery atherosclerosis) were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 52 clots analyzed, there were no significant differences in histopathologic composition (e.g., white blood cells, red blood cells, fibrin, and platelets) between the 3 etiological groups (P = .92). By contrast, all large artery atherosclerosis clots showed a localized pattern with the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (P < .01). From all 52 clots, 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal expression patterns were localized in 28.8% of clots, diffuse in 57.7% of clots, and no signal in 13.5% of clots. CONCLUSIONS: A localized pattern of 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal staining may be a novel and effective marker for large artery atherosclerosis (sensitivity 100%, specificity 82%).

5.
Neurol Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377424

RESUMO

Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal motor neuron disease. Hypoxic stress is suspected as the pathogenesis of ALS, however, no positron emission tomography (PET) study for hypoxic stress has been conducted in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Methods: In the present study, we examined cervical spinal hypoxic stress of nineALS patients with upper extremity (U/E) atrophy by18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET. Results: On the ipsilateral side of C1 and C5 levels, 18F-FMISO uptake increased significantly compared with the contralateral side (*p < 0.05) and the control subject (**p < 0.01). In addition, a strong correlation was found between 18F-FMISO uptake of the C5 level and the rate of progression of the ALS FRS-R score (R = 0.781, *p = 0.013). Conclusion: These results indicate that hypoxic stress increased in the spinal cord of ALS patients with a close link to ALS progression. Both hypoxic stress and a compromised response to hypoxia, which may lead to subsequent motor neuron death, could be a potential therapeutic target for ALS.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17102, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051552

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss. Muse cells are endogenous reparative pluripotent-like stem cells distributed in various tissues. They can selectively home to damaged sites after intravenous injection by sensing sphingosine-1-phosphate produced by damaged cells, then exert pleiotropic effects, including tissue protection and spontaneous differentiation into tissue-constituent cells. In G93A-transgenic ALS mice, intravenous injection of 5.0 × 104 cells revealed successful homing of human-Muse cells to the lumbar spinal cords, mainly at the pia-mater and underneath white matter, and exhibited glia-like morphology and GFAP expression. In contrast, such homing or differentiation were not recognized in human mesenchymal stem cells but were instead distributed mainly in the lung. Relative to the vehicle groups, the Muse group significantly improved scores in the rotarod, hanging-wire and muscle strength of lower limbs, recovered the number of motor neurons, and alleviated denervation and myofiber atrophy in lower limb muscles. These results suggest that Muse cells homed in a lesion site-dependent manner and protected the spinal cord against motor neuron death. Muse cells might also be a promising cell source for the treatment of ALS patients.

7.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X20968927, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106078

RESUMO

White matter lesions (WMLs) caused by cerebral chronic hypoperfusion (CCH) may contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic approaches have yet to be totally identified. In the present study, we investigated a potential therapeutic effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone (EDA) on WMLs in our previously reported novel mouse model of AD (APP23) plus CCH with motor and cognitive deficits. Relative to AD with CCH mice at 12 months (M) of age, EDA strongly improved CCH-induced WMLs in the corpus callosum of APP23 mice at 12 M by improving the disruption of white matter integrity, enhancing the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, attenuating endothelium/astrocyte unit dysfunction, and reducing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The present study demonstrates that the long-term administration of EDA may provide a promising therapeutic approach for WMLs in AD plus CCH disease with cognitive deficits.

8.
Intern Med ; 59(22): 2927-2930, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999229

RESUMO

Tocilizumab (TCZ; Actemra/RoActemra) is an anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases and cytokine storms. The present case is a 63-year-old female well-controlled RA patient, who presented with a progressive cognitive impairment after 34 months of TCZ administration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed leukencephalopathy with a lactic acid peak in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a decreased blood flow in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and a decreased accumulation in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The discontinuation of TCZ improved her cognitive function and brain MRI findings at 3 months after drug cessation. The present case suggests that TCZ may sometimes cause leukoencephalopathy after long-term administration, and thus the early discontinuation of TCZ is recommended to achieve a good prognosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Leucoencefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
10.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 526, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968195

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10-8). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10-4). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10-11). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.

11.
Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921691

RESUMO

Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) causes demyelination in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Anti-neurofascin 155 antibody plays an important pathogenic role in CCPD, but evidence concerning an association between this antibody and CCPD remains inconclusive. Although there have been no reports of precedent optic neuritis developing into CCPD, we herein report a Japanese man in whom optic neuritis recurred four times over nine years and who developed CCPD without positive anti-neurofascin 155 antibody. This case suggests the possibility of developing CCPD after optic nerve neuritis and the existence of an unknown antibody that induces CCPD.

13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 156, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin-associated necrotizing myopathy (SANM) is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by administration of statins. SANM is characterized by weakness due to necrosis and regeneration of myofibers. Here we report the first case of SANM with acute respiratory failure treated with noninvasive pressure support ventilation in addition to immunosuppressants. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old woman who had been treated with 2.5 mg/day of rosuvastatin calcium for 5 years stopped taking the drug 4 months before admission to our hospital due to elevation of creatine kinase (CK). Withdrawal of rosuvastatin for 1 month did not decrease the level of CK, and she was admitted to our hospital due to the development of muscle weakness of her neck and bilateral upper extremities. Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase antibodies were positive. Magnetic resonance imaging showed myositis, and muscle biopsy from the right biceps brachii muscle showed muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration without inflammatory cell infiltration, suggesting SANM. After the diagnosis, she received methylprednisolone pulse therapy (mPSL, 1 g/day × 3 days, twice) and subsequent oral prednisolone therapy (PSL, 30 mg/day for 1 month, 25 mg/day for 1 month and 22.5 mg/day for 1 month), leading to improvement of her muscle weakness. One month after the PSL tapering to 20 mg/day, her muscle weakness deteriorated with oxygen desaturation (SpO2: 93% at room air) due to hypoventilation caused by weakness of respiratory muscles. BIPAP was used for the management of acute respiratory failure in combination with IVIG (20 g/day × 5 days) followed by mPSL pulse therapy (1 g/day × 3 days), oral PSL (30 mg/day × 3 weeks, then tapered to 25 mg/day) and tacrolimus (3 mg/day). Twenty-seven days after the start of BIPAP, she was weaned from BIPAP with improvement of muscle weakness, hypoxemia and hypercapnia. After she achieved remission with improvement of muscle weakness and reduction of serum CK level to a normal level, the dose of oral prednisolone was gradually tapered to 12.5 mg/day without relapse for 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our report provides new insights into the role of immunosuppressants and biphasic positive airway pressure for induction of remission in patients with SANM.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(2): 769-772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia such as depression and apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with a lower quality of life. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the efficacy of two antidepressants and one antipathy drug in the treatment of depression and apathy in AD patients. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of sertraline (n = 11; average dose = 31.8 mg), escitalopram (n = 13; average dose = 7.3 mg), and nicergoline (n = 9; average dose = 14.5 mg) in treating depression and apathy over a period of 3 months (M).The 33 patients with AD demonstrated high Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) (>5) or a high Apathy Scale (AS) (>16) scores. RESULTS: The patients receiving escitalopram treatment showed a significant improvement in GDS score from baseline (8.2±3.5) to 3 M (5.7±2.6, p = 0.04), and the patients receiving sertraline treatment showed a significant improvement in AS score from baseline (20.8±5.2) to 3 M (16.8±6.1, p = 0.05); however, no significant changes were noted in patients receiving nicergoline. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel information on the efficacy of sertraline and escitalopram in the treatment of apathy and depression, respectively, in patients with AD.

15.
J Neurosci Res ; 98(10): 2018-2026, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557772

RESUMO

Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is a standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke that could cause hemorrhagic complications. We aimed to evaluate the pathology of MT-induced arterial damage and neurovascular unit (NVU) disruption in relation to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) injection for acute ischemic stroke. We induced transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male SHR/Izm rats for 2 hr. This was followed by reperfusion with/without tPA (3 mg/kg) and "rough suture" insertion that mimicked MT once or thrice (MT1 or MT3). Compared with the control group, the tPA + MT3 group presented with an increase in the cerebral infarct and hemorrhage with severer IgG leakage. Moreover, structural damage reaching the tunica media was detected in the MT3 and tPA + MT3 groups. The tPA + MT3 group presented with increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression with some MMP9-positive cells expressing a neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, basal lamina detachment from astrocyte foot processes was observed in the tPA + MT1 and tPA + MT3 groups. These findings suggest that MT causes direct arterial damage, as well as VEGF and MMP9 upregulation, which results in NVU disruption and hemorrhagic complications in acute ischemic stroke, especially when combined with tPA.

16.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 17(3): 286-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia causes a strong inflammatory response. Neumentix is a dietary supplement containing 14.9% rosmarinic acid and 29.9% total phenolic content, which has been proved to be beneficial against inflammatory response. Therefore, Neumentix's effect on anti-inflammatory and blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model mice is investigated in this study. METHODS: After the pretreatment of vehicle or Neumentix 134 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) (containing rosmarinic acid 20 mg/kg/d) for 14 days, mice were subjected to tMCAO for 60 min and kept receiving vehicle or Neumentix daily 5 days afterward. RESULTS: Neumentix treatment ameliorated neurobehavioral impairment in the corner test (5d after tMCAO, **P<0.01), reduced infarct volume (#P<0.05), suppressed expression of ionized calciumbinding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (###P<0.001), and improved the integrity of BBB (§P<0.05) at 5 days after tMCAO. CONCLUSION: The present study provided an evidence of Neumentix's anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection effect against BBB disruption on experimental tMCAO model mice, suggesting that Neumentix could be a potential therapeutic agent for stroke.

17.
Brain Res ; 1742: 146862, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360098

RESUMO

The aggregation and cellular mislocalization of several RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been identified as the major hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it remains obscure whether these pathological changes also occur during cerebral ischemia. In this study, we report that RBPs increased significantly compared with the sham group (*p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 vs sham), with nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic deposition in neurons in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. On the other hand, such nucleocytoplasmic mislocalization were not observed in astrocytes. We provide evidence of the alteration of these neurodegeneration-related RBPs after cerebral ischemia, suggesting a potential association between cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Neuron ; 107(2): 292-305.e6, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375063

RESUMO

GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansions (HREs) in C9orf72 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and lead to the production of aggregating dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) via repeat associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. Here, we show the similar intronic GGCCTG HREs that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 36 (SCA36) is also translated into DPRs, including poly(GP) and poly(PR). We demonstrate that poly(GP) is more abundant in SCA36 compared to c9ALS/FTD patient tissue due to canonical AUG-mediated translation from intron-retained GGCCTG repeat RNAs. However, the frequency of the antisense RAN translation product poly(PR) is comparable between c9ALS/FTD and SCA36 patient samples. Interestingly, in SCA36 patient tissue, poly(GP) exists as a soluble species, and no TDP-43 pathology is present. We show that aggregate-prone chimeric DPR (cDPR) species underlie the divergent DPR pathology between c9ALS/FTD and SCA36. These findings reveal key differences in translation, solubility, and protein aggregation of DPRs between c9ALS/FTD and SCA36.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Dipeptídeos/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Elementos Antissenso (Genética)/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
20.
Neurosci Res ; 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461139

RESUMO

Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (CuATSM) has both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, but its therapeutic efficacy for oxidative stress has not been thoroughly investigated in acute ischemic stroke. Here, the present study was designed to assess the efficacies of CuATSM in acute ischemic stroke by comparing with the standard neuroprotective reagent edaravone. Mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) for 60 min, and then intravenously administrated with CuATSM (1.5 mg/kg) or edaravone (3 mg/kg) just after the reperfusion, and examined at 1 and 3 d. Compared with the vehicle group, CuATSM treatment decreased infarct volumes and oxidative stress at 3d after tMCAO, which was further enhanced by combined CuATSM + edaravone treatment as compared with single CuATSM group, but not improve neurobehaviors. The present study demonstrated that CuATSM showed strong antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in acute ischemic stroke, which was enhanced by the combination with edaravone.

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