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1.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773308

RESUMO

This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations between mold growth, type of stoves, and fragrance materials and early childhood wheezing and asthma, using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Mold growth at home, usage of kerosene/gas stove, wood stove/fireplace, and air freshener/deodorizer were surveyed using a questionnaire at 1.5-year-old, and childhood wheezing and doctor-diagnosed asthma during the previous year were obtained using a 3-year-old questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between exposure to childhood wheezing and asthma. A total of 60 529 children were included in the analysis. In multivariate analyses, mold growth and wood stove/fireplace had significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for wheezing (mold growth: 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; wood stove/fireplace: 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46). All four exposures had no significant ORs for childhood doctor-diagnosed asthma; however, in the supplemental analysis of northern regions, wood stove/fireplace had a significantly higher OR for asthma. Mold growth and wood stove/fireplace had significant associations with childhood wheezing in the northern regions. Mold elimination in the dwellings and use of clean heating (no air pollution emissions) should be taken into consideration to prevent and improve childhood wheezing and asthma.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19497, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593835

RESUMO

Numerous genetic variants associated with hypertension and blood pressure are known, but there is a paucity of evidence from genetic studies of resistant hypertension, especially in Asian populations. To identify novel genetic loci associated with resistant hypertension in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 2705 resistant hypertension cases and 21,296 mild hypertension controls, all from BioBank Japan. We identified one novel susceptibility candidate locus, rs1442386 on chromosome 18p11.3 (DLGAP1), achieving genome-wide significance (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.85 (0.81-0.90), P = 3.75 × 10-8) and 18 loci showing suggestive association, including rs62525059 of 8q24.3 (CYP11B2) and rs3774427 of 3p21.1 (CACNA1D). We further detected biological processes associated with resistant hypertension, including chemical synaptic transmission, regulation of transmembrane transport, neuron development and neurological system processes, highlighting the importance of the nervous system. This study provides insights into the etiology of resistant hypertension in the Japanese population.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682697

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (HDP) increase the risk of offspring with a low birth weight, preterm birth and small-for-gestational age; however, evidence of the anthropometric measurements during early childhood remains limited. We aimed to understand the associations between maternal HDP and anthropometric measurements of children aged up to seven years in a Japanese cohort. In total, 20,926 mother-infant pairs participated in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health, Japan, from 2002 to 2013. Medical reports were used to confirm HDP exposure, while weight, height, height z score, and weight z score were the outcomes. The prevalence of HDP in the study population was 1.7%. The birth height of male children born to HDP mothers was smaller as compared to those born to non-HDP mothers. When adjusted with covariates, the linear regressions showed significant changes in birth weight (ß: -79.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -154.8, -3.8), birth height (-0.67; 95% CI: -1.07, -0.26), weight at seven years (1.21; 95% CI: 0.13, 2.29), and weight gain between four and seven years (1.12; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.96) of male children exposed to HDP. Differences were more significant in male children than female. Our study showed that despite low birth weight, male children exposed to HDP caught up with their growth and gained more weight by seven years of age compared with male children not exposed to HDP, whereas no such differences were observed in female children; however, this finding requires replication.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639405

RESUMO

Abdominal congenital malformations are responsible for early mortality, inadequate nutrient intake, and infant biological dysfunction. Exposure to metallic elements in utero is reported to be toxic and negatively impacts ontogeny. However, no prior study has sufficiently evaluated the effects of exposure to metallic elements in utero on abdominal congenital malformations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between metallic elements detected in maternal blood during pregnancy and congenital abdominal malformations. Data from participants in the Japan Environment and Children's Study was used in the present study, and contained information on singleton and live birth infants without congenital abnormalities (control: n = 89,134) and abdominal malformations (case: n = 139). Heavy metals such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and trace elements of manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) were detected in maternal serum samples during mid- and late-gestation. Infant congenital abnormalities were identified from delivery records at birth or one month after birth by medical doctors. In a multivariate analysis adjusted to account for potential confounders, quartiles of heavy metals and trace elements present in maternal blood were not statistically correlated to the prevalence of abdominal congenital malformations at birth. This study is the first to reveal the absence of significant associations between exposure levels to maternal heavy metals and trace elements in utero and the prevalence of abdominal congenital malformations in a large cohort of the Japanese population. Further studies are necessary to investigate the impact of exposure to heavy metals and trace elements via maternal blood in offspring after birth.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 544, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of maternal psychological distress on infant congenital heart defects (CHDs) has not been thoroughly investigated. Furthermore, there have been no reports on the combined effect of maternal psychological distress and socioeconomic status on infant CHDs. This study aimed to examine whether maternal psychological distress, socioeconomic status, and their combinations were associated with CHD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which recruited pregnant women between 2011 and 2014. Maternal psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale in the first trimester, while maternal education and household income were evaluated in the second and third trimesters. The outcome of infant CHD was determined using the medical records at 1 month of age and/or at birth. Crude- and confounder-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between maternal psychological distress and education and household income on infant CHD. RESULTS: A total of 93,643 pairs of mothers and infants were analyzed, with 1.1% of infants having CHDs. Maternal psychological distress had a significantly higher odds ratio in the crude analysis but not in the adjusted analysis, while maternal education and household income were statistically insignificant. In the analysis of the combination variable of lowest education and psychological distress, the P for trend was statistically significant in the crude and multivariate model excluding anti-depressant medication, but the significance disappeared in the full model (P = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of maternal psychological distress and lower education may be a possible indicator of infant CHD.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Renda , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Classe Social , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281019

RESUMO

Pets may play a role in the social-emotional development of children. In particular, some studies have suggested that family dog ownership is associated with better health outcomes. To date, no study has assessed child development in association with dog ownership of different time points. The purpose of the current study was primary to investigate whether "ever" family dog ownership was associated with early child development, and secondary to further examine whether associations between family dog ownership and early child development differ among family dog ownership of status, including "past only", "current only", and "always" groups, using the data of family dog ownership obtained at multiple time points. Associations between family dog ownership and infant development at 3 years of age were examined using data from a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (n = 78,941). "Ever" family dog ownership was categorized to "past only", "current only", and "always". We observed that children with "ever" family dog ownership showed a significantly decreased risk of developmental delay in the communication (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78, 0.96), gross motor (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92), problem-solving (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96) and personal-social (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.92) domains compared to children with "never" family dog ownership. Furthermore, a significantly decreased risk of developmental delay in gross motor function was observed in association with living with dogs in the "past only" (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95) and "always" (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98). In addition, a decreased risk of developmental delay in the problem-solving domain was associated with "past" family dog ownership (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.97) and in the personal-social domain was associated with "always" family dog ownership (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.95). Given the possible positive association between early life child development and family dog ownership, living with dogs may be an important factor to be considered when assessing child development.


Assuntos
Propriedade , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 59, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco. METHODS: The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures. RESULTS: The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Seguimentos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Prevalência
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of mothers' and fathers' educational levels in separate evaluations of asthma has not been fully investigated. This study aims to examine the associations of the mother's and fathers' educational levels with childhood wheeze and asthma adjusting for crude and pre-and post-natal modifiable risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which recruited pregnant women from 2011 to 2014. The mother's and father's educational levels were surveyed by a questionnaire during the pregnancy, and childhood wheezing and doctor-diagnosed asthma were estimated using a 3-year questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the mother's and father's educational levels and childhood wheezing and asthma, adjusted for pre-and post-natal factors. RESULTS: A total of 69,607 pairs of parents and their single infants were analyzed. We found 17.3% of children had wheezing and 7.7% had asthma. In crude analyses, lower educational level of parents was associated with an increased risk of childhood wheezing and asthma. After full adjustment, a lower educational level of mothers was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma (junior high school (reference: high school); odds ratio (OR): 1.17, 95% CI, 1.01-1.36), and higher educational level, especially the mother's, was associated with an increased risk of childhood wheezing (technical junior college, technical/vocational college, or associate degree (ECD3); OR: 1.12, 95% CI, 1.06-1.18, bachelor's degree, or postgraduate degree; OR: 1.10, 95% CI, 1.03-1.18), and asthma (ECD3; OR: 1.13, 95% CI, 1.04-1.21). CONCLUSIONS: Parents' lower educational level was a crude risk factor for childhood wheezing and asthma. However, an increased risk of wheezing due to mothers' higher educational level was found after adjusting for pre-and post-natal factors.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Pais/educação , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 74, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. We assessed whether DNA methylation differences may mediate the association between prenatal smoking exposure and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years. RESULTS: We selected 1150 mother-infant pairs from the Hokkaido Study on the Environment and Children's Health. Mothers were categorized into three groups according to plasma cotinine levels at the third trimester: non-smokers (≤ 0.21 ng/mL), passive smokers (0.21-11.48 ng/mL), and active smokers (≥ 11.49 ng/mL). The children's ADHD symptoms were determined by the ADHD-Rating Scale at the age of 6 years. Maternal active smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD symptoms (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.15) compared to non-smoking after adjusting for covariates. DNA methylation of the growth factor-independent 1 transcriptional repressor (GFI1) region, as determined by bisulfite next-generation sequencing of cord blood samples, mediated 48.4% of the total effect of the association between maternal active smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms. DNA methylation patterns of other genes (aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor [AHRR], cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 [CYP1A1], estrogen receptor 1 [ESR1], and myosin IG [MYO1G]) regions did not exert a statistically significant mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that DNA methylation of GFI1 mediated the association between maternal active smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804885

RESUMO

Hypertension during pregnancy causes a greater risk of adverse birth outcomes worldwide; however, formal evidence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (HDP) in Japan is limited. We aimed to understand the association between maternal characteristics, HDP, and birth outcomes. In total, 18,833 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Hokkaido study on environment and children's health, Japan, from 2002 to 2013. Medical records were used to identify hypertensive disorders and birth outcomes, namely, small for gestational age (SGA), SGA at full term (term-SGA), preterm birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW). The prevalence of HDP was 1.9%. Similarly, the prevalence of SGA, term-SGA, PTB, and LBW were 7.1%, 6.3%, 7.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. The mothers with HDP had increased odds of giving birth to babies with SGA (2.13; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.57, 2.88), PTB (3.48; 95%CI: 2.68, 4.50), LBW (3.57; 95%CI: 2.83, 4.51) than normotensive pregnancy. Elderly pregnancy, low and high body mass index, active and passive smoking exposure, and alcohol consumption were risk factors for different birth outcomes. Therefore, it is crucial for women of reproductive age and their families to be made aware of these risk factors through physician visits, health education, and various community-based health interventions.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(5): 356-369, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555323

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut. Genetic association studies have identified the highly variable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region as the strongest susceptibility locus for IBD and specifically DRB1*01:03 as a determining factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, for most of the association signal such as delineation could not be made because of tight structures of linkage disequilibrium within the HLA. The aim of this study was therefore to further characterize the HLA signal using a transethnic approach. We performed a comprehensive fine mapping of single HLA alleles in UC in a cohort of 9272 individuals with African American, East Asian, Puerto Rican, Indian and Iranian descent and 40 691 previously analyzed Caucasians, additionally analyzing whole HLA haplotypes. We computationally characterized the binding of associated HLA alleles to human self-peptides and analyzed the physicochemical properties of the HLA proteins and predicted self-peptidomes. Highlighting alleles of the HLA-DRB1*15 group and their correlated HLA-DQ-DR haplotypes, we not only identified consistent associations (regarding effects directions/magnitudes) across different ethnicities but also identified population-specific signals (regarding differences in allele frequencies). We observed that DRB1*01:03 is mostly present in individuals of Western European descent and hardly present in non-Caucasian individuals. We found peptides predicted to bind to risk HLA alleles to be rich in positively charged amino acids. We conclude that the HLA plays an important role for UC susceptibility across different ethnicities. This research further implicates specific features of peptides that are predicted to bind risk and protective HLA proteins.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/genética , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica
12.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a cause of inpatient and outpatient care among children. Although orofacial clefts seem to be associated with LRTIs, epidemiological studies are scarce on this topic. This study aimed to examine whether infants with orofacial clefts were associated with LRTIs. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, whose baseline recruitment was conducted during 2011-2014. This study included 81,535 participants. The number of infants with cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft lip (CL), and cleft palate only (CP) was 67, 49, and 36, respectively. We defined history of LRTIs until 12 months' age reported by their mothers as the dependent variable. Accumulated breastfeeding duration was used as potential mediators. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of LRTIs among the control group was 6.0%. The incidence proportion among infants with CLP, CL, and CP were 11.9%, 14.3%, and 5.6%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, compared with the control group, infants with CLP and CL were associated with risk of LRTIs (incidence risk ratio [IRR] of CLP = 2.38 [95% confidence interval = 1.30, 4.36] and of CL = 2.73 [1.40, 5.33]) , but not ones with CP (1.08 [0.28, 4.15]). Accumulated breastfeeding duration decreased the IRR of CLP only (IRR of CLP = 2.16 [1.19, 3.93]). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with orofacial clefts aged 1 year have a potentially high incidence proportion of LRTIs. Accumulated breastfeeding duration might mediate the associations of CLP.

13.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 58(3): 369-377, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined psychological status trajectories of mothers of infants with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in Japan. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. PARTICIPANTS: Infants with a nonsyndromic cleft (N = 148) including cleft lip and palate (CLP; n = 72), cleft lip (CL; n = 46), and cleft palate (CP; n = 30). The control group included unaffected infants (N = 84 454). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 15 weeks and 27 weeks of pregnancy and 12 months after birth, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (clinical cutoff ≥5) was used. At 1 month and 6 months after birth, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (clinical cutoff ≥9) was used. RESULTS: Prenatal diagnosis rates were unavailable. Mothers of infants with CLP had higher psychological distress than controls at 27 weeks of pregnancy (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.74) and postnatal depression at 1 month after birth (PR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.53-3.19). Mothers of infants with CP showed heightened psychological distress at 27 weeks of pregnancy (PR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21-2.17) and postnatal depression 6 months after birth (PR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.01-3.43). There was no significant association between CL and maternal psychological status. At 12 months after birth, no differences in distress were found between mothers of infants with a cleft and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers of infants with orofacial clefts may need psychosocial support, particularly during pregnancy and the first year after birth.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Epidemiol ; 31(4): 272-279, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population impact of modifiable risk factors on orofacial clefts is still unknown. This study aimed to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) of modifiable risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate only (CP) in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which recruited pregnant women from 2011 to 2014. We estimated the PAFs of maternal alcohol consumption, psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 and ≥25 kg/m2), and non-use of a folic acid supplement during pregnancy for nonsyndromic CL±P and CP in babies. RESULTS: A total of 94,174 pairs of pregnant women and their single babies were included. Among them, there were 146 nonsyndromic CL±P cases and 41 nonsyndromic CP cases. The combined adjusted PAF for CL±P of the modifiable risk factors excluding maternal alcohol consumption was 34.3%. Only maternal alcohol consumption was not associated with CL±P risk. The adjusted PAFs for CL±P of psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal BMI, and non-use of a folic acid supplement were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.7 to 15.1%), 9.9% (95% CI, -7.0 to 26.9%), 10.8% (95% CI, -9.9 to 30.3%), 2.4% (95% CI, -7.5 to 14.0%), and 15.1% (95% CI, -17.8 to 41.0%), respectively. We could not obtain PAFs for CP due to the small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: We reported the population impact of the modifiable risk factors on CL±P, but not CP. This study might be useful in planning the primary prevention of CL±P.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302600

RESUMO

With increasing use of mobile phones, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) in the high-frequency band associated with mobile phones has become a public concern, with potentially adverse effects on cognitive function in children and adolescents. However, findings regarding the relation of RF-EMF and cognitive function in children and adolescents have been inconsistent due to a number of study design-related factors, such as types of exposure and outcome measures, age of participants, and the era of study conduction. The present literature review focused on these possible factors that could explain this inconsistency. This review identified 12 eligible studies (participants ages 4 to 17 years) and extracted a total 477 relations. In total, 86% of the extracted relations were not statistically significant; in the remaining 14%, a negative relation between RF-EMF and cognitive performance was detected under limited conditions: when (1) RF-EMF was assessed using objective measurement not subjective measurement (i.e., questionnaire), (2) participants were relatively older (12 years and above) and had greater opportunity of exposure to RF-EMF, and (3) the collection of cognitive function data was conducted after 2012. Given that 86% of the extracted relations in this analysis were not statistically significant, the interpretation should be approached with caution due to the possibility of the 14% of significant relationships, extracted in this review, representing chance findings.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Cognição , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
16.
Environ Res ; 189: 109840, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979988

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are environmental contaminants with potentially adverse effects on neurodevelopment. Previous findings on the association between prenatal exposure to OCPs and the maternal or infant thyroid hormone system are inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of exposure to multiple OCPs and other chemical compounds is not clearly understood. Our study therefore aimed to examine the association between OCP exposure and both maternal and infant thyroid hormone systems. We also explored multiple exposure effects of OCPs and the influence of each compound using weighted quantile sum (WQS) methods. The study population included 514 participants in the Hokkaido study, recruited from 2002 to 2005 at one hospital in Sapporo, Japan. To quantify 29 OCPs, maternal blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Blood samples for measuring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels were obtained from mothers during the early gestational stage (mean 11.4 weeks), and from infants between 7 and 43 days of age. The data of 333 mother child pairs with OCP and thyroid hormone measurements were included in the final analyses. Multivariate regression models showed a negative association between maternal FT4 and levels of o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dieldrin. The WQS analysis showed that o,p'-DDT (48.6%), cis-heptachlorepoxide (22.8%), dieldrin (15.4%) were the primary contributors to the significant multiple exposure effect of OCPs on maternal FT4. For infants, we found a positive association between FT4 and cis-nonachlor and mirex. The most contributory compounds in the multiple exposure effect were trans-nonachlor (27.1%) and cis-nonachlor (13.8%), while several compounds contributed to the WQS via small weights (0.4-9.1%). These results indicate that OCPs, even at very low levels, may influence maternal and child thyroid hormone levels, which could modulate child development.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mães , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos
17.
Pediatr Int ; 62(10): 1177-1183, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor coordination problems (MCP) in children can sometimes be diagnosed as developmental coordination disorder. Early intervention for developmental coordination disorder is necessary because it often continues into adolescence, causing mental and physical complications. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of childhood MCP in the Japanese population, examining the risk factors for MCP. We therefore investigated the prenatal factors associated with MCP in preschool-age children. METHODS: This study was based on a prospective cohort study, the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Mothers of 4,851 children who reached the age of 5 years within the study-period received questionnaires, including the Japanese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-J). We examined the risk factors associated with MCP using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 3,402 returned DCDQ-J questionnaires, 3,369 were answered completely. From the 3,369 children, we categorized having MCP by using two cut-off scores: that of the DCDQ'07 and the cut-off at the 5th percentile of a total DCDQ-J score. Comparing children with and without MCP, we found significant differences in the education level of the mothers, annual household income during pregnancy, maternal alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy, and sex and age of the children at the time of completing the DCDQ-J by both categorizations. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that maternal smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy and male sex were significantly associated with MCP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy is the main factor associated with MCP in preschool-age children.


Assuntos
Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 74, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistent findings reported on maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and child risk of ADHD. In this study, ADHD symptoms at pre-school age children in association with prenatal passive and active tobacco smoke exposure determined by maternal plasma cotinine levels in the third trimester were investigated. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of the birth cohort: the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Children whose parents answered Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to identify child ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems) and total difficulties at age 5 years with available maternal plasma cotinine level at the third trimester were included (n = 3216). Cotinine levels were categorized into 4 groups; ≦ 0.21 ng/ml (non-smoker), 0.22-0.51 ng/ml (low-passive smoker), 0.52-11.48 ng/ml (high-passive smoker), and ≧ 11.49 ng/ml (active smoker). RESULTS: Maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were significantly associated with an increased risk of total difficulties (OR = 1.67) and maternal low- and high-passive smoking also increased the risk (OR = 1.11, 1.25, respectively) without statistical significance. Similarly, maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.49). Maternal low- and high-passive smoking and active smoking increased the risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.45, 1.43, and OR = 1.59, respectively) only in boys. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may contribute to the increased risk of child total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention at pre-school age. Pregnant women should be encouraged to quit smoking and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105139, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid antibodies (TAs) are the most common cause of hypothyroidism during gestation. Although previous studies found that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) disrupts thyroid hormones (THs) in humans, their effects on TAs during the perinatal period have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between prenatal exposure to eleven different PFASs from two different groups (carboxylates and sulfonates) and the expression of THs and TAs in maternal and cord blood while considering maternal TA status. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort (the Hokkaido Study), we included 701 mother­neonate pairs recruited in 2002-2005 for whom both prenatal maternal and cord blood samples were available. Eleven PFASs were measured in maternal plasma obtained at 28-32 weeks of gestation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. THs and TAs including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured in maternal blood during early pregnancy (median 11 gestational weeks), and in cord blood at birth. RESULTS: The median levels of TgAb and TPOAb in maternal serum were 15.0 and 6.0 IU/mL, respectively. The median TgAb level in neonates was 38.0 IU/mL, and TPOAb were detected in only 12.3% of samples. Maternal FT3 level was positively associated with PFAS levels in both TA-positive and TA-negative mothers. Maternal perfluorooctanoate was inversely associated with maternal TPOAb. Among boys, some maternal PFASs were associated with higher TSH and lower FT3 levels in maternal TA-negative group, while perfluorodecanoic acid was associated with lower TSH in maternal TA-positive group. Among girls, some PFAS of mothers showed associations with lower TSH and higher FT3 in maternal TA-negative group, while perfluorododecanoic acid was associated with lower FT4 in maternal TA-positive. Maternal PFASs showed associations with boy's TgAb inversely in maternal TA-negative group and with girl's TgAb positively in maternal TA-positive group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest thyroid disrupting effects of PFAS exposure and susceptibility vary depending on maternal TA levels.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(1): 34, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes in clinical settings and to assess its effect modification (heterogeneity) among patients with various medical histories and current medications. METHODS: In a total of 12,177 Japanese patients without diabetes, from December 2004 to November 2012, we identified 500 statin users and 500 matched non-users using propensity-score matching. Patients were followed until December 2017. We estimated the hazard ratios of new-onset diabetes associated with statin use. We also tested the heterogeneity of the treatment effect by evaluating subgroup interactions in subgroups according to sex, age, medical history, and current medication. RESULTS: New-onset diabetes had occurred in 71 patients (13.6%) with statin use and 43 patients (8.3%) with non-use at 5 years (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 2.48; P = 0.0143), and in 78 patients (15.6%) with statin use and 48 patients (9.6%) with non-use at 10 years (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.37; P = 0.0141). There were no significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions in all subgroups defined according to sex, age, medical history, and current medication. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with various clinical backgrounds, those who received statin therapy had a higher risk of new-onset diabetes at 5 and 10 years than those who did not receive it. Effect modification of statins on new-onset diabetes was not found in patient populations defined according to various comorbid diseases or concomitant drugs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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