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1.
Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes ; 14: 11795514211040539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602832

RESUMO

Background: The safe method of instructing insulin dose reduction in combination with SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been clarified. In this study, we conducted a stratified, 2-arm, parallel comparative study with the primary endpoint of decreasing the frequency of hypoglycemia by instructing basal insulin dose reduction. Methods: The study has a multicenter, open-label, 2-arm design; 60 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients are being recruited from 7 hospitals. Study subjects have been stratified into 2 groups based on the ratio of basal insulin daily dose (Basal) to total daily insulin dose (TDD). The subjects whose Basal/TDD ratio is <0.4 are instructed not to reduce Basal but to reduce bolus insulin dose by 10% (group A), and subjects with a Basal/TDD ratio >0.4 will be instructed to reduce Basal by 10% (group B). The primary outcome is the daily frequency of hypoglycemia during the intervention period (SGLT2 inhibitor administration), as determined by self-monitoring of blood glucose. We aimed to confirm a greater reduction in frequency of hypoglycemia in group B (reduced Basal), than in group A (non-reduction of Basal and reduced insulin effect levels by 10%). Baseline hypoglycemia was set at 7 ± 6 times/month. The minimum sample size required to achieve a significance of .05 for a 1-sided t-test with a statistical power at 80% is determined. When the sample size is 26 patients in 1 group, the percentage increase in hypoglycemia exceeds 60%, and the sample size is considered sufficient. Discussion: In this pilot study, we assumed that, given a sufficient Basal, hypoglycemia would be more frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes when combined with SGLT2 inhibitors, provided the Basal was not reduced.

2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665938

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Metformin is associated with the risk of gastrointestinal complications and probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) can improve the symptoms of diarrhea. This study aimed to clarify the effects of probiotic BBG9-1 on the gastrointestinal symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label single-arm exploratory study, 40 patients (mean age, 64.0±9.4 years) were administered probiotic BBG9-1 for 10 weeks. Changes in the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale total score, which was the primary endpoint, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale subscale scores, HbA1c levels, and gut microbiota after the administration of probiotic BBG9-1 were evaluated by the Student's t-test. RESULTS: The gastrointestinal symptom rating scale total score was significantly improved (from 2.02±0.51 to 1.59±0.43, change, -0.43±0.49, p<0.001). Moreover, all gastrointestinal symptom rating scale subscale scores, including diarrhea (from 2.32±1.14 to 1.89±0.99, change, -0.42±0.95, p=0.007) and constipation (from 3.00±1.16 to 2.20±1.07, change, -0.80±1.19, p<0.001), scores also significantly improved. However, the HbA1c levels did not change (from 7.0±0.7 to 7.0±0.6 %, change, 0.0±0.4, p=0.91). The relative abundance of the genus Sutterella was decreased by the use of probiotic BBG9-1 (from 0.011±0.009 to 0.008±0.006, change, -0.003±0.006, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with metformin showed significant improvement in all gastrointestinal symptom rating scores after using probiotic BBG9-1 without changing the glucose control. This study demonstrated the potential usefulness of probiotic BBG9-1 for improving gastrointestinal symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with metformin.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578892

RESUMO

Salt intake is often estimated by the amount of sodium excreted in urine, and miso has been reported to increase it. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between obesity and high estimated salt intake with and without habitual miso consumption. Estimates of salt intake (g/day) were calculated using urinary sodium excretion, and a high estimated intake was defined as greater than the median amount of 9.5 g/day. Participants were divided into four groups based on estimated salt intake and miso consumption. Among 300 people, the proportions of obesity were 77.8% (n = 14/18), 40.2% (n = 53/132), 26.0% (n = 33/127), and 34.8% (n = 8/23) in the (+/-), (+/+), (-/+), and (-/-) groups of high estimated salt intake/habitual miso consumption, respectively. Compared with the (+/-) group, the adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.26, p < 0.001), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03-0.76, p = 0.022), and 0.14 (95% CI: 0.04-0.51, p = 0.003) in the (-/+), (-/-), and (+/+) groups, respectively. The presence of obesity was not much higher in people with high estimated salt intake with habitual miso consumption than that in people without. Clinicians should be aware that miso consumption promotes salt excretion, which may lead to an apparently higher estimated salt intake than actual.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371843

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the relationships between the intakes of various vitamins and the loss of muscle mass in older people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The change in skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) (kg/m2/year) was defined as follows: (SMI at baseline (kg/m2) - SMI at follow-up (kg/m2))/follow-up period (year). The rate of SMI reduction (%) was calculated as follows (the change in SMI (kg/m2/year)/SMI at baseline (kg/m2)) × 100. The rate of SMI reduction ≥ 1.2% was considered as the loss of muscle mass. Among 197 people with T2DM, 47.2% of them experienced the loss of muscle mass at the 13.7 ± 5.2 month follow-up. Vitamin B1 (0.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3 mg/day, p = 0.031), vitamin B12 (11.2 ± 8.3 vs. 13.4 ± 7.5 µg/day, p = 0.049), and vitamin D (16.5 ± 12.2 vs. 21.6 ± 13.0 µg/day, p = 0.004) intakes in people with the loss of muscle mass were significantly lower than those without. Vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass after adjusting for sex, age, exercise, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, SMI, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, insulin, HbA1c, creatinine, energy intake, and protein intake (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.97, p = 0.003). This study showed that vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass in older people with T2DM. Vitamin B12 intake tended to be related to the loss of muscle mass, although vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E intake were not related.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/análise , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcopenia/etiologia
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305899

RESUMO

Background and aims: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in mice. Methods: In this study, the role of ILC2s in white adipose tissue (WAT) was investigated using ST2, an IL-33 receptor that is expressed on ILC2 knockout mice. Results: The deficiency of ST2 decreased ILC2s in WAT, whereas ex-ILC2, which acquired group 1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1)-like traits, was increased. This led to significant metabolic disorders such as visceral fat obesity, decreased browning in WAT, reduction of energy metabolism, and impaired glucose tolerance, compared to wild type (WT) mice. Those metabolic abnormalities of ST2-knockout (ST2KO) mice were not ameliorated by IL-33 administration, but impaired glucose tolerance and visceral fat obesity were significantly improved by transplantation of ILCs from the bone marrow of WT mice. The relative expression of Cd36 in WAT increased due to the deficiency of ST2, and the storage of saturated fatty acids in WAT of ST2KO mice was significantly higher than that of WT mice. Moreover, saturated fatty acids aggravated the chronic inflammation in adipocytes, promoted the differentiation of M1-like macrophages, and inhibited that of M2-like macrophages. Conclusions: Our results indicated that ILC2 regulates diet-induced obesity and chronic inflammation through the regulation of saturated fatty acid absorption in visceral adipose tissue.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205413

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to reveal the characteristics of gut microbiome altered by acarbose intervention in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its possible association with habitual dietary intake. Eighteen patients with T2D were administered acarbose for four weeks. The abundances of two major phyla, namely Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were reciprocally changed accompanied by the acarbose intervention. There were also significant changes in the abundances of ten genera, including the greater abundance of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus and the lower abundance of Bacteroides in the group after the intervention than that before the intervention. Hierarchical clustering of habitual dietary intake was performed based on the pattern of changes in the gut microbiota and were classified into distinct three clusters. Cluster I consisted of sucrose, cluster II mainly included fat intake, and cluster III mainly included carbohydrate intake. Moreover, the amount of change in Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with the intake of rice, but negatively correlated with the intake of bread. The intake of potato was negatively correlated with the amount of change in Akkermansia and Subdoligranulum. Acarbose altered the composition of gut microbiome in Japanese patients with T2D, which might be linked to the habitual dietary intake.


Assuntos
Acarbose/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity. RESULTS: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) (n = 6). Furthermore, compared with the Ctrl group, the Ery group had lesser fat deposition in the liver, smaller adipocytes, and significantly better inflammatory findings in the small intestine. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid, in the serum, feces, and white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. In flow cytometry experiments, group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) counts in the lamina propria of the small intestine and ILC2 counts in the white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the Il-22 expression in the small intestine of the Ery group was markedly higher than that in the Ctrl group. CONCLUSIONS: Erythritol markedly decreased metabolic disorders such as diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and fat accumulation in the mouse liver by increasing SCFAs and modulating innate immunity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(9): 2155-2160, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085376

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to develop an application to calculate mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) automatically and to evaluate its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We named the application intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) calculator KAMOGAWA (Kyoto Auto MAGE Of Glucose cAlcutator With isCGM Application). The isCGM data from 20 patients, 10 with and 10 without diabetes, were used to compare manually calculated MAGE values with those calculated using KAMOGAWA. The rate of agreement for the MAGE values was calculated. RESULTS: Comparing the MAGE values calculated manually with those calculated using KAMOGAWA, the total mean rate of agreement was 81.6%. Nonmatching values were checked and it was found that the inconsistencies were all attributable to errors in manual calculations. After correcting errors in the manual calculation, the MAGE values matched to one decimal place for all data in the manual and KAMOGAWA calculations. CONCLUSIONS: KAMOGAWA can help diabetologists use MAGE in clinical practice, which could contribute to improving glycaemic control in patients who use isCGM.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Humanos
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995404

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Many nutritional and epidemiological studies have shown that high consumption of trans fatty acids can cause several adverse effects on human health, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trans fatty acids on innate immunity in the gut by observing mice fed with a diet high in trans fatty acids, which have been reported to cause dysbiosis. Methods: We used C57BL6/J mice and fed them with normal diet (ND) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) or high-trans fatty acid, high-sucrose diet (HTHSD) for 12 weeks. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on the mice stool samples, in addition to flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and lipidomics analysis of the mice serum and liver samples. RAW264.7 cells were used for the in vitro studies. Results: Mice fed with HTHSD displayed significantly higher blood glucose levels and advanced fatty liver and intestinal inflammation, as compared to mice fed with HFHSD. Furthermore, compared to mice fed with HFHSD, mice fed with HTHSD displayed a significant elevation in the expression of CD36 in the small intestine, along with a reduction in the expression of IL-22. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the populations of ILC1s and T-bet-positive ILC3s in the lamina propria in mice fed with HTHSD. Finally, the relative abundance of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, which belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria, was significantly higher in mice fed with HFHSD or HTHSD, than in mice fed with ND; between the HFHSD and HTHSD groups, the abundance was slightly higher in the HTHSD group. Conclusions: This study revealed that compared to saturated fatty acid intake, trans fatty acid intake significantly exacerbated metabolic diseases such as diabetes and fatty liver.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous 2-year cohort study has shown that isolated high home systolic blood pressure (IH-HSBP) may increase the risk of diabetic nephropathy, using normal HBP as a reference. However, this association has not been previously assessed in the medium to long term. METHODS: This prospective 5-year cohort study of 424 patients, with normal or mildly increased albuminuria, investigated the effect of IH-HSBP on the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as an advancement from normal or mildly increased albuminuira to moderate or severely increased albuminuria. RESULTS: Among 424 patients, 75 developed diabetic nephropathy during the study period. The adjusted odds ratio for developing diabetic nephropathy given IH-HSBP was 2.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.96, p = 0.02). The odds ratio for developing nephropathy in patients with IH-HSBP younger than 65 years was higher than that in patients with IH-HSBP older than 65 years. CONCLUSION: IH-HSBP was associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with normal or mildly increased albuminuria in the medium to long term. The results support and strengthen previous reports. These findings suggest that IH-HSBP might be a useful marker in disease prognostication.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648754, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790913

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Emerging evidence has revealed that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a key role in regulating metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the role of group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) in the modulation of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: RORγ gfp/gfp (RORgt KI/KI) and Rag2-/- mice with the administration of A213, RORgt antagonist, fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, were used. We performed flow cytometry, real time PCR, and lipidomics analysis of serum and liver, and used RAW264.7 cells and murine primary hepatocytes in vitro. Results: HFD increased ILC3s and M1 macrophages in the liver, and RORgt KI/KI mice deficient in ILC3 showed significant fatty liver, liver fibrosis and significantly increased palmitic acid levels in serum and liver. In addition, administration of A213 to Rag2-/- mice caused significant fatty liver, liver fibrosis, and a significant increase in serum and liver palmitate concentrations, as in RORgt KI/KI mice. Addition of palmitc acid stimulated IL-23 production in cell experiments using RAW264.7. IL-22 produced by ILC3s inhibited the palmitate-induced apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. Conclusions: HFD stimulates IL-23 production by M1 macrophages, thus promoting ILC3 proliferation, whereas IL-22 secreted by ILC3s contributes to the upregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and has anti-apoptosis activity.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/classificação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ácido Palmítico/sangue , Ácido Palmítico/imunologia , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920957

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic restrictions on the change in muscle mass in older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), who were not infected with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from outpatients who underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis at least twice before April 2020 and at least once thereafter. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was calculated as appendicular muscle mass (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Change in SMI (kg/m2/year) was calculated as (follow-up SMI-baseline SMI/follow-up period). The differences between the changes in SMI before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated using paired t test. Results: This study recruited 56 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 75.2 (7.1) years. SMI changed from 6.7 (0.9) to 6.8 (0.9) kg/m2 before the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas SMI changed from 6.8 (0.9) to 6.6 (0.9) kg/m2 after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. SMI decreased after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic (-0.117 (0.240) vs. 0.005 (0.289) kg/m2/year, p = 0.049). This decrease was observed in men (-0.159 (0.257) vs. 0.031 (0.325) kg/m2/year, p = 0.038), patients with poor glycemic control (-0.170 (0.264) vs. 0.031 (0.285) kg/m2/year, p = 0.042), and those with a long diabetes duration (-0.153 (0.229) vs. 0.082 (0.291) kg/m2, p = 0.049). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions caused muscle mass loss in older patents with T2D. Actions, including recommendation of exercise and adequate diet intake, are needed to prevent loss of muscle mass.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
13.
Diabetol Int ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898153

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the acute effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 34 patients who were admitted to our hospital from April 16 to May 1, 2020. Data on stress levels, sleep duration, exercise, total diet, snacks, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. Changes in the values of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body weight from 3 months before the administration of the questionnaire to the time the study questionnaire was administered (pandemic year), and those from 15 months before to 12 months before the administration of the questionnaire (pre-pandemic year) were evaluated. Results: Increased stress levels and decreased exercise volumes were observed in approximately 60% and 50% of participants during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Decreased sleep duration was associated with changes in the body weight for 3 months during pandemic year (r = - 0.40, p = 0.043). Furthermore, compared with changes in HbA1c for 3 months during pre-pandemic year, changes in HbA1c during the pandemic year were worse (0.12% [0.33] % during pandemic year vs. - 0.09 [0.39] % during pre-pandemic year, p = 0.027). Conclusions: Many patients experienced stress and exercised less due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Glycemic control in patients with T1D was worse than that in the previous year. Since the pandemic is currently ongoing, more attention should be paid to stress and lifestyle factor management in patients with T1D. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00507-4.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924846

RESUMO

Glycemic control, including glycemic variability, is important for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There was an association between miso soup intake and insulin resistance. However, the relationship between habitual miso consumption and glycemic control, including glycemic variability, in patients with T2DM remains unknown. We defined people without habitual miso consumption if they did not consume miso soup at all in a day. The average, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV), calculated as CV = (SD/average HbA1c) × 100 (%), of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c levels were evaluated. The proportions of habitual miso consumption of male and female were 88.1% and 82.3%, respectively. The average (7.0 [6.4-7.5] vs. 7.3 [6.8-8.4] %, p = 0.009), SD (0.21 [0.12-0.32] vs. 0.37 [0.20-0.72], p = 0.004), and CV (0.03 [0.02-0.04] vs. 0.05 [0.03-0.09], p = 0.005) of HbA1c levels in female with habitual miso consumption were lower than those of female without. Moreover, habitual miso consumption correlated with average (ß = -0.251, p = 0.009), SD (ß = -0.175, p = 0.016), and CV (ß = -0.185, p = 0.022) of HbA1c levels after adjusting for covariates. However, no association between habitual miso consumption and any glycemic parameters was shown among male. This study clarified the association between habitual miso consumption and good glycemic control, including glycemic variability, in female, but not in male.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Alimentos de Soja , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
15.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925028

RESUMO

The association between blood pressure measured at home and handgrip strength in patients with diabetes has not been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess this association among patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 157 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent muscle tests and morning and evening blood-pressure measurements at home in triplicate for 14 consecutive days throughout the study period. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between home blood-pressure parameters and handgrip strength. The average age and hemoglobin A1c of the patients were 70.5 years and 7.1%, respectively. Morning diastolic blood pressure of [ß (95% confidence interval; CI): 0.20 (0.03, 0.37)] was associated with handgrip strength in men, while morning systolic blood pressure of [-0.09 (-0.15, -0.04)], morning pulse pressure of [-0.14 (-0.21, -0.08)], and evening pulse pressure of [-0.12 (-0.19, -0.04)] were associated with handgrip strength in women. Home-measured blood pressure was associated with handgrip strength. Sex differences were found in the relationship between home blood-pressure parameters and handgrip strength.

16.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1613-1620, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Past studies reported that the intake of adequate energy is more important than protein intake; however, the relationship between energy intake and muscle mass loss remains unclear thus far. This study therefore explored the association between energy intake and muscle mass loss in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, impedance body composition and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire were used for analyzing body composition and habitual diet intake, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was defined as appendicular muscle mass (kg) ÷ height-squared (m2). Rate of SMI change (%) was calculated as ([SMI at baseline - SMI at follow-up]/[follow-up duration (years) × baseline SMI (kg/m2)]) × 100, and muscle mass loss was defined as rate of SMI change ≥0.5%. Energy intake was defined as total energy intake (kcal/day) divided by ideal body weight (kg), defined as 22 × patient height-squared (m2). RESULTS: Among non-older and older participants, 54.8% (n = 51/93) and 58.9% (n = 116/197) experienced muscle mass loss at 16.3 (6.4) and 18.1 (7.1) months' follow-up, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that energy intake was associated with incident muscle mass loss after adjusting for age, sex, insulin, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, steroids, smoking, exercise, alcohol intake, body mass index, SMI, presence of renal failure, and protein intake (g/actual body weight/day) in the older people (odds ratio [OR] 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.996], p = 0.037), whereas energy intake was not associated with incident muscle mass loss in the non-older people (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.86-1.06], p = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient energy intake is associated with muscle mass loss in older people with T2D. Therefore, it is recommended to consume enough energy for older people with T2D to keep muscle mass.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Impedância Elétrica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 68, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is the primary risk factor for dialysis, cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) have been revealed to be related with cardiovascular diseases in the general populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of circulating FAs with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 190 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Circulating FAs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to investigate the association between the logarithm of FAs and the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). We have performed logistic regression analysis to determine the effect of FAs on the presence of macroalbuminuria, defined as UAE value ≥300 mg/g creatinine. RESULTS: Mean age, body mass index, and duration of diabetes were 62.7 ± 12.1 years, 25.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2, and 9.8 ± 8.7 years, respectively. In total, 26 patients were diagnosed with macroalbuminuria. The logarithm of circulating arachidonic acid (AA) was negatively associated with the logarithm of UAE (r = - 0.221, p = 0.002). Additionally, circulating AA in patients with macroalbuminuria was lower than that in patients without macroalbuminuria (112.3 ± 75.3 mg/day vs. 164.8 ± 66.0 mg/day, p <  0.001). The logarithm of circulating AA was associated with the presence of macroalbuminuria after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio of Δ1 incremental: 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.99, p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating AA was negatively associated with UAE and the presence of macroalbuminuria.

18.
Brachytherapy ; 20(3): 584-594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485811

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of rectal toxicity and to identify the associated dosimetric predictive parameters after I-125 seed low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) combined with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and dose constraints. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In total, 110 patients with high-risk prostate cancer received 110 Gy LDR-BT, followed by 45 Gy VMAT. Rectal toxicity was recorded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.4.03. The dosimetric factors associated with LDR-BT and VMAT were analyzed to determine their relationship with rectal toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for ≥ grade 2 (G2) rectal toxicity prediction. RESULTS: The follow-up duration was 10.1-115.2 months (median 60.5 months). Seven patients had G2 rectal hemorrhage, and none of the patients had grade 3 rectal hemorrhage. In the univariate analysis, the rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (rV100) (p < 0.001), the dose covering 2 cc of the rectum (rD2cc) during LDR-BT (p = 0.002), and the combined rD2cc during LDR-BT and VMAT (p = 0.001) were identified as predictors of G2 rectal hemorrhage. In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff value was 0.46 cc for rV100, 74.0 Gy for rD2cc, and 86.8 GyEQD2 for combined rD2cc. CONCLUSION: Predictors of late ≥ G2 rectal hemorrhage are rV100, rD2cc, and combined rD2cc. The incidence of rectal toxicity is low and acceptable in this setting and is highly dependent on the rectal dose of LDR-BT. The use of higher-quality LDR-BT and VMAT dose constraints may further reduce the rate of rectal hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Braquiterapia/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Reto , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(1): 78-80, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639844

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with mortality and severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Protecting against infection in health care workers at high risk of COVID-19 is critical. This report investigates the usefulness and safety of remote continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in a patient with diabetes and severe interstitial pneumonia caused by the coronavirus disease. The Dexcom G4 Platinum CGM system® was used to monitor blood glucose (BG) levels from outside the patient's isolation room. Continuous insulin infusion rates and boluses were determined based on the patient's BG levels. Real-time CGM made it possible to track BG trends and prevent dramatic variations in BG, although the rate of insulin infusion changed dynamic. Furthermore, the need for health care workers to enter the isolation room was minimized because the Dexcom G4 Platinum CGM system can evaluate from a distance of up to 6.0 m.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Diálise Renal
20.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(5): 837-844, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000524

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Postprandial hypotension (PPH) refers to a decrease in systolic blood pressure by ≥20 or to <90 mmHg from baseline ≥100 mmHg within 2 h of a meal. Previous studies have reported an association between diabetes and PPH; however, the characteristics of PPH in patients with diabetes remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited patients with diabetes who regularly attended the diabetes outpatient clinic. Participants were instructed to carry out three sets of blood pressure measurements at six time points: just before and right after, and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after their main meal of the day. Data on PPH symptoms were collected during an interview. To investigate the relationships between explanatory variables, PPH and associated symptoms, we carried out multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 300 participants. There were 150 (50.0%) participants with PPH. Systolic blood pressure before a meal was significantly associated with PPH (odds ratio [OR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.86, P < 0.001), after adjusting for covariates. Furthermore, age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c level (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.01-5.64, P = 0.030) and coefficients of variation of R-R intervals (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P = 0.032) were significantly associated with asymptomatic PPH. CONCLUSIONS: Half of the present study outpatients with diabetes had PPH. High systolic blood pressure before a meal was significantly associated with the risk of PPH. Older adults and patients with higher levels of hemoglobin A1c or an autonomic dysfunction might have difficulties recognizing symptoms of PPH.

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