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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622706

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current FDA-approved imaging modalities are inadequate for localizing prostate cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR). 18F-DCFPyL is a highly selective, small-molecule PSMA-targeted PET radiotracer. CONDOR was a prospective study designed to determine the performance of 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT in patients with BCR and uninformative standard imaging. METHODS: Men with rising PSA {greater than or equal to}0.2 ng/mL after prostatectomy or {greater than or equal to}2 ng/mL above nadir after radiation therapy were eligible. The primary endpoint was correct localization rate (CLR) defined as positive predictive value with an additional requirement of anatomic lesion co-localization between 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT and a composite standard of truth (SOT). The SOT consisted of, in descending priority: 1) histopathology, 2) subsequent correlative imaging findings, or 3) post-radiation PSA response. The trial was considered a success if the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval for CLR exceeded 20% for 2 of 3 18F­DCFPyL-PET/CT readers. Secondary endpoints included change in intended management and safety. RESULTS: 208 men with a median baseline PSA of 0.8 ng/mL (range: 0.2-98.4 ng/mL) underwent 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT. The CLR was 84.8%-87.0% (lower bound of 95% CI: 77.8%-80.4%). 63.9% of evaluable patients had a change in intended management after 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT. The disease detection rate was 59% to 66% (at least one lesion detected per patient by 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT by central readers). CONCLUSION: Performance of 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT achieved the study's primary endpoint, demonstrating disease localization in the setting of negative standard imaging and providing clinically meaningful and actionable information. These data further support the utility of 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT to localize disease in men with recurrent prostate cancer.

2.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303244

RESUMO

Grade group 4 and 5 (GG-45) prostate cancer (PCa) patients are at the highest risk of lethal outcomes, yet lack genomic risk stratification for prognosis and treatment selection. Here, we assess whether transcriptomic interactions between tumor immune content score (ICS) and the Decipher genomic classifier can identify most lethal subsets of GG-45 PCa. We utilized whole transcriptome data from 8071 tumor tissue (6071 prostatectomy and 2000 treatment-naïve biopsy samples) to derive four immunogenomic subtypes using ICS and Decipher. When compared across all grade groups, GG-45 samples had the highest proportion of most aggressive subtype-ICSHigh/DecipherHigh. Subsequent analyses within the GG-45 patient samples (n = 1420) revealed that the ICSHigh/DecipherHigh subtype was associated with increased genomic radiosensitivity. Additionally, in a multivariable model (n = 335), ICSHigh/DecipherHigh subtype had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.76-10.6; p ≤ 0.0001) and PCa-specific mortality (HR = 10.6; 95% CI, 4.18-26.94; p ≤ 0.0001) as compared with ICSLow/DecipherLow. The novel immunogenomic subtypes establish a very strong synergistic interaction between ICS and Decipher in identifying GG-45 patients who experience the most lethal outcomes. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this analysis, we identified a novel interaction between the total immune content of prostate tumors and genomic classifier to identify the most lethal subset of patients with grade groups 4 and 5. Our results will aid in the subtyping of aggressive prostate cancer patients who may benefit from combined immune-radiotherapy modalities.

3.
Prostate ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer (PCa), lack of androgen receptor (AR) regulated TMPRSS2-ETS-related gene (ERG) gene fusion (ERGnegative ) status has been associated with African American race; however, the implications of ERG status for the location of dominant tumors within the prostate remains understudied. METHODS: An African American-enriched multiinstitutional cohort of 726 PCa patients consisting of both African American men (AAM; n = 254) and European American men (EAM; n = 472) was used in the analyses. Methods of categorical analysis were used. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression differences between anterior and posterior tumor lesions were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with multiple comparison corrections. RESULTS: Anti-ERG immunohistochemistry staining showed that the association between ERG status and anterior tumors is independent of race and is consistently robust for both AAM (ERGnegative 81.4% vs. ERGpositive 18.6%; p = .005) and EAM (ERGnegative 60.4% vs. ERGpositive 39.6%; p < .001). In a multivariable model, anterior tumors were more likely to be IHC-ERGnegative (odds ratio [OR]: 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.14-4.78; p < .001). IHC-ERGnegative were also more likely to have high-grade tumors (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.06-2.82; p = .02). In the exploratory genomic analysis, mRNA expression of location-dependent genes is highly influenced by ERG status and African American race. However, tumor location did not impact the expression of AR or the major canonical AR-target genes (KLK3, AMACR, and MYC). CONCLUSIONS: ERGnegative tumor status is the strongest predictor of anterior prostate tumors, regardless of race. Furthermore, AR expression and canonical AR signaling do not impact tumor location.

4.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(5): 905-909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083652

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) represents 90% of all chronic prostatitis cases and may occur after radiation therapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer. Medical therapy is effective in approximately 50% of cases, with no therapy demonstrating consistent efficacy in refractory cases. Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is effective in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We report clinical improvement after PAE in a case series of men with CP/CPPS after RT. Methods and Materials: Nine men (median age 72 years; range, 61-83 years) with CP/CPPS after RT for prostate cancer underwent PAE. Baseline International Prostate Symptom Score was recorded in 5 patients (median 23; range, 4-26), Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score in 6 patients (median 22.5; range, 6-34), and quality of life (QoL) score in 8 patients (median 5; range, 2-6). Median baseline prostate volume was 49 cm3 (range, 22-123 cm3). Patients were followed up at 6 and 12 weeks with QoL, International Prostate Symptom Score, and/or Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Technical success (ie, bilateral embolization) was achieved in 78% (n = 7) of patients with the other 2 patients having undergone unilateral embolization with no major complications. Clinical success was seen in 89% (n = 8) of patients and QoL improved in 78% (n = 7) during the follow-up period. Conclusion: CP/CPPS after RT for localized prostate cancer is a highly morbid condition, with medical therapy successful in only 50% of cases. PAE may be a successful therapy for medically recalcitrant CP/CPPS, and further studies are necessary to understand the best patient selection and scenario for PAE in the setting of CP/CPPS.

5.
Cancer ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies demonstrate that Black men in the United States have an increased risk of death from prostate cancer. Determinants of racial disparities are multifactorial, including socioeconomic and biologic factors. METHODS: The authors conducted a pooled analysis of patients derived from 152 centers within the Veterans Health Administration. The cohort included men who had nonmetastatic prostate diagnosed between 2001 and 2015 and received definitive radiation therapy. The primary endpoint was prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality (ACM) and the time from a prostate-specific antigen level ≥4 ng/mL to biopsy and radiation therapy. A Cox regression model was performed to adjust for differences between clinical parameters. RESULTS: Among the 31,131 patients included in the cohort, 9584 (30.8%) were Black. The 10-year cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer was lower in Black men compared with White men (4.0% vs 4.8%; P = .004). In a competing risk model, Black race was associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92; P = .002). Similarly, the 10-year cumulative incidence of death from any cause was lower in Black men (27.6% vs 31.8%; P < .001). In multivariable analysis, Black men had a 10% decreased risk of ACM (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.95; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicate relatively lower PCSM and ACM among Black men who were included in a large Veterans Health Administration cohort and received radiation therapy as primary treatment for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. There is an ongoing need to continue to understand and mitigate the factors associated with disparities in health care outcomes.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of immune-oncologic mechanisms of racial disparities in prostate cancer remains understudied. Limited research exists to evaluate the molecular underpinnings of immune differences in African American men (AAM) and European American men (EAM) prostate tumor microenvironment (TME). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 1,173 radiation-naïve radical prostatectomy samples with whole transcriptome data from the Decipher GRID registry were used. Transcriptomic expressions of 1,260 immune-specific genes were selected to assess immune-oncologic differences between AAM and EAM prostate tumors. Race-specific differential expression of genes was assessed using a rank test, and intergene correlational matrix and gene set enrichment was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS: AAM prostate tumors have significant enrichment of major immune-oncologic pathways, including proinflammatory cytokines, IFNα, IFNγ, TNFα signaling, ILs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. AAM TME has higher total immune content score (ICSHIGH) compared with 0 (37.8% vs. 21.9%, P = 0.003). AAM tumors also have lower DNA damage repair and are genomically radiosensitive as compared with EAM. IFITM3 (IFN-inducible transmembrane protein 3) was one of the major proinflammatory genes overexpressed in AAM that predicted increased risk of biochemical recurrence selectively for AAM in both discovery [HRAAM = 2.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.34; P = 0.01] and validation (HRAAM = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.52-3.86; P = 0.0001) but not in EAM. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate tumors of AAM manifest a unique immune repertoire and have significant enrichment of proinflammatory immune pathways that are associated with poorer outcomes. Observed immune-oncologic differences can aid in a genomically adaptive approach to treating prostate cancer in AAM.

7.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1510-1518, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cervical cancer remains a major health challenge in low- to middle-income countries. We present the experiences of two centers practicing in variable resource environments to determine predictors of improved radiochemotherapy treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This comparative review describes cervical cancer presentation and treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with high-dose-rate brachytherapy between 2014 and 2017 at the National Radiotherapy Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Center (NRONMC) in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, and Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC), Tampa, FL. RESULTS: Median follow-up for this study was 16.9 months. NRONMC patients presented with predominantly stage III disease (42% v 16%; P = .002). MCC patients received para-aortic node irradiation (16%) and interstitial brachytherapy implants (19%). Median treatment duration was longer for NRONMC patients compared with MCC patients (59 v 52 days; P < .0001), and treatment duration ≥ 55 days predicted worse survival on multivariable analysis (MVA; P = .02). Stage ≥ III disease predicted poorer local control on MVA. There was a difference in local control among patients with stage III disease (58% v 91%; P = .03) but not in survival between MCC and NRONMC. No significant difference in local control was observed for stage IB, IIA, and IIB disease. CONCLUSION: Although there were significant differences in disease presentation between the two centers, treatment outcomes were similar for patients with early-stage disease. Longer treatment duration and stage ≥ III disease predicted poor outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether combining brachytherapy with immunotherapy is safe in prostate cancer (PCa) and provides synergistic effects, we performed a Phase I/II trial on the feasibility, safety, and benefit of concurrent delivery of anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with Grade Group 5 (GG5) PCa. METHODS: Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with diagnosis of GG5 PCa. Patients received ADT, nivolumab every two weeks for four cycles, with two cycles prior to first HDR, and two more cycles prior to second HDR, followed by external beam radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was to determine safety and feasibility. This Phase I/II trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03543189). RESULTS: Between September 2018 and June 2019, six patients were enrolled for the Phase I safety lead-in with a minimum observation period of 3 months after nivolumab administration. Overall, nivolumab was well tolerated in combination with ADT and HDR treatment. One patient experienced a grade 3 dose-limiting toxicity (elevated Alanine aminotransferase and Aspartate aminotransferase) after the second cycle of nivolumab. Three patients (50%) demonstrated early response with no residual tumor detected in ≥4 of 6 cores on biopsy post-nivolumab (4 cycles) and 1-month post-HDR. Increase in CD8+ and FOXP3+/CD4+ T cells in tissues, and CD4+ effector T cells in peripheral blood were observed in early responders. CONCLUSION: Combination of nivolumab with ADT and HDR is well tolerated and associated with evidence of increased immune infiltration and antitumor activity.

10.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

11.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(4): 646-653, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer exhibits biological and clinical heterogeneity even within established clinico-pathologic risk groups. The Decipher genomic classifier (GC) is a validated method to further risk-stratify disease in patients with prostate cancer, but its performance solely within National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk disease has not been undertaken to date. METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective study of 405 men with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent primary treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) at 11 centers from 1995 to 2005 was performed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for the development of metastatic disease based on clinico-pathologic variables, risk groups, and GC score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was determined for regression models without and with the GC score. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 82 months, 104 patients (26%) developed metastatic disease. On univariable analysis, increasing GC score was significantly associated with metastatic disease ([HR]: 1.34 per 0.1 unit increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-1.50, p < 0.001), while age, serum PSA, biopsy GG, and clinical T-stage were not (all p > 0.05). On multivariable analysis, GC score (HR: 1.33 per 0.1 unit increase, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48, p < 0.001) and GC high-risk (vs low-risk, HR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.79-4.87, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with metastasis. The addition of GC score to regression models based on NCCN risk group improved model AUC from 0.46 to 0.67, and CAPRA from 0.59 to 0.71. CONCLUSIONS: Among men with high-risk prostate cancer, conventional clinico-pathologic data had poor discrimination to risk stratify development of metastatic disease. GC score was a significant and independent predictor of metastasis and may help identify men best suited for treatment intensification/de-escalation.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1915-1923, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Between 30%-40% of patients with prostate cancer experience disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Existing clinical models for recurrence risk prediction do not account for population-based variation in the tumor phenotype, despite recent evidence suggesting the presence of a unique, more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype in African American (AA) patients. We investigated the capacity of digitally measured, population-specific phenotypes of the intratumoral stroma to create improved models for prediction of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This study included 334 radical prostatectomy patients subdivided into training (VT, n = 127), validation 1 (V1, n = 62), and validation 2 (V2, n = 145). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from resected prostates were digitized, and 242 quantitative descriptors of the intratumoral stroma were calculated using a computational algorithm. Machine learning and elastic net Cox regression models were constructed using VT to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival based on these features. Performance of these models was assessed using V1 and V2, both overall and in population-specific cohorts. RESULTS: An AA-specific, automated stromal signature, AAstro, was prognostic of recurrence risk in both independent validation datasets [V1,AA: AUC = 0.87, HR = 4.71 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-13.4), P = 0.003; V2,AA: AUC = 0.77, HR = 5.7 (95% CI, 1.48-21.90), P = 0.01]. AAstro outperformed clinical standard Kattan and CAPRA-S nomograms, and the underlying stromal descriptors were strongly associated with IHC measurements of specific tumor biomarker expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that considering population-specific information and stromal morphology has the potential to substantially improve accuracy of prognosis and risk stratification in AA patients with prostate cancer.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 246-253, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commercial gene expression signatures of prostate cancer prognosis were developed and validated in cohorts of predominantly European American men (EAM). Limited research exists on the value of such signatures in African American men (AAM), who have poor prostate cancer outcomes. We explored differences in gene expression between EAM and AAM for three commercially available panels recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for prostate cancer prognosis. METHODS: A total of 232 EAM and 95 AAM patients provided radical prostatectomy specimens. Gene expression was quantified using NanoString for 60 genes spanning the Oncotype DX Prostate, Prolaris, and Decipher panels. A continuous expression-based risk score was approximated for each. Differential expression, intrapanel coexpression, and risk by race were assessed. RESULTS: Clinical and pathologic features were similar between AAM and EAM. Differential expression by race was observed for 48% of genes measured, although the magnitudes of expression differences were small. Coexpression patterns were more strongly preserved by race group for Oncotype DX and Decipher than Prolaris. Poorer prognosis was estimated in EAM versus AAM for Oncotype DX (P < 0.001), whereas negligible prognostic differences were predicted between AAM and EAM using Prolaris or Decipher (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Because of observed racial differences across three commercial gene expression panels for prostate cancer prognosis, caution is warranted when applying these panels in clinical decision-making in AAM. IMPACT: Differences in gene expression by race for three commercial panels for prostate cancer prognosis indicate that further study of their effectiveness in AAM with long-term follow-up is warranted.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores Raciais
14.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(3): 419-428, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Decipher 22-gene genomic classifier (GC) may help in post-radical prostatectomy (RP) decision making given its superior prognostic performance over clinicopathologic variables alone. However, most studies evaluating the GC have had a modest representation of African-American men (AAM). We evaluated the GC within a large Veteran Affairs cohort and compared its performance to CAPRA-S for predicting outcomes in AAM and non-AAM after RP. METHODS: GC scores were generated for 548 prostate cancer (PC) patients, who underwent RP at the Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center between 1989 and 2016. This was a clinically high-risk cohort and was selected to have either pT3a, positive margins, seminal vesicle invasion, or received post-RP radiotherapy. Multivariable Cox models and survival C-indices were used to compare the performance of GC and CAPRA-S for predicting the risk of metastasis and PC-specific mortality (PCSM). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9 years, during which 37 developed metastasis and 20 died from PC. Overall, 55% (n = 301) of patients were AAM. In multivariable analyses, GC (high vs. intermediate and intermediate vs. low) was a significant predictor of metastasis in all men (all p < 0.001). Consistent with prior studies, relative to CAPRA-S, GC had a higher C-index for 5-year metastasis (0.78 vs. 0.72) and 10-year PCSM (0.85 vs. 0.81). There was a suggestion GC was a stronger predictor in AAM than non-AAM. Specifically, the 5-year metastasis risk C-index was 0.86 in AAM vs. 0.69 in non-AAM and the 10-year PCSM risk C-index was 0.91 in AAM vs. 0.78 in non-AAM. However, the test for interaction of race and the performance of the GC in the Cox model was not significant for either metastasis or PCSM (both p ≥ 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: GC was a very strong predictor of poor outcome and performed well in both AAM and non-AAM. Our data support the use of GC for risk stratification in AAM post-RP. While our data suggest that GC may actually work better in AAM, given the limited number of events, further validation is needed.

15.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(12): 1529-1554, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805523

RESUMO

Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon and accounts for <1% of all male tumors. However, it is the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the global incidence has been steadily rising over the past several decades. Several risk factors for testicular cancer have been identified, including personal or family history of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism. Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise 95% of malignant tumors arising in the testes and are categorized into 2 main histologic subtypes: seminoma and nonseminoma. Although nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor subtype, 5-year survival rates exceed 70% with current treatment options, even in patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the primary treatment for most patients with testicular GCTs. Postorchiectomy management is dictated by stage, histology, and risk classification; treatment options for nonseminoma include surveillance, systemic therapy, and nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Although rarely occurring, prognosis for patients with brain metastases remains poor, with >50% of patients dying within 1 year of diagnosis. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Testicular Cancer focuses on recommendations for the management of adult patients with nonseminomatous GCTs.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias Testiculares/classificação , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico
17.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 42(12): 937-944, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate early-stage prostate cancer (PCa) radiotherapy treatment patterns and outcomes among Ghanaian men (GM) compared with US men (USM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study consists of 987 National Comprehensive Cancer Network low risk, favorable intermediate risk, and unfavorable intermediate risk PCa patient subgroups; GM (173) and USM (814). Differences in baseline covariates and clinical characteristics between GM and USM were analyzed using χ and Mann-Whitney test while Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to assess freedom from biochemical failure differences between the study groups. RESULTS: Median follow-up for this study was 40 months. GM were diagnosed at a younger median age (64 vs. 68 y, P<0.001) with heavier unfavorable intermediate risk disease burden (32.4% vs. 19.2%) compared with USM. Significant differences were identified in median external beam radiotherapy dose (72.4 vs. 78 Gy, P<0.001); brachytherapy utilization (49.7% vs. 80.6%, P<0.001) and androgen deprivation therapy for intermediate risk disease (48.4% vs. 21.0%, P<0.001) between GM and USM, respectively. GM with low risk and favorable intermediate risk PCa were at increased risk of biochemical recurrence compared with USM with adjusted hazard ratio: 5.15 (1.27 to 20.7), P=0.02 and 4.64 (1.20 to 17.92), P=0.02, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with USM, GM with low and favorable intermediate risk PCa may experience less durable disease control following standard treatment recommendations. Results suggest differences in radiation treatment and possible inherent differences between the 2 populations. This data will aid in developing research strategies to improve treatment outcomes in GM.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Causas de Morte , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Braquiterapia/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Gana , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
J Urol ; 202(2): 247-255, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107158

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most prostate cancer in African American men lacks the ETS (E26 transforming specific) family fusion event (ETS-). We aimed to establish clinically relevant biomarkers in African American men by studying ETS dependent gene expression patterns to identified race specific genes predictive of outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two multicenter cohorts of a total of 1,427 men were used for the discovery and validation (635 and 792 men, respectively) of race specific predictive biomarkers. We used false discovery rate adjusted q values to identify race and ETS dependent genes which were differentially expressed in African American men who experienced biochemical recurrence within 5 years. Principal component modeling along with survival analysis was done to assess the accuracy of the gene panel in predicting recurrence. RESULTS: We identified 3,047 genes which were differentially expressed based on ETS status. Of these genes 362 were differentially expressed in a race specific manner (false discovery rate 0.025 or less). A total of 81 genes were race specific and over expressed in African American men who experienced biochemical recurrence. The final gene panel included APOD, BCL6, EMP1, MYADM, SRGN and TIMP3. These genes were associated with 5-year biochemical recurrence (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.27-3.06, p = 0.002) and they improved the predictive accuracy of clinicopathological variables only in African American men (60-month time dependent AUC 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: In an effort to elucidate biological features associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness in African American men we identified ETS dependent biomarkers predicting early onset biochemical recurrence only in African American men. Thus, these ETS dependent biomarkers representing ideal candidates for biomarkers of aggressive disease in this patient population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética
19.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819837184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935222

RESUMO

The extent to which prostate cancer (PCa) pathology interacts with health insurance to predict PCa outcomes remains unclear. This study will assess the overall association of health insurance on PCa disease control and analyze its interrelationship PCa pathology. A total of 674 PCa patients, treated with prostatectomy from 1987 to 2015, were included in the study. Freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) was used as a measure of PCa disease control. Methods of categorical and survival analysis were used to analyze the relationships between health insurance, PCa pathology, and FFbF. A total of 63.3% patients were privately insured, 27.1% were publicly insured, and 9.5% were uninsured. In a multivariable model, privately (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.97, P = .03) and publicly (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.41-1.04, P = .07) insured patients showed improvement in FFbF compared to uninsured patients. The association of health insurance was significantly stronger for the patients with pathologically low grade PCa (pathologic Gleason Score 3+3 & preoperative prostate-specific antigen ≤10 ng/mL), likelihood ratio P = .009. Privately (HR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.46) or publicly (HR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.60) insured patients with low grade PCa demonstrated favorable association with FFbF. Patients with private and public insurance were more likely to experience favorable treatment. The association of health insurance on PCa disease control is significantly stronger among patients with pathologically low grade PCa. This study identifies health insurance status as pretreatment surrogate for PCa disease control.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Período Pré-Operatório , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 29(2): 111-125, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827449

RESUMO

Current standard radiotherapy doses have been derived from empiric methods rather than a scientific framework. Subclinical nodal dosing remains relatively uniform across most disease sites, despite heterogeneity in patient and tumor biology. It is now clear that there are subsets of patients who will benefit from genomically-informed radiotherapy planning, and there are increasing efforts toward prescribing radiation dose to match the radiosensitivity of the tumor. By using novel genomic biomarkers to personalize delivery of radiotherapy, there is an opportunity to improve loco-regional control and cure rates. We survey the current landscape of personalized radiation oncology across commonly treated disease sites.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Irradiação Linfática , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metástase Linfática/radioterapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
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