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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122821, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635211

RESUMO

Well-defined structures and compositions of nucleic acids afford oligonucleotide probes with unique chemical properties and biological functions for various biosensing applications. Herein, a unique and special oligonucleotide probe, named multifunction-integrated linear oligonucleotide probe (MI-LOP), was facile designed and reported for label-free and turn-on fluorescent detection of the codon component of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The MI-LOP contains four different functional regions including recognition of target, serving as polymerization template, and creating polymerization primer-linked G-quadruplex (PP-G-quadruplex). Without the aid of any other oligonucleotides, the introduction of target DNA can make each function of the MI-LOP executed one-by-one, during which the species of target DNA, target analogue, and PP-G-quadruplex can be cyclically utilized and in turn induce a multiplex signal amplification responsible for substantial collection of the G-quadruplex moieties under isothermal conditions. The stable G-quadruplexes can combine with N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and function as efficient fluorescence light-up probes, rapidly leading to a dramatic increase in the fluorescence intensity for the amplified detection of the target codon component. Our results strongly demonstrate that the developed MI-LOP with multiplex amplification effect confers the sensing strategy a high sensitivity and specificity for quantitative and qualitative detection of the target codon. And it has also been successfully applied for analyzing target codon in the complex extractions of soybean. The achievements highlight the significance of using oligonucleotide probes as promising analytical tools to promote the basic biochemical research and help in food and environmental analysis.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , DNA/genética , Fluorescência , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130764, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384986

RESUMO

The development of food proteins as effective delivery systems is of great significance for the encapsulation of active compounds. Foxtail millet prolamin (FP) has a high level of hydrophobic amino acids and proline, meets the basic characteristics of delivery system, and was described here for the first time as an effective delivery system for the encapsulation of curcumin. The interaction between FP and curcumin was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy, showing the joint driving of hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Curcumin-loaded caseinate-stabilized FP nanodispersions were prepared by anti-solvent/evaporation method. The mean particle size was about 220-235 nm, sharing features of a spherical shape, uniform particle size, and smooth surfaces. High level of curcumin was encapsulated in the FP-based nanoparticles, exhibiting high particle yield (>88.4%) and encouraging encapsulation efficiency (>71.3%). X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the encapsulated curcumin was amorphous state and interacted with proteins via non-covalent bonds. The nano-sized particles can effectively prevent the degradation of curcumin during heat treatment, and significantly enhance the antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. This study provides a new encapsulant for effective protection and targeted delivery of hydrophobic active biomolecules.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Setaria (Planta) , Portadores de Fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Prolaminas
3.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 27: 100220, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646754

RESUMO

Background: Previous research has reported that patients with schizophrenia would regard false memories with higher confidence, and this meta-memory deficit was suggested as a neurocognitive marker of schizophrenia. However, how schizophrenia patients determine their memory decision confidence has received scant consideration. This study, therefore, aimed to characterize the extent to which meta-memory evaluation strategy differs between schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals, and how such difference contributes to the patients' meta-memory performance. Methods: 27 schizophrenia patients and 28 matched healthy controls performed a temporal-order judgement (TOJ) task, in which they judged which movie frame occurred earlier in an encoded video, and then made retrospective confidence rating. Mixed effect regression models were performed to assess the between-group metacognitive evaluation strategy difference and its relationship to clinical symptoms. Results: Compared to the control group, the patients' confidence ratings were correlated more with the recent confidence history and less with the TOJ-related evidence. The degree of dependence on recent history of confidence was negatively correlated with the severity of positive symptoms. Furthermore, by controlling for the first-order TOJ performance, we observed that the patients discriminated correct memory decisions from the incorrect ones as accurately as the controls. Conclusion: The present investigation revealed that schizophrenia patients tend to use more heuristics in making meta-memory evaluations, and such atypical strategy is related to their clinical symptoms. This study provides new insights into how schizophrenia patients perform meta-memory processes. Future research could consider examining such metacognitive deficits in light of other cognitive domains in psychosis.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150012, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525708

RESUMO

Thermal desorption coupled with different detectors is an important analysis method for ambient carbonaceous aerosols. However, it is unclear how the compounds coexisting in both the gas and particle phases affect carbonaceous aerosol concentrations and measurements during thermal desorption. We observed matrix effects leading to a redistribution of different OC fractions (OC1 to OC4) during the thermal desorption process. These factors led to the formation of OC with low volatility (OC4), mainly from high-volatility OC (OC1 and OC2). Laboratory studies further indicated that ammonium promotes such matrix effects by transforming OC in the particle phase. Therefore, in addition to providing insights into the chemical evolution of OC during haze events, we argue that thermal-desorption-based OC measurements should be used with caution, which is an important step towards a more accurate measurement of OC in the ambient atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos de Amônio , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732048

RESUMO

Nitro-phenolic compounds (NPs) have attracted increasing attention because of their health risks and impacts on visibility, climate, and atmospheric chemistry. Despite many measurements of particulate NPs, the knowledge of their gaseous abundances, sources, atmospheric fates, and impacts remains incomplete. Here, 18 gaseous NPs were continuously measured with a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer at a background site in South China in autumn and winter. Abundant NPs were observed in the continental outflows from East Asia, with a total concentration up to 122.1 pptv. Secondary formation from the transported aromatics dominated the observed NPs, with mono-NPs exhibiting photochemical daytime peaks and nighttime enrichments of di-NPs and Cl-substituted NPs. The budget analysis indicates that besides the •OH oxidation of aromatics, the NO3• oxidation also contributed significantly to the daytime mono-NPs, while the further oxidation of mono-NPs by NO3• dominated the nocturnal formation of di-NPs. Photolysis was the main daytime sink of NPs and produced substantial HONO, which would influence atmospheric oxidation capacity in downwind and background regions. This study provides quantitative insights on the formation and impacts of gaseous NPs in the continental outflow and highlights the role of NO3• chemistry in the secondary nitro-aromatics production that may facilitate regional pollution.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727810

RESUMO

A step-economical synthesis of (-)-15-oxopuupehenol from cheap and readily available (+)-sclarelide is achieved with 20.3% overall yield in 9 steps. The key features of this synthetic mythology include a palladium catalyzed tandem carbine migratory insertion reaction to construct the key skeleton, a DDQ-mediated isomerization/oxidation of allyl alcohol to afford α, ß-unsaturated ketone, and a NaOH-induced intramolecular Michael addition followed by acetonide deprotection to give (-)-15-oxopuupehenol.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 754208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733286

RESUMO

The autonomic nervous system has been studied for its involvement in the control of macrophages; however, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the adrenergic receptors and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) remain obscure. Using FVB wild-type and beta 2 adrenergic receptors knockout, we found that ß2-AR deficiency alleviates hepatobiliary damage in mice infected with C. sinensis. Moreover, ß2-AR-deficient mice decrease the activation and infiltration of M2 macrophages and decrease the production of type 2 cytokines, which are associated with a significant decrease in liver fibrosis in infected mice. Our in vitro results on bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed that macrophages from Adrb2-/- mice significantly decrease M2 markers and the phosphorylation of ERK/mTORC1 induced by IL-4 compared to that observed in M2 macrophages from Adrb2+/+ . This study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the ß2-AR enhances type 2 immune response through the ERK/mTORC1 signaling pathway in macrophages and their role in liver fibrosis.

8.
Psych J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794205

RESUMO

This study showed a negative correlation between the glutamate level in the anterior cingulate cortex and cognitive theory of mind in individuals with high level of schizotypy but not in non-schizotypy individuals.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(47): 14294-14301, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797054

RESUMO

Accurate and rapid quantification of foodborne pathogens is of great significance for food safety and human health. In this work, we have successfully constructed a fluorescence quenching collapsar probe (FQCP) on the basis of a conventional aptamer-encoded molecular beacon (AEMB) and applied it for the detection of Salmonella. In structure, the FQCP is assembled by AEMBs in fours via specific streptavidin and biotin binding. Such a simple format makes the FQCP cofunctionalized with short- and long-range fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effects, thereby leading to a significantly suppressed inherent background fluorescence that is much lower than that of the conventional AEMB. Moreover, the FQCP exhibits superior biostability because of the blocking of its 3' terminal. The reaction kinetics of the FQCP for Salmonella recognition is obviously improved since the probe designed with four binding sites increases the probability to react with Salmonella. As a result, the FQCP-based sensing platform can rapidly output the target detection signal within 30 min associated with a greatly improved signal-to-noise ratio up to 32.4. The system was also demonstrated with a well antimatrix effect for ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella from tap water, milk, red bull, green tea, orange juice, and Coca-Cola. Our study provides insights into the facile tailoring of functional nucleic acids for amplified and mix-to-answer detection of foodborne pathogens, which could become a powerful analytical tool for straightforward sensing of pathogens in the fields of food safety analysis, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring.

10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(1): 101856, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763306

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne arbovirus that can cause bleeding and death in humans. The mortality rate in humans is between 5 and 30%. The pathogen is prevalent in more than 30 countries in the world. In China, the CCHFV has been reported in Xinjiang province but not in Inner Mongolia province yet. In this report, we phylogenetically analyzed a new CCHFV strain, HANM-18, identified from Hyalomma asiaticum and Hyalomma dromedarii collected in Alxa Left Banner and Alxa Right Banner of Inner Mongolia, China. Complete sequences of CCHFV were obtained by the nested PCR technique and used for phylogenetic analysis of the identity and evolutionary relationship with other CCHFV strains. Our results showed that the S and L fragments of the HANM-18 strain had a high percentage of identity with strains in Xinjiang, China. The M fragment was significantly homologous to South African isolates. In addition, these data also indicate that the HANM-18 strain may have been prevalent in northwestern Inner Mongolia for many years. This discovery will be helpful in CCHF prevention and control in Inner Mongolia, and it also adds new evidence to the epidemiology of CCHF in China.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 745120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805154

RESUMO

Background: The AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) is thought to be a tumor suppressive gene, and most of its mutations result in loss of expression of ARID1A protein. Combined with SIRPα on the surface of macrophages, CD47 on the surface of cancer cells can send an antiphagocytic "Don't eat me" signal to the immune system that helps to avoid immune surveillance. However, the relationship between ARID1A and CD47 expression and their prognostic value in gastric cancer (GC) are still unknown. Methods: In this study, we evaluated ARID1A and CD47 expression in 154 GC patients' tissues using tissue microarray. Expressions of ARID1A and CD47 in GC cell lines were determined by western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques, and cell membranous CD47 expression was quantified by flow cytometry. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR was used to determine the aspects of regulation of CD47 by ARID1A. The proportions of tumor-infiltrating immune cells were estimated on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set by using quanTIseq and EPIC algorithms. The infiltration of M1-polarized macrophages, M2-polarized macrophages, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in GC tissues was determined by multispectral immunofluorescence. Results: A significant correlation was found between loss of ARID1A and high expression of CD47 at protein level in GC. By integrating 375 bulk RNA sequencing samples from TCGA data set, we found that mutated ARID1A correlated with high CD47 expression. In GC cell lines, knockdown of ARID1A significantly increased CD47 expression both at protein and mRNA levels as measured by western blot, qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Moreover, ChIP-qPCR revealed that CD47 was a direct downstream target gene of ARID1A in GC. Utilizing univariate and multivariate survival analyses, we found that patients with ARID1AlossCD47high expression had a worse prognosis. Estimation of infiltrating immune cells on TCGA data set showed that a higher infiltration proportion of M2 macrophages and Tregs was found in ARID1A mutated CD47 high expression subgroup. Furthermore, application of multispectral immunofluorescence revealed a higher infiltration proportion of M2 macrophages and Tregs in ARID1AlossCD47high GC tissues. Conclusion: Loss of ARID1A is strongly correlated with high CD47 expression in GC, and combination of ARID1A and CD47 is a promising prognosis factor in GC.

12.
AME Case Rep ; 5: 37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805756

RESUMO

Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a chronic pathogenic process, resulting from the compression of the celiac axis by fibrous attachments of the diaphragmatic crura which named median arcuate ligament. In clinical, isolated spontaneous superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is common. Whereas, isolated celiac trunk (CA) dissection is rare, it is usually associated with aortic dissection. In this case report, the CA is not only dissected, but also the aneurysm formed. Because the long-time compression of the MALS, relative narrowing of the celiac artery causes the high pressure at the beginning of the CA and that may contribute to the aneurysmal celiac trunk dissection (ACTD). This case described a male patient who underwent hypertension and abdominal pain as their main clinical manifestation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed that a slightly stenosed root of the celiac artery during inhalation and severe stenosis of the root during expiration. Moreover, a small intimal tear at the site of celiac artery proximal end with nonruptured aneurysmal dilation located on the celiac trunk. After our carefully examinations, the patient was diagnosed as ACTD caused by MALS. And we applied endovascular technique-stenting in this case. It could not only cover the dissection, but also could obstruct the aneurysm. The patient was in a stable condition after management of ACTD by stenting. Stenting is a safe and effective treatment for ACTD caused by MALS.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806377

RESUMO

The understanding at a molecular level of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is hampered by poorly constrained formation mechanisms and insufficient analytical methods. Especially in developing countries, SOA related haze is a great concern due to its significant effects on climate and human health. We present simultaneous measurements of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs), and particle-phase SOA in Beijing. We show that condensation of the measured OOMs explains 26-39% of the organic aerosol mass growth, with the contribution of OOMs to SOA enhanced during severe haze episodes. Our novel results provide a quantitative molecular connection from anthropogenic emissions to condensable organic oxidation product vapors, their concentration in particle-phase SOA, and ultimately to haze formation.

14.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 387, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the reduction and support of comminuted medial cortex of humeral fracture remains a challenge, Therefore, a novel reduction and fixation technique that employs an anteromedial small locking plate was explored in this study, and its viability and the associated complications were assessed. METHODS: Fifteen cases of proximal humeral fractures with medial instability (five cases were classified as three-part and ten as four-part by Neer classification) were treated by the proposed reduction technique using an anteromedial small locking plate. Subsequently, the radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated over an average follow-up period of 18.53 months. RESULTS: The average operation time was 108 min (range, 70-130 min), and the mean fracture union time in all patients was 12.13 weeks (range, 8-16 weeks). Complications such as infection and neurovascular injury were not observed. Postoperative X-ray showed avascular necrosis and screw penetration in one patient, while screw penetration, varus malunion, or significant reduction loss was not found in the other cases. The mean Constant score was 79.8 (range, 68-92) during the final visit. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an anteromedial small locking plate improved the reduction efficiency, reconstructed the medial support, and alleviated the occurrence of complications in proximal humeral fractures with medial instability.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero , Fraturas do Ombro , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Ombro/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772807

RESUMO

Chronic infection with liver flukes (such as Clonorchis sinensis) can induce severe biliary injuries, which can cause cholangitis, biliary fibrosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. The release of extracellular vesicles by C. sinensis (CsEVs) is of importance in the long-distance communication between the hosts and worms. However, the biological effects of EVs from liver fluke on biliary injuries and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we found that CsEVs induced M1-like activation. In addition, the mice that were administrated with CsEVs showed severe biliary injuries associated with remarkable activation of M1-like macrophages. We further characterized the signatures of miRNAs packaged in CsEVs and identified a miRNA Csi-let-7a-5p, which was highly enriched. Further study showed that Csi-let-7a-5p facilitated the activation of M1-like macrophages by targeting Socs1 and Clec7a; however, CsEVs with silencing Csi-let-7a-5p showed a decrease in proinflammatory responses and biliary injuries, which involved in the Socs1- and Clec7a-regulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates that Csi-let-7a-5p delivered by CsEVs plays a critical role in the activation of M1-like macrophages and contributes to the biliary injuries by targeting the Socs1- and Clec7a-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, which indicates a mechanism contributing to biliary injuries caused by fluke infection. However, molecules other than Csi-let-7a-5p from CsEVs that may also promote M1-like polarization and exacerbate biliary injuries are not excluded.

16.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837470

RESUMO

The Hengduan Mountains region is an important hotspot of alpine plant diversity and endemism. Acanthochlamys bracteata is a threatened monotypic genus species endemic to Hengduan Mountains. In this study, we present a high-quality, chromosome-level reference genome for A. bracteata, constructed using long reads, short reads, and Hi-C technology. We characterized its genetic diversity, population structure, demographic history, and gene flow by resequencing individuals collected across its distribution. Comparative genomics analyses based on sequence information from single-copy orthologous genes revealed that A. bracteata and Dioscorea rotundata diverged approximately 104.5 million years ago (mya). Whole-genome resequencing based on population genetic analysis revealed that the division of the 14 populations into ten distinct clusters reflected geographic divergence, and three high levels of gene flow occurred sequentially between isolated populations of the Hengduan Mountains, a finding which is consistent with the turnover between ice ages and interglacial periods. Our findings indicated that Quaternary climatic changes played an important role in shaping the genetic structure and demographic trajectories of A. bracteata, and provide critical insights into the genetic status and evolutionary history of this poorly understood species, and possibly other alpine plants with a similar distribution. This study demonstrates the usefulness of population genomics for evaluating the effects of past climatic changes and identifying conservation units (CUs) for the conversation and management of threatened species. Our high-quality genome represents a valuable resource for revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution in the future and sheds insight into further comparative genomic analysis with other Velloziaceae species.

17.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 52: 116522, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837819

RESUMO

Stroke is a major public health problem with an imperative need for a more effective and tolerated therapy. Neuroprotective therapy may be an effective therapeutic intervention for stroke. The morbidity and mortality of stroke-induced secondary brain injury is mainly caused by neuronal apoptosis, which can be executed in a caspase-dependent or apoptosis inducing factor (AIF)-dependent manner. As apoptosis is an energy-dependent process with a relative time delay, abnormal energy metabolism could be a significant and fundamental pathophysiological basis of stroke. To our knowledge, convincible evidences that AMPK inhibition exerts neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia injury via anti-apoptosis remain to be investigated. Accordingly, the aims of this study were to investigate the protective effects of AMPK inhibitor BML-275 on cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Cerebral ischemia was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in male C57BL/6 mice. The therapeutic effects of BML-275 were evaluated by infarct sizes, neurological scores and the proportion of apoptotic neurons after 24 h of reperfusion. The cell apoptosis markers cyt c and AIF were also evaluated. The results showed that intraperitoneally administration of BML-275 alleviate the cerebral infarction, neurological deficit and neuronal apoptosis induced by MCAO. BML-275 simultaneously induces anti-apoptosis and decreases the expression of cyt c and AIF. This study supports the hypothesis that anti-apoptosis is one of potential neuroprotective strategies for the treatment of stroke.

18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1074-8, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of acupuncture on default mode network (DMN) in migraine patients without aura based on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Fifteen patients with migraine were included and treated with acupuncture based on "root-knot" theory (Zuqiaoyin [GB 44] for shaoyang headache, Lidui [ST 45] for yangming headache, Zhiyin [BL 67] for taiyang headache, and ashi point), once every other day, three times a week for 4 weeks. The patients received fMRI scanning before and after acupuncture treatment, the effect of acupuncture on DMN in patients with migraine was observed; the frequency of migraine attack, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the using of analgesic medication before and after treatment were recorded to evaluate the curative effect of acupuncture; the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the improvements of quality of life and emotional state. RESULTS: Compared before acupuncture, the functional connections of left parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC), dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in DMN after acupuncture were weakened (P<0.05), and the functional connections of bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and dMPFC were weakened (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, the frequency of migraine attack, VAS, SAS and SDS scores after treatment were decreased (P<0.05), and MSQ score was increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture shows good clinical efficacy for migraine without aura, and could adjust the functional connection of DMN.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Behav Res Methods ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647279

RESUMO

The present study seeks to examine individuals' stream of thought in real time. Specifically, we asked participants to speak their thoughts freely out loud during a typical resting-state condition. We first examined the feasibility and reliability of the method and found that the oral reporting method did not significantly change the frequency or content characteristics of self-generated thoughts; moreover, its test-retest reliability was high. Based on methodological feasibility, we combined natural language processing (NLP) with the Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers (BERT) model to directly quantify thought content. We analyzed the divergence of self-generated thought content and expressions of sadness and empirically verified the validity and behavioral significance of the metrics calculated by BERT. Furthermore, we found that reflection and brooding could be differentiated by detecting the divergence of self-generated thought content and expressions of sadness, thus deepening our understanding of rumination and depression and providing a way to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive rumination. Finally, this study provides a new framework to examine self-generated thoughts in a resting state with NLP, extending research on the continuous content of instant self-generated thoughts with applicability to resting-state functional brain imaging.

20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is the most severe pest attacking rice crops using sucking mouthparts. It causes significant damages to rice growth and food production worldwide. With the long-term and wide use of insecticides, field populations of BPH have developed resistance to many insecticides. RESULTS: Here, we showed that upregulation of an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NlMdr49-like contributes to imidacloprid resistance in field populations of BPH. A comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression in two field populations (JXSG18 and YNTC18). Compared with a susceptible strain (Sus), 202 upregulated genes and 170 downregulated genes were identified in both field populations. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are mainly linked to metabolic process and transmembrane transport. Among the candidate DEGs, NlMdr49-like was significantly upregulated in both field populations. Based on the genome and transcriptome of BPH, the full-length complementary DNA of NlMdr49-like was sequenced and its molecular characteristics were analyzed. Expression pattern analysis of various tissues showed that NlMdr49-like was predominantly expressed in midgut and Malpighian tubules which are important excretion organs. Knocking down NlMdr49-like reduced BPH resistance to imidacloprid, but did not affect its resistance to the other nine insecticides (chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, sulfoxaflor, triflumezopyrim, ethiprole, buprofezin and pymetrozine). Furthermore, a transgenic strain of Drosophila melanogaster overexpressing NlMdr49-like was less susceptible to imidacloprid. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that upregulation of NlMdr49-like is another mechanism contributing to imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. This result is helpful to further understand the resistance mechanism of N. lugens to imidacloprid.

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