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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3101-3107, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622620

RESUMO

Viral myocarditis (VMC) is a disease characterized by inflammation of myocardial cells caused by viral infection. Since the pathogenesis mechanism of VMC has not been fully elucidated, the diagnosis and treatment of this disease remains extremely challenging. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. An increasing number of studies have shown that ncRNAs are involved in regulating the occurrence and development of VMC, thus providing potential new targets for the treatment and diagnosis of VMC. This review summarizes the possible roles of ncRNAs in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of VMC revealed recently.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus , Miocardite , Viroses , Enterovirus Humano B , Humanos , Inflamação , Miocardite/genética , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/genética
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 323, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic bronchoscopy is one of the effective methods in the treatment and management of malignant central airway stenosis (MCAS). However, restenosis after therapeutic bronchoscopy frequently occurs and severe restenosis (SR) can be life-threatening. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the risk factors for SR after therapeutic bronchoscopy. METHODS: The data of 233 consecutive cases with MCAS who were subjected to therapeutic bronchoscopy between 2015 and 2020 at a tertiary hospital were collected. Patients were divided into SR group and non-SR during 6 months after therapeutic bronchoscopy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for SR. RESULTS: SR during 6 months after therapeutic bronchoscopy occurred in 39.5% (92/233) of patients. The location and the initial degree of MCAS were associated with SR, as assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). The risk of SR after therapeutic bronchoscopy in the left main bronchus, right main bronchus, and right intermediate bronchus increased, compared to the risk when of MCAS was located in the trachea (OR (95% CI) of 8.821 (1.850-25.148), 6.583 (1.791-24.189), and 3.350 (0.831-13.511), respectively). In addition, the initial degree of MCAS was positively associated with an increased risk of SR (OR 1.020; 95% CI 1.006-1.035). CONCLUSIONS: MCAS located in the left main bronchus, right main bronchus and right intermediate bronchus, as well as the higher initial degree of MCAS were independent risk factors for SR during 6 months after therapeutic bronchoscopy.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3144-3149, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467706

RESUMO

The effect of intestinal flora changes on the pharmacokinetics of astragaloside Ⅳ in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus was explored in this study. The rat model in preliminary experiment was established by high-sugar and high-fat diet combined with the intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin(STZ). Rats were divided into model group, astragaloside Ⅳ group, berberine group and combination group(five rats in each group). After two weeks of gavage, the rats' feces was taken for 16 S rRNA sequencing of intestinal flora. Pharmacokinetic experiments were performed on astragaloside Ⅳ in the four groups one day after the preliminary experiment. Plasma samples were precipitated in methanol with ginsenoside Rb_1 as an internal standard, and the plasma concentrations of astragaloside Ⅳ at different time points were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH-C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) via gradient elution. The mobile phase was acetonitrile(A) and 5 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate solution with 0.2% formic acid(B). The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1), the injection volume 5 µL and the column temperature 40 ℃. The mass spectrometry was carried out with electrospray ionization source(ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion modes. The specificity, linearity range, accuracy, precision, stability and dilution effect of the method all met the requirements for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in plasma. Plasma concentration-time curves were plotted and relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.2.8. The results showed that the concentration of absorbed astragaloside Ⅳ increased within 0-3.95 h and began to decline since 3.95 h. After 36 h, the metabolism was complete. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve(AUC_(0-t)) and the peak concentration(C_(max)) of astragaloside Ⅳ were increased in the three administration groups compared with the model group, but without significant difference, which suggested that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of saponin components would not necessarily change after the drug-induced alteration of intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saponinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triterpenos
4.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug is a major issue in TB control, and demands the discovery of new drugs targeting virulence factor ESX-1. METHODS: We first established a high-throughput screen (HTS) assay for the discovery of ESX-1 secretion inhibitors. The positive hits were then evaluated for the potency of diminishing the survival of virulent mycobacterium and reducing bacterial virulence. We further investigated the probability of inducing drug-resistance and the underlying mechanism using M-PFC. RESULTS: A robust HTS assay was developed to identify small molecules that inhibit ESX-1 secretion without impairing bacterial growth in vitro. A hit named IMB-BZ specifically inhibits the secretion of CFP-10 and reduces virulence in an ESX-1-dependent manner, therefore resulting in significant reduction in intracellular and in vivo survival of mycobacteria. Blocking the CFP-10-EccCb1 interaction directly or indirectly underlies the inhibitory effect of IMB-BZ on the secretion of CFP-10. Importantly, our finding shows that the ESX-1 inhibitors pose low risk of drug resistance development by mycobacteria in vitro as compared with traditional anti-TB drug, and exhibit high potency against chronic mycobacterial infection. CONCLUSION: Targeting ESX-1 may lead to the development of novel therapeutics for tuberculosis. IMB-BZ holds the potential for future development into a new anti-TB drug.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(39): 16087-16094, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553600

RESUMO

One important feature of enzyme catalysis is the induced-fit conformational change after binding substrates. Herein, we report a biomimetic water-soluble molecular capsule featuring adaptive structural change toward substrate binding, which offers an ideal platform for efficient photocatalysis. The molecular capsule was coordination-assembled from three anthracene-bridged bis-TPT [TPT = 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine] ligands and six (bpy)Pd(NO3)2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Once substrates bind to its hydrophobic cavity, this capsule would undergo quantitative capsule-to-bowl transformation. Visible-light absorption brought about by both the anthracene units and the charge-transfer absorption on the late-formed quintuple π-π stacked host-guest complex efficiently facilitates aerobic photooxidation for the sulfide guests by visible-light irradiation under mild conditions. Desired turnover numbers and product selectivity (sulfoxide over sulfone) have been achieved by the transformable nature of the catalyst and the hydrophilicity of the sulfoxide product. Such a photocatalytic process enabled by an adaptive coordination capsule and substrates as the allosteric effector paves the way for constructing artificial systems to mimic enzyme catalysis.

7.
J Environ Chem Eng ; : 106168, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395190

RESUMO

Considering the potential hazardous effects of disinfectant residues on environment, organisms and biodiversity, the sharp rise in use of disinfectants during COVID-19 pandemic has been considered highly likely to cause worldwide secondary disasters in ecosystems and human health. This questionnaire-based survey investigated the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on household disinfectant product consumption levels and behaviour of 3667 Chinese residents. In particular, in the context that no strategy is currently available to minimize the disinfectant pollution, based on the similarities between disinfectants and pharmaceuticals, we proposed a perspective of ecopharmacovigilance (EPV), which is an effective measure to minimize the environmental risks posed by pharmaceuticals using drug administration protocols, for disinfectant environmental risk management. The public's environmental perceptions, attitudes and the related practices regarding household disinfectant consumption from an EPV perspective were also included in the study. The results showed that the COVID-19 outbreak caused a tremendous rise in the public's household disinfectant consumption and usage levels in China. After the COVID-19 outbreak, the chlorine-based and alcohol-based disinfectants were considered as the most preferred products for household disinfection and hand sanitization, respectively. Importantly, the Chinese public's environmental perceptions and practice on disinfectants were poor. Less than half respondents had positive attitudes toward the source control of disinfectant pollution. The population groups including females, the middle aged adults, those having healthcare professional background, as well as the higher-educated could be focused on to develop targeted efforts for the future control of disinfectant pollution in environment.

9.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-18, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461812

RESUMO

Although the protective effect of ginsenoside on cisplatin-induced renal injury has been extensively studied, whether ginsenoside interferes with the antitumor effect of cisplatin has not been confirmed. In this paper, we verified the main molecular mechanism of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (R-Rg3) antagonizing cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) through the combination of in vivo and in vitro models. It is worth mentioning that the two cell models of HK-2 and HepG2 were used simultaneously for the first time to explore the effect of the activation site of tumor-associated protein p53 on apoptosis and tumor suppression. The results showed that a single injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg) led to weight loss, the kidney index of the mice increased, and creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in mice sharply increased. Continuous administration of R-Rg3 at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg for 10 days could significantly alleviate this symptom. Similarly, R-Rg3 treatment reduced oxidative stress damage caused by cisplatin. Moreover, R-Rg3 could observably reduce the apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration of renal tubular cells induced by cisplatin. We used western blotting analysis to demonstrate that R-Rg3 restored cisplatin-induced AKI might be related to PI3K/AKT and NF-[Formula: see text]B mediated apoptosis and inflammation pathways. In the meantime, we also verified that R-Rg3 could activate different sites of p53 to control renal cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin without affecting its antitumor effect.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5546711, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239689

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial cell senescence is involved in human aging and age-related vascular disorders. Guidance receptor UNC5B is implicated in oxidative stress and angiogenesis. Nonetheless, little is known about the role of UNC5B in endothelial cell senescence. Here, we cultured primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells to young and senescent phases. Subsequently, the expression of UNC5B was identified in replicative senescent cells, and then, its effect on endothelial cell senescence was confirmed by UNC5B-overexpressing lentiviral vectors and RNA interference. Overexpression of UNC5B in young endothelial cells significantly increased senescence-associated ß-galactosidase-positive cells, upregulated the mRNAs expression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype genes, reduced total cell number, and inhibited the potential for cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of UNC5B promoted the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated the P53 pathway. Besides, overexpression of UNC5B disturbed endothelial function by inhibiting cell migration and tube formation. Nevertheless, silencing UNC5B generated conflicting outcomes. Blocking ROS production or inhibiting the function of P53 rescued endothelial cell senescence induced by UNC5B. These findings suggest that UNC5B promotes endothelial cell senescence, potentially by activating the ROS-P53 pathway. Therefore, inhibiting UNC5B might reduce endothelial cell senescence and hinder age-related vascular disorders.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212331

RESUMO

Food production requires a large amount of water. As a country facing a serious scarcity of per capita water resources and severe water pollution, China must explore the spatial distribution characteristics of its dietary water footprint. China is the world's largest developing country, and water consumption inevitably has increased with its economic development. It is essential to explore the factors influencing the water footprint and water conservation mechanisms. Based on China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data, individual-level data of dietary water footprint and residents' socio-economic characteristics were obtained. The decision tree was applied to classify the dietary water footprint based on socio-economic factors, and multinomial logistic regression was then performed to investigate the influence of each factor. The results showed that all six selected socio-economic factors had a statistically significant impact on the dietary water footprint. Income and education level were positively related to the dietary water footprint; urban residents, males, and residents with a higher body mass index (BMI) consumed more dietary water than rural residents, females, and those with a lower BMI, respectively. Age exhibited an inverted U-shaped influence. Understanding the drivers and disparities of the water footprint of food consumption can support the development of policy for energy conservation, which can ultimately help achieve the goal of reducing water waste.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118341, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294349

RESUMO

The rehabilitation of visual acuity with severe conjunctival fibrosis depends on ocular reconstruction with suitable conjunctival substitutes. In this study, we have developed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) electrospun nanofibrous membranes (EFMs) surface coated by cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and/or silk peptide (SP). The CNF coating improved the hydrophilicity and the SP coating proliferated conjunctival epithelial cells (CjECs). To prevent post-operative infections, the composite scaffolds were loaded with levofloxacin (LF), constantly exerting efficient bactericidal effects. In in vivo evaluations, the PLA EFMs presented excellent therapeutic effects by promoting structural and functional restoration of conjunctiva after transplant. Even with reduced topical administration of antibiotics, the coloboma treated with LF loaded scaffolds presented no infections. It could be deduced that the potent bacterial inhibition feature could save troubles for patients by minimizing the application of antibiotics post-surgery. Hence, the developed PLA EFMs loaded with LF could be promising conjunctival substitutes.

14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 177, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that ultrasound can detect changes in tracheal diameter during endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation. We sought to assess the accuracy of ultrasound measurement of tracheal diameter, and to determine the relationship between tracheal wall pressure (TWP), cuff inflation volume (CIV), and the degree of tracheal deformation. METHODS: Our study comprised two parts: the first included 45 porcine tracheas, the second 41 porcine tracheas. Each trachea was intubated with a cuffed ETT, which was connected to an injector and the manometer via a three-way tap. The cuff was inflated and the cuff pressure recorded before and after intubation. The tracheal diameter was measured using ultrasound. This included three separate measurements: outer transverse diameter (OTD), internal transverse diameter (ITD), and anterior tracheal wall thicknesses (ATWT). A precision electronic Vernier caliper was also used to measure tracheal diameter. We calculated TWP and the percentage change of tracheal diameter. The Bland-Altman method, linear regression, and locally weighted regression (LOESS) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There were strong correlation and agreement for OTD (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) and ITD (r = 0.90, P < 0.001) as measured by ultrasound and by precision electronic Vernier caliper, but a poor correlation for ATWT (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the percentage change of OTD (OTD%, r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and CIV, the percentage change of ITD (ITD%, r = 0.77, P < 0.001) and CIV, TWP (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and CIV. And a strong correlation was also found between TWP and OTD% (r = 0.84, P < 0.001), TWP and ITD% (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of ultrasound to measure OTD and ITD is accurate, but is less accurate for ATWT. There is a close correlation between OTD%, ITD%, CIV and TWP.

16.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 547-556, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) represents an important global health problem; however, the progress in understanding AVH is limited because of the priority of combating persistent HBV and HCV infections. Therefore, an improved understanding of the burden of AVH is required to help design strategies for global intervention. METHODS: Data on 4 major AVH types, including acute hepatitis A, B, C, and E, excluding D, were collected by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 database. Age-standardized incidence rates and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates for AVH were extracted from GBD 2019 and stratified by sex, level of socio-demographic index (SDI), country, and territory. The association between the burden of AVH and socioeconomic development status, as represented by the SDI, was described. RESULTS: In 2019, there was an age-standardized incidence rate of 3,615.9 (95% CI 3,360.5-3,888.3) and an age-standardized DALY rate of 58.0 (47.3-70.0) per 100,000 person-years for the 4 major types of AVH. Among the major AVH types, acute hepatitis A caused the heaviest burden. There was a significant downward trend in age-standardized DALY rates caused by major incidences of AVH between 1990 and 2019. In 2019, regions or countries located in West and East Africa exhibited the highest age-standardized incidence rates of the 4 major AVH types. These rates were stratified by SDI: high SDI and high-middle SDI locations recorded the lowest incidence and DALY rates of AVH, whereas the low-middle SDI and low SDI locations showed the highest burden of AVH. CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic development status and burden of AVH are associated. Therefore, the GBD 2019 data should be used by policymakers to guide cost-effective interventions for AVH. LAY SUMMARY: We identified a negative association between socioeconomic development status and the burden of acute viral hepatitis. The lowest burden of acute viral hepatitis was noted for rich countries, whereas the highest burden of acute viral hepatitis was noted for poor countries.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 56522-56534, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057631

RESUMO

Is rapid urban sprawl increasing environmental pollution while boosting economic development? This study uses panel data of 30 Chinese provinces during 2002-2018 to investigate the impact of urban sprawl on haze pollution with the use of a spatial lag model. Urban built-up area (ba) and urban public facilities occupation (upfo) are used to measure the differential impact of urban sprawl on haze pollution. The main highlights of the results are as follows: (1) there is a nonlinear relationship between urban sprawl and haze pollution. An inverted U-shaped relationship was found between built-up area and haze pollution, while urban public facility occupation and haze pollution have a U-shaped correlation. (2) The impact of urban sprawl on haze pollution shows a significant time-based difference. The relationship between the two was not significant in 2002-2010, but become significant in 2011-2018. (3) Significant regional differences in the impact of urban sprawl on haze pollution were found. The effects of urban sprawl on urban haze levels are more pronounced in the eastern and western regions than in the central region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise
18.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4411-4424, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028092

RESUMO

Successive evidence has established that maltol, a flavor-enhancing agent, could provide resistance to oxidative stress-induced tissue injury in various animal models though its benefits for aging-induced liver and kidney injuries are still undetermined. In the present work, for demonstrating maltol's ameliorative effect and probable mechanism against aging-induced liver and kidney injuries, D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced animal in vivo and HEK293 cells in vitro models were established and results demonstrated that long-term D-Gal treatment increases the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in liver and kidney tissues, mitigates cell viability, and arrests the cycle. Interestingly, 4-weeks maltol treatment at 50 and 100 mg/kg activated aging-associated proteins including p53, p21, and p16 followed by inhibiting malondialdehyde (MDA)'s over-production and increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, decreases in cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and 4-hydroxydecene (4-HNE)'s immunofluorescence expression levels are confirmed. Furthermore, maltol improved oxidative stress injury by activating the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. In conclusion, the purpose of the present study was to estimate the mechanistic insights into maltol's role as an antioxidant in liver and kidney cell senescence and injury, which will reflect potential of therapeutic strategy for antiaging and aging-related disease treatment.


Assuntos
Galactose , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pironas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
19.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211016902, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to analyze the clinical effect of autologous fat-granule transplantation in augmentation rhinoplasty and explore methods to improve the fat retention rate. METHODS: A total of 70 enrolled patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combined with high-density fat transplantation group (combined group) and the conventional fat-granule transplantation group (control group; n = 35 in each group). In the combined group, an appropriate amount of autologous fat was extracted and centrifuged, and the lower layer of high-density fat was taken and mixed with PRF isolated from whole blood for autotransplantation. In the control group, only fat was extracted and centrifuged for transplantation. The patients were followed up with for more than one year to observe the short- and long-term effects, complications, safety, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Six months after the operation, the nasal shape was stable, the contour was higher and more stereoscopic than before, the average increase of nasal height was 3.0 mm in the combined group and 2.0 mm in the control group. No complications, such as fat embolism, infection, or necrosis occurred during the 1-year follow-up. The satisfaction rate between the 2 groups has statistical significance (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Overall, PRF combined with autologous high-density fat transplantation is simple to perform, has a significantly increased fat-retention rate than the control group, and has stable long-term effects without obvious adverse reactions. A sufficient amount of fat and PRF transplantation can achieve a good orthopedic effect. Thus, this method can be widely used in clinical augmentation rhinoplasty.

20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2356-2362, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047141

RESUMO

Drug combination is a common clinical phenomenon. However, the scientific implementation of drug combination is li-mited by the weak rational evaluation that reflects its clinical characteristics. In order to break through the limitations of existing evaluation tools, examining drug-to-drug and drug-to-target action characteristics is proposed from the physical, chemical and biological perspectives, combining clinical multicenter case resources, domestic and international drug interaction public facilities with the aim of discovering the common rules of drug combination. Machine learning technology is employed to build a system for evaluating and predicting the rationality of clinical drug combinations based on "drug characteristics-repository information-artificial intelligence" strategy, which will be debugged and validated in multi-center clinical practice, with a view to providing new ideas and technical references for the safety and efficacy of clinical drug use.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Combinação de Medicamentos , Tecnologia
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