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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137719, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163738

RESUMO

Many arid and semi-arid regions are rich in shale gas or coalbed methane. However, hydraulic-fracturing, commonly used for reservoir stimulation, has serious environmental impacts such as the consumption of large quantities of water, damage of residual organic compounds and the disposal of process water. This paper presents liquid nitrogen (LN2) as an environmentally friendly, waterless fracking technology, which could potentially replace hydraulic fracturing. Laboratory experiments on LN2 fracturing were conducted on coal samples, and high-resolution micro X-ray computed tomography was used for 3D visualization and evaluation of fracture evolution characteristics, including liquid nitrogen cyclic quenching, effect of initial fracture size (IFS) and coal saturation. The findings of this study testify to the effectiveness of fracturing by LN2 quenching on coalbed methane reservoirs. This technique would help protect water resources and alleviate other environmental concerns in arid districts during unconventional resource recovery.

2.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to parameterize mid-trimester drop in blood pressure (BP) trajectory during pregnancy and to evaluate its utility for predicting preeclampsia. METHODS: To develop parametric models for BP trajectory during pregnancy, we used data from 7923 Chinese pregnant women with 24 810 routine antenatal care visits. Then, we evaluated the utility of BP trajectory parameters for predicting clinician-diagnosed preeclampsia in a separate sample of 3524 pregnant women from a randomized controlled trial of prenatal vitamin supplementation conducted in the same area. We focused on parameters related to the mid-trimester BP drop, including the gestational age and BP value at the nadir (lowest point), change in BP, velocity, and area under curve during two periods (from 12 weeks of gestation to the nadir and from the nadir to 33 weeks of gestation). RESULTS: All participants in our analysis had a mid-pregnancy drop in their SBP, DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) trajectories. There were high correlations (|r| > 0.90) among trajectory parameters of the same BP measure. The final prediction model included selective parameters of SBP, DBP, and MAP trajectories, prepregnancy BMI and gestational age at the first antenatal care visit. The area under the receiver-operating curve for predicting preeclampsia was 0.886 (95% confidence interval 0.846--0.926) in the training dataset and 0.802 (0.708--0.895) in the validation dataset. CONCLUSION: Our novel BP trajectory parameters are informative and can predict preeclampsia at a clinically acceptable level.

3.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169891

RESUMO

The underlying molecular mechanism driving clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression is not fully understood. The significant downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 3 (PTPN3) expression in the tumor tissues suggested its protective role in ccRCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of PTPN3 protein in 172 ccRCC tissue revealed that PTPN3 expression was an independent, favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.0343) and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0166) of patients. The ccRCC cell lines SN12C, 1932, ACHN and Caki-1 were used to evaluate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of PTPN3. We observed that overexpression of PTPN3 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells. In contrast, the knocking down of PTPN3 elicited opposite effects. PTPN3 overexpression suppressed xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo mice models. PTN3 inhibited tumor cell motility by suppressing the phosphorylation of AKT, and subsequently inactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway of ccRCC cells. Further, the inhibition of phospho-AKTThr308 and phospho-AKTSer473 reversed PTPN3 induced-silencing in tumor cell migration. Our work revealed that the overexpression of PTPN3 could suppress kidney cancer progression by negatively regulating the AKT signaling pathway, and served as a favorable prognostic factor in ccRCC patients. Our findings provided insight that PTPN3 could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC. Implications: PTPN3 is an independent favorable prognostic factor for ccRCC patients and could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to prevent cross-infection in the operating room during emergency procedures for patients with confirmed or suspected 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by following anesthesia management protocols, and to document clinical- and anesthesia-related characteristics of these patients. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, multicenter clinical study. SETTING: This study used a multicenter dataset from 4 hospitals in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: Patients and health care providers with confirmed or suspected 2019-nCoV from January 23 to 31, 2020, at the Wuhan Union Hospital, the Wuhan Children's Hospital, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, and the Wuhan Fourth Hospital in Wuhan, China. INTERVENTIONS: Anesthetic management and infection control guidelines for emergency procedures for patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were drafted and applied in 4 hospitals in Wuhan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cross-infection in the operating rooms of the 4 hospitals was effectively reduced by implementing the new measures and procedures. The majority of patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection or suspected infection were female (23 [62%] of 37), and the mean age was 41.0 years old (standard deviation 19.6; range 4-78). 10 (27%) patients had chronic medical illnesses, including 4 (11%) with diabetes, 8 (22%) with hypertension, and 8 (22%) with digestive system disease. Twenty-five (68%) patients presented with lymphopenia, and 23 (62%) patients exhibited multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity on computed tomography scanning. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that COVID 19-specific guidelines for emergency procedures for patients with confirmed or suspected 2019-nCoV may effectively prevent cross-infection in the operating room. Most patients with confirmed or suspected COVID 19 presented with fever and dry cough and demonstrated bilateral multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity on chest computed tomography scans.

5.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 119, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though accumulated evidence has demonstrated visceral organ involvement in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), how aGVHD influences the bone marrow (BM) niche and the reconstitution of hematopoiesis post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains largely unknown. METHODS: In the current study, the cell morphology, immunophenotype, multi-differentiation capacity, self-renewal capacity, and hematopoiesis promotion of the MSCs from aGVHD and non-aGVHD patients were investigated. Additionally, the stemness and hematopoiesis-promoting property of healthy donor-derived MSCs were evaluated in the presence of BM supernatant from aGVHD patients. Mechanistically, antibodies targeting inflammatory cytokines involved in aGVHD were added into the MSC culture. Furthermore, a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) receptor-Ig fusion protein (rhTNFR:Fc) was used to protect healthy donor-derived MSCs. Moreover, mRNA sequencing was performed to explore the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The aGVHD MSCs exhibited morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics that were similar to those of the non-aGVHD MSCs. However, the osteogenic and adipogenic activities of the aGVHD MSCs significantly decreased. Additionally, the colony formation capacity and the expression of self-renewal-related genes remarkably decreased in aGVHD MSCs. Further, the hematopoiesis-supporting capacity of aGVHD MSCs significantly reduced. The antibody neutralization results showed that TNF-α contributed to the impairment of MSC properties. Moreover, rhTNFR:Fc exhibited notable protective effects on MSCs in the aGVHD BM supernatants. The mRNA sequencing results indicated that the TNF-α pathway and the Toll-like receptor pathway may be activated by TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our data demonstrate MSCs as cellular targets of aGVHD and suggest a potential role of TNF-α blockage in maintaining the BM niche of aGVHD patients.

6.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between primary femoral head necrosis (ONFH) and an ABO blood group. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case-control trial. An analysis of the clinical data of an ABO blood group with 516 patients (case group) with ONFH and 489 limb-fracture patients (control group) without previous hip pain was obtained from the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from November 2015 to November 2018. The clinical data included gender, age, height, weight, a history of smoking, alcohol abuse, prior medical history, hormone use, and ABO blood type. A logistic regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: From November 2015 to November 2018, there were 267 males and 249 females in the 516 cases of ONFH in the case group. The control group included 289 males and 200 females. In terms of age, the average age of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In terms of body mass index (BMI), the BMI of the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). From the previous medical history of patients in the two groups (coronary heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and peripheral vascular disease), there was no significant difference between the two groups from a statistical perspective (P < 0.05). However, according to the risk factors of ONFH (smoking, alcohol abuse, hyperlipidemia, and hormone-use history), there were significant differences between the case group and the control group. There was no statistical difference in the quantitative distribution ratio of the four blood types - A, B, O, and AB - between the case group and the control group. The outcomes of logistic multiple regression analysis presented that there was no significant correlation between the occurrence of ONFH and blood type A, B, AB, and O (P > 0.05). However, there are significant differences in the disease progression between the different blood types. There was a significant difference in the progression of disease between type A and type O. Among them, patients with ONFH and type A blood had the fastest progression with an average of 2.318 years, and the slowest progression was found in type O blood with an average of 5.15 years. CONCLUSIONS: The ABO blood group has no correlation with the occurrence of ONFH, but the ABO blood type is closely related to the disease progression of ONFH.

7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170986

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Combination regimens of six-month duration may increase the incidence of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI), which is clinically characterized by mild cholestasis and hepatocanalicular lesions. UGT2B4 is a predominant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme in the human liver that plays an important role in the detoxification of bile acids, which yields water-soluble inactive compounds that can easily be excreted in the bile or urine. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between UGT2B4 variants and the susceptibility to ATLI. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood sample of each patient, and all SNPs were genotyped using an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction method. Clinical symptoms and laboratory results were recorded regularly. Five genetic variants at UGT2B4 (rs1131878, rs1966151, rs28361541, rs4557343 and rs79407331) were identified in a prospective study of 118 ATLI cases and 628 non-ATLI controls. All participants were treated by first-line anti-TB drugs in Western China Hospital. The potential association between SNPs, ATLI risk and clinical phenotypes were determined based on the distribution of allelic frequencies and different genetic models. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Statistical comparisons of cases and controls after correction for multiple testing did not yield any significant association between genetic variants at UGT2B4 and risk of ATLI via the analyses of single locus and subgroup differences. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This is the first study aimed to investigate the association of UGT2B4 polymorphisms with ATLI risk. Our results revealed that UGT2B4 genetic variants are unlikely to confer susceptibility to ATLI in the Western Chinese Han population.

8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(1): 93-97, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145734

RESUMO

The cestode Taenia hydatigena uses canids, primarily dogs, as definitive hosts, while the metacestode larval stage cysticercus infects a range of intermediate hosts, including domestic animals such as goats, sheep, and pigs. Cysticercosis due to T. hydatigena has large veterinary and economic drawbacks. Like other taeniids, e.g., Echinococcus, intraspecific variation is found among the members of the genus Taenia. In Africa, few studies are available on the epidemiology and distribution of T. hydatigena, and even fewer studies are available on its genetic variation. In this study, we molecularly identified 11 cysticerci from sheep in Sudan and demonstrated the genetic variation based on the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial genes. The isolates were correctly identified as T. hydatigena with more than 99% similarity to those in the GenBank database. Low diversity indices and insignificant neutrality indices were observed, with 3 and 2 haplotypes for the nad1 and cox1 genes, respectively. The results suggest the presence of unique T. hydatigena haplotypes in Sudan, as haplotypes with 100% similarity were not found in the GenBank database. With few available studies on the genetic variation of T. hydatigena in Africa, this report represents the first insights into the genetic variation of T. hydatigena in Sudan and constitutes useful data.

9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 393: 114949, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147541

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR), a potential neurotoxin, is present in diet and drinking water. Dietary exposure contributes to cognitive impairment, but relevant mechanism information is limited. Neuroinflammation plays important roles in neurodegenerative disorders. This study aimed to explore whether chronic acrylamide exposure induced neuronal lesions, microglial activation, NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. For this purpose, 36 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group) and maintained on treated drinking water providing dosages of 0, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg/day ACR for 12 months. Chronic exposure to ACR caused gait abnormality and cognitive dysfunction, which was associated with neuronal lesions, decrease in synapse associated proteins including synapsin I (SYN1), synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), neurogenesis suppression as shown by reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. ACR stimulated glial proliferation and microglial activation by increasing GFAP+, Iba-1+, Iba-1+CD68+ positive cells. ACR markedly upregulated the protein levels of NLRP3 inflammasome constituents NLRP3, caspase-1 and increased pro-IL-1ß and IL-1ß. ACR elevated the protein P62 to suppress NLPR3 inflammasome cleavage. Inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and Cox-2 were also significantly increased after NF-κB pathway activation, which aggravated neuronal lesions and caused memory deficits. This work helped to propose the possible mechanism of chronic exposure of ACR-induced neurotoxicity.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198676

RESUMO

Simulated microgravity can significantly affect various cell types and multiple systems of the human body, such as cardiovascular system, skeletal muscle system, and immune system, and is known to cause anemia and loss of electrolyte and fluids. Epidermal stem cells (EpSCs) were cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) bioreactor to simulate microgravity. The metabolites of EpSCs were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Compared with normal gravity (NG) group, a total of 57 different metabolites of EpSCs were identified (P < 0.05, VIP > 1), including lipids and lipid-like molecules (51 molecules), amino acids (5 molecules), nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues (1 molecule). According to the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plot, a VIP > 1 and P < 0.05 were obtained for the 57 different metabolites, of which 23 molecules were significantly downregulated and 34 were significantly upregulated in simulated microgravity (SMG) group. These results showed that SMG has a significant impact on different pathways, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis indicated that multiple pathways were involved, mainly the amino acid metabolism pathway, lipid metabolism pathway, membrane transport pathway, and cell growth and death pathways. Thus, the metabolic profile of EpSCs was changed under SMG. Exploring the metabolic profile of EpSCs would be helpful to further understand the growth characteristics of EpSCs under SMG, which will provide a new approach to explore the metabolomics mechanism of stress injury and repair trauma under SMG.

11.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189165

RESUMO

We studied the application of a mobile terminal application program in endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure measurement to improve the implementation rate of scientific ETT cuff pressure measurement and to ensure that the pressure falls within the recommended range. A pre-post controlled study lasting for 18 months was undertaken in a 40-bed general intensive care unit (GICU). This included a 6-month baseline period (baseline group) and a 6-month intervention period (intervention group). The mobile terminal application program was applied to monitor the cuff pressure of endotracheal intubation as an intervention measure during the intervention period. ETT pressure was the main outcome measure, while gender, age, causes for ICU admission, sedation score, duration of prior intubation, size of ETT, and number of VAP patients were secondary outcomes. ETT cuff pressure was monitored 742 times in both the baseline group and the intervention group. A total of 56.9% of the cuff pressure measurements in the baseline group were within the recommended range, while 78.4% of measurements in the intervention group were within the recommended range, reflecting a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The application of the mobile terminal application program used for ETT cuff pressure measurement could improve the percentage of ETT cuff pressure measurements falling within the recommended range.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179672

RESUMO

Paleoclimate research has built a framework for Earth's climate changes over the past 65 million years or even longer. However, our knowledge of weather-timescale extreme events (WEEs, also named paleoweather), which usually occur over several days or hours, under different climate regimes is almost blank because current paleoclimatic records rarely provide information with temporal resolution shorter than monthly scale. Here we show that giant clam shells (Tridacna spp.) from the tropical western Pacific have clear daily growth bands, and several 2-y-long (from January 29, 2012 to December 9, 2013) daily to hourly resolution biological and geochemical records, including daily growth rate, hourly elements/Ca ratios, and fluorescence intensity, were obtained. We found that the pulsed changes of these ultra-high-resolution proxy records clearly matched with the typical instrumental WEEs, for example, tropical cyclones during the summer-autumn and cold surges during the winter. When a tropical cyclone passes through or approaches the sampling site, the growth rate of Tridacna shell decreases abruptly due to the bad weather. Meanwhile, enhanced vertical mixing brings nutrient-enriched subsurface water to the surface, resulting in a high Fe/Ca ratio and strong fluorescence intensity (induced by phytoplankton bloom) in the shell. Our results demonstrate that Tridacna shell has the potential to be used as an ultra-high-resolution archive for paleoweather reconstructions. The fossil shells living in different geological times can be built as a Geological Weather Station network to lengthen the modern instrumental data and investigate the WEEs under various climate conditions.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115790

RESUMO

Exploration and comprehension of chemical bonding is one of the central tasks in chemistry. To date, non-covalent interactions involving multicenter multielectron skeletons like boron clusters is rarely reported. Here, a non-covalent interaction, nido-cage···π bond, is discovered based on the boron cluster C2B9H12- and an aromatic π system. The X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the nido-cage···π bonding presents parallel-displaced or T-shaped geometries. The contacting distance between cage and π ring varies with the type and the substituent of the aromatic ring. The theoretical calculations reveal that this nido-cage···π  bond shares a similar nature to the conventional anion···π or π···π bonds found in classical aromatic ring systems. Besides, such a  nido-cage···π interaction induces variable photophysical properties such as aggregation-induced emission and aggregation-caused quenching in one molecule. This work offers an overall understanding towards the boron cluster-based non-covalent bond and opens a door to investigate its properties.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119795

RESUMO

Background: Dietary supplements targeting brain health have quickly emerged in the marketplace as cognitive performance becomes an important public health issue. While manufacturers are required to report the exact ingredients and formulations listed on the Supplement Facts labels of products, many reports have indicated such labels are not always truthful, and the content of some products is inconsistent with the ingredients listed on the Supplement Facts label. Objectives: To identify dietary supplement products and ingredients marketed for brain health and cognitive performance and perform analyses of select products to verify whether purported claims are truthful and product labels accurate. Design: A scoping review was performed to identify products and ingredients. Products were selected for content analysis, investigated for scientific-sounding claims made, and assessed using an educational tool for potential red flags when reading Supplement Facts labels. Results: Twelve products were selected from the 650 products being marketed for brain health and queried about by Service Members. Eight (67%) had at least one ingredient listed on the Supplement Facts label not detected through analysis. Compounds not reported on the label were detected in 10 (83%) products. Scientific-sounding claims made are not supported by science and red flags are presented. Conclusions: There are dietary supplements targeting brain health being marketed to consumers that should be considered adulterated and misbranded. Advertisements and product labels may be deceiving and could put the public at risk. Education is required so that the public can recognize red flags while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration works to "modernize" the current regulations for dietary supplements.

15.
J Burn Care Res ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036383

RESUMO

Acute burn-induced coagulopathy (ABIC) occurs after severe burns. However, the incidence, prognostic value, and clinical significance of ABIC after an extensive severe burn remain inconclusive due to wide variances in burn severity and coagulation profile evaluation timings in previous studies. This retrospective study explored the incidence and clinical and prognostic significance of early phase ABIC in 129 adult patients with extensive burns (>50% total body surface area [TBSA]) admitted to the burn centers of two hospitals within 10 hours postburn injury during 2009-2017. Demographics (age and sex) and clinical data (burn severity, vital signs, prehospital fluid replacement volume, hemodynamic parameters, coagulation profile, blood gas, and blood biochemical indicators) were collected upon admission. The incidence of ABIC in patients with severe burns and its relationship with their survival and clinical significance were analyzed. The average postburn interval was 5.7 ± 2.7 hours, and the incidence of ABIC was 31% (40/129). A logistic regression analysis identified ABIC as an independent predictor of 4-week severe mortality due to severe burn. The incidence of ABIC was significantly associated with the total burn area, lactic acid levels upon admission, and postburn admission interval, but not with the prehospital fluid replacement volume. In conclusion, approximately 30% of patients with severe burns developed ABIC within 10 hours postburn, and this condition strongly predicts 4-week mortality. Although burn severity and tissue ischemia/hypoxia are main risk factors for ABIC, the pathogenesis is not fully understood and should be explored in future studies.

16.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of producing human IgG1 Fc fragment fused factor IX (FIX-Fc) in the milk of transgenic animals, for an alternative possible solution to the unmet need of FIX-Fc products for hemophilia B treatment. RESULTS: Six founder lines of transgenic mice harboring FIX-Fc cassette designed to be expressed specifically in the mammary gland were generated. FIX-Fc protein was secreted into the milk of transgenic mice with preserved biological activity (with the highest value of 6.2 IU/mL), similar to that of the non-fused FIX transgenic milk. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that FIX-Fc was specifically expressed in the mammary gland. The blood FIX clotting activities were unchanged, and no apparent health defects were observed in the transgenic mice. Moreover, the stability of FIX protein in milk was increased by the Fc fusion. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to produce biologically functional FIX-Fc in the mammary gland of transgenic mice. Our preliminary results provide a foundation for the potential scale-up production of FIX-Fc in the milk of dairy animals.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 156, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. More and more states legalized medical and recreational marijuana use. Adolescents and emerging adults are at high risk for marijuana use. This ecological study aims to examine historical trends in marijuana use among youth along with marijuana legalization. METHOD: Data (n = 749,152) were from the 31-wave National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 1979-2016. Current marijuana use, if use marijuana in the past 30 days, was used as outcome variable. Age was measured as the chronological age self-reported by the participants, period was the year when the survey was conducted, and cohort was estimated as period subtracted age. Rate of current marijuana use was decomposed into independent age, period and cohort effects using the hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) model. RESULTS: After controlling for age, cohort and other covariates, the estimated period effect indicated declines in marijuana use in 1979-1992 and 2001-2006, and increases in 1992-2001 and 2006-2016. The period effect was positively and significantly associated with the proportion of people covered by Medical Marijuana Laws (MML) (correlation coefficients: 0.89 for total sample, 0.81 for males and 0.93 for females, all three p values < 0.01), but was not significantly associated with the Recreational Marijuana Laws (RML). The estimated cohort effect showed a historical decline in marijuana use in those who were born in 1954-1972, a sudden increase in 1972-1984, followed by a decline in 1984-2003. CONCLUSION: The model derived trends in marijuana use were coincident with the laws and regulations on marijuana and other drugs in the United States since the 1950s. With more states legalizing marijuana use in the United States, emphasizing responsible use would be essential to protect youth from using marijuana.

18.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23234, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains an important disease threatening the security of public health, and no effective targets have been found for the immunological diagnosis or therapy of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between lncRNA CASC8 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis risk. METHOD: A total of 900 tuberculosis patients and 1534 healthy individuals in the Western Chinese Han population were recruited for our study. Candidate SNPs of CASC8 were initially filtered by importing the 1000 genomes database into Haploview, and subsequently genotyped using modified multiplex ligation detection reactions. RESULTS: The lncRNA CASC8 genetic variant rs7836840 was associated with an increased tuberculosis risk with a P-value of .034, but .134 after Bonferroni correction. Using subtype analysis, the C allele in rs7836840 showed a significant association with tuberculosis susceptibility (OR = 1.196, 95% CI = 1.05-1.362, P = .02739 after Bonferroni correction). Patients carrying genotype AG and GG of rs7825118 and rs9297758 exhibited lower Hb concentrations (P = .006) and neutrophil counts (P = .015), respectively, while genotype AG and AA in rs6981424 demonstrated higher levels of ALT (P = .005) and AST (P = .033) in a dominant model, which were consistent with a tendency toward increased TB risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to explore the association between lncRNA CASC8 polymorphisms and TB infection risk and clinical manifestations. Our results provide evidence that CASC8 may act as a biomarker for the progression of clinical tuberculosis.

19.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105149

RESUMO

Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the overall incidence and risk of proteinuria associated with five newly approved VEGFR-TKIs (regorafenib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, axitinib) in cancer patients.Methods: Pubmed, Embase, ASCO abstracts, and ESMO abstracts were searched to identify relevant studies. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random or fixed effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies.Results: A total of 9,446 patients from 20 RCTs were included for the meta-analysis. The use of newly approved VEGFR-TKIs was associated with an increased risk of all-grade (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.69-3.27, P < 0.001) and high-grade (RR 3.70, 95% CI 2.09-6.54, P < 0.001) proteinuria. On subgroup analysis, lenvatinib, axitinib, and vandetanib significantly increased the risk of all-grade proteinuria, and lenvatinib was associated with an increased risk of high-grade proteinuria. In addition, the risk of developing high-grade proteinuria events was significant for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but not for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and thyroid cancer (TC).Conclusion: Treatment with newly approved VEGFR-TKIs significantly increases the risk of developing proteinuria events in cancer patients, especially for patients treated with lenvatinib.

20.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126246, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097811

RESUMO

A piscicide, rotenone (RT), is frequently used for clear and management of aquatic systems such as fish pond, and even for illegal fishing throughout the world. The effects of RT on submerged macrophytes remain elusive although the effects of RT on many kinds of animals are well documented. We wanted to determine the effects of RT on the growth and metabolism of three submerged plants (Vallisneria natans, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton maackianus) and try to find the reasons of these effects. The results showed that the shoot height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root:shoot ratios, contents of soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate of the three tested submerged plants were significantly negatively affected by RT and the effects were different among the studied species. Furthermore, pH rised a little and light transmission was greatly reduced in the water with RT treatment. We think that the negative effects of RT on the growth and metabolism of submerged species is partially attributing to the lower light caused by RT application. Accordingly, we highlight that submerged species may be greatly suppressed by RT, and we should apply RT in water ecosystems with great caution.

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