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1.
Food Res Int ; 129: 108875, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036913

RESUMO

The colloidal delivery systems fabricated by emulsion containing natural proteins and lipids have been utilized to protect carotenoids as well as to release the carotenoids in the simulated in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this study, ß-carotene (BC) was embedded into emulsions that were stabilized by scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs), and the emulsion droplets containing BC were then entrapped into calcium-alginate beads. The results showed that the oil-in-water emulsions coated by SGPIs only showed good stability at pH 7-8, while the emulsion-alginate beads remained relatively intact at pH 3-8. BC encapsulated in emulsions was extremely unstable and prone to degradation when stored at the comparatively higher temperature (37 °C), whereas the stability of BC was greatly enhanced through incorporation into emulsion-alginate beads. The digestion rate and extent of lipid droplets constructed within SGPIs-stabilized emulsion-alginate beads were slower than that in emulsions during GIT. The confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the lipid droplets in emulsions were aggregated after exposure to the mouth and gastric phases, while the emulsion-alginate beads maintained their spherical shape after exposure to the oral and gastric phases. Moreover, the free lipid droplets in the emulsions showed a higher bioaccessibility of BC (66%) than that in the emulsion-alginate beads (38%), whereas the BC transformation was on the contrary. The findings in this study indicated that SGPIs-stabilized emulsion in alginate beads can potentially be utilized for the encapsulation and controlled release of lipophilic bioactive compounds.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 122: 109777, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918261

RESUMO

Sepsis is a critical illness that contributes a high mortality, while Xijiao Dihuang decoction (XJDHT) has been used in treatment against sepsis for many years by clinical doctors. Clinical studies confirmed a good efficacy of XJDHT against sepsis. The aim of this study is to observe the efficacy of XJDHT in sepsis model rats and macrophages activated by LPS, and to verify the underlying mechanisms. The key components of XJDHT and its targets against sepsis were analyzed and selected by network pharmacology. The potential mechanisms that XJDHT regulates the progress of sepsis were verified in sepsis rats and NR8383 cell lines. XJDHT at a dose of 25 mg/kg was administrated to rats which endured cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After MTT assay, XJDHT at a dose of 4 mg/mL was selected to treat NR8383 cell lines activated by LPS. In vivo experiment, the survival of the rats was assessed. The content of cytokine in serum were assessed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Contents of cytokine and key molecules in relative signaling pathway were assessed by immunohistochemical method. The pathway protein expressions were detected by Western blotting. In vitro experiment, immunofluorescence was used to assess the content of cytokine and signaling pathway. A total of 42 targets of XJDHT against sepsis were identified by network pharmacology. After eliminating overlapping compounds and proteins, there were 8 compounds in XJDHT that associating with the 42 sepsis-related targets. NF-κB and HIF-1α signaling pathway were recognized to play important role for XJDHT against sepsis. XJDHT improved survival rate in the XJDHT group compared with the model group. The contents of IL-6 increased in the model group compared with the control group with ELISA and immunohistochemistry, while XJDHT reduced the content of IL-6. The expressions of p65 and HIF-1α reduced significantly in the XJDHT group compared with the model group. In vitro study, the content of IL-6 elevated significantly after LPS stimulation, while XJDHT reduced this increase. Furthermore, expressions of protein of p65 and HIF-1α decreased significantly compared with the LPS group. To conclude, our study demonstrated that XJDHT at a dose of 25 g/kg is capable of improving the survival of sepsis via regulating the NF-κB and HIF-1α signaling pathway.

3.
Food Chem ; 310: 125928, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837528

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to simultaneously obtain protein isolates and lipids from the dried powder of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roes (pcRs) to achieve high-value utilization. Protein isolates and lipids were extracted simultaneously from pcRs by saline and acidic solutions. The purity of the protein isolates from the pcRs (pcRPIs) was greater than 70%, with vitellogenin, vitellogenin B and vitellogenin C as the main proteins. The lipids from pcRs (pcRLs) were mainly composed of triglycerides with high levels of EPA and DHA. The pcRPIs exhibited a higher surface hydrophobicity, water/oil holding capacity and emulsifying ability than those of the pcRs. Moreover, pcRPIs had a better oil holding capacity and emulsifying ability than soy protein isolate. These results suggest that protein isolates and lipids can be simultaneously extracted by saline and acidic solutions, and pcRPIs and pcRLs can be used as functional materials in the food industry.

4.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6752-6766, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576869

RESUMO

The oxidation of unsaturated fats generally occurs at the oil-water interface of emulsions, so surface-active antioxidants are needed for inhibiting lipid oxidation. In this study, a scallop gonad protein isolate (SGPI)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) conjugate was fabricated and characterized as an amphiphilic surface-active antioxidant in improving the physicochemical and oxidative stability of tuna oil-loaded emulsions via a free-radical grafting method. The covalent binding of EGCG to SGPIs was verified by using electrophoresis and gel permeation chromatography. Meanwhile, the structural, physical, thermal, as well as the in vitro antioxidant properties of the SGPI-EGCG conjugate were further characterized. The results indicated that the SGPI-EGCG conjugate contained more ß-sheet but less α-helix than SGPIs, leading to the changes of the secondary and tertiary conformation stability after conjugation. The radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of SGPIs were significantly increased by 4.9 times and 7.4 times, respectively, after the EGCG-grafting reaction. Compared with that stabilized by SGPIs, tuna oil emulsions emulsified by the SGPI-EGCG conjugate exhibited a smaller particle size and better storage stability. Furthermore, the SGPI-EGCG conjugate inhibited lipid and fatty acid oxidation during storage more significantly in tuna oil emulsions than SGPIs due to its higher interfacial accumulation and antioxidant activities. These results suggested that the SGPI-EGCG conjugate could be utilized as an efficient surface-active antioxidant and emulsifier for the encapsulation and protection of unsaturated lipids.

5.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284417

RESUMO

To investigate the variation in the condition factor of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus (S. nudus), gonads were collected in May (MAY), June (JUN), and July (JUL), at the beginning (AUG-b) and end of August (AUG-e). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) detection of the gonads revealed an obvious enhancement of the band at about 37 kDa from July, which was identified as transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) by nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. Gonadal proteins were identified by isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and regulation of the identified proteins in pairs of the collected groups was observed. A total of 174 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. Seven of the DEPs showed significant correlations with both the gonad index (GI) and protein content. These correlations included 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylating isoform X2 (6PGD), CAD protein, myoferlin isoform X8, ribosomal protein L36 (RL36), isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP], mitochondrial isoform X2 (IDH), multifunctional protein ADE2 isoform X3, sperm-activating peptides (SAPs) and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial (ALDH). However, TGFBI had no correlation with gonad index (GI) or protein content. 6PGD, IDH, multifunctional protein ADE2 isoform X3, and ALDH were shown to interact with each other and might play key roles in changing the condition factor of S. nudus gonads.


Assuntos
Proteoma/metabolismo , Ouriços-do-Mar/metabolismo , Strongylocentrotus/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Gônadas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7935-7941, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264423

RESUMO

Involvement of DNA in gelation and microstructural properties of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) male gonad hydrolysates (SMGHs) and corresponding hybrid gel with κ-carrageenan (SMGHs/κ-C) was studied using DNase pretreatment. Although DNase pretreatment significantly transformed SMGHs from weak gels to liquid, it made SMGHs have a superior synergistic effect on gel formation with κ-C by evidence of 2.7-fold G' and 1.1-fold melting temperature. However, the relaxation time (T21 and T23), functional groups, and flocculation behavior were comparable between SMGHs/κ-C and SMGHs/DNase/κ-C. Moreover, SMGHs/DNase/κ-C exhibited a denser network with more numerous patches and larger void spaces. These results suggest that DNA contributes to the gel formation of SMGHs whereas restricts more cationic peptides in SMGHs to bind sulfate groups in κ-C during gel formation.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , DNA/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Animais , Desoxirribonucleases/química , Géis/química , Masculino , Pectinidae/genética
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 1023-1034, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997934

RESUMO

Protein isolates were recovered from scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) gonads to develop a novel functional matrix by investigating their physiochemical and functional properties. Scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs) were prepared from degreased scallop gonads (DSGs) by an alkali extraction and isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process. The protein compositions of the SGPIs were mainly vitellogenin and beta-actin with molecular weights of 266 and 42 kDa, respectively, as determined using Nano-liquid chromatography-mass/mass (Nano-LC-MS/MS). After the ISP process, the protein solubility of the SGPIs was significantly improved, and the surface hydrophobicity of SGPIs intensely increased by 1.1-fold, which were attributed to the exposure of aromatic residues such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, the content of total/reactive sulfhydryl in SGPIs was decreased compared with that of DSGs. Meanwhile, the ISP process caused partial protein unfolding, as indicated by circular dichroism analysis, which exhibited a remarkable rise in the ß-sheet content with a parallel decline in the α-helix and random coil contents (P < 0.05). SGPIs exhibited a better oil absorption capacity and foaming property than both DSGs and soybean protein isolates (SPIs). Moreover, the emulsifying capacity of SGPIs was greatly enhanced by the ISP process, which was superior to the effect of commercial SPIs and was ascribed to its favorable solubility as well as surface characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: During the processing of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductors, scallop gonad, a high-protein part, is usually discarded as processing by-products despite its edibility. In recent years, scallop gonads are regarded as good sources to develop protein matrices due to their high protein content and numerous nutrients. In this study, scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs) were isolated by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process. The preferable solubility, foaming property coupled with high emulsifying property of SGPIs indicated that the SGPIs could be potentially utilized as a good protein emulsifier and additives in production of kamaboko gels, hamburger patties, sausages, and pet foods.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Proteínas/química , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Géis/química , Humanos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 49-60, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566165

RESUMO

Emulsion-based delivery systems were structured by using scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs) as novel food-grade emulsifiers. The effects of carrier oil, including the long chain triglycerides (LCT) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT), on the bioaccessibility and cellular uptake of ß-carotene (BC) were investigated. Both LCT and MCT delivery systems remained stable at pH 7-8 but aggregated at lower pH values (3-6) according to the results of light scattering and microscopy measurements. LCT droplets fabricated within SGPIs were digested and released more slowly than MCT droplets during the simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion. The LCT emulsion showed higher BC bioaccessibility (65.5%) than the MCT emulsion (23.1%) as a result of the greater solubilization of BC in mixed micelles fabricated from long-chain fatty acids. Moreover, the LCT emulsion produced higher cellular uptake of BC as compared with the MCT emulsion in intestinal epithelial cells. These results demonstrated that SGPIs could be used as novel food-grade emulsifiers to protect lipophilic bioactive compounds in emulsion-based delivery systems, in which LCT is more suitable to encapsulate and deliver BC than MCT.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Proteínas/química , Triglicerídeos/química , beta Caroteno/química , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Emulsões/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
9.
Food Funct ; 9(12): 6435-6443, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462111

RESUMO

Sea urchin gonads have been demonstrated to contain major yolk protein (MYP), which can be hydrolyzed by enzymes to release biologically active peptides. The in silico analysis of the MYP sequence in the BIOPEP database showed the presence of fragments with antioxidant activity. The sequence was hydrolyzed by 21 kinds of proteases and 23 antioxidant peptides were obtained. Eight peptides, including Leu-Trp (LW), Arg-Trp (RW), Ala-Trp (AW), Thr-Trp (TW), Ala-Asp-Phe (ADF), Leu-Trp-Lys (LWK), Ser-Asp-Phe (SDF) and Leu-Tyr (LY), were screened and a score over 0.5 was obtained using PeptideRanker. The peptides LW, TW and LWK showed a stronger antioxidant capacity with IC50 values of 8.85, 9.59 and 9.62 mmol L-1, respectively, compared to that of glutathione (10.81 mmol L-1). Furthermore, AW, LW and LY showed Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values of 3.07, 1.87 and 1.52 mmol TE per mmol peptide, respectively. These results suggest that the MYP from sea urchin (S. nudus) gonads is a good source of antioxidant peptides with abundant tryptophan.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Peptídeos/química , Strongylocentrotus/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/genética , Strongylocentrotus/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 261: 337-347, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739602

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to improve the utilization of scallop (Chlamys farreri) byproducts by using Maillard reaction. Scallop mantle hydrolysates (SMHs) were prepared using neutrase then reacted with ribose. Thirty-four peptides were identified from SMHs by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the abundance of Asp and Lys suggested the strong Maillard reactivity. The formation of Schiff's base as well as modification of amide I, II and III bands in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thirty volatile compounds were produced by the reaction of SMHs with ribose. Moreover, MRPs with enhanced radical scavenging and anti-linoleic acid peroxidation activities over SMHs promoted the survival and reduced the DNA damage of HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that SMHs-ribose MRPs can be potentially used as food antioxidant for suppressing of lipid oxidation or protecting of cell from oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Aromatizantes/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Oxirredução , Ribose/química , Paladar
11.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 25(6): 1529-1535, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263441

RESUMO

The proteolysis in muscle tissues of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (sjMTs) was characterized. The proteins from sjMTs were primarily myosin heavy chains (MHCs), paramyosin (Pm), and actin (Ac) having a molecular mass of approximately 200, 98, and 42 kDa, respectively. Based on SDS-PAGE analysis and quantification of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides released, degradation of muscle proteins from sjMTs was favorable at pH 5 and 50°C. Proteolysis of MHCs was mostly inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors, including trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucyl-amido (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and antipain (AP). E-64 and AP completely inhibited the degradation of Pm and Ac, while iodoacetic acid showed a partially inhibitory effect. These results indicated that the proteolysis of sjMTs was mainly attributed to cysteine proteases. Avoidance of setting the tissues at 40-50°C and slightly acidic condition and inhibition of cysteine proteases are helpful for decreasing sea cucumber autolysis.

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