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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2559-2569, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141757

RESUMO

Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) (<280 nm) have been important light sources for broad applications in, e.g., sterilization, purification, and high-density storage. However, the lack of excellent transparent electrodes in the DUV region remains a challenging issue. Here, we demonstrate an architectural engineering scheme to flexibly tune the work function of Cu@shell nanowires (NWs) as top transparent electrodes in DUV LEDs. By fast encapsulation of shell metals on Cu NWs and a shift of electron binding energy, the electronic work function could be widely tailored down to 4.37 eV and up to 5.73 eV. It is revealed that the high work function of Cu@Ni and Cu@Pt NWs could overcome the interfacial barrier to p-AlGaN and achieve direct ohmic contact with high transparency (91%) in 200-400 nm. Completely transparent DUV LED chips are fabricated and successfully lighted with sharp top emission (wall-plug efficiency reaches 3%) under a turn-on voltage of 6.4 V. This architectural strategy is of importance in providing highly transparent ohmic electrodes for optoelectronic devices in broad wavelength regions.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2971, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278261

RESUMO

Ultraviolet frequency combs enable applications ranging from precision spectroscopy to atomic clocks by addressing electronic transitions of atoms and molecules. Access to ultraviolet light via integrated nonlinear optics is usually hampered by the strong material dispersion and large waveguide attention in ultraviolet regions. Here we demonstrate a simple route to chip-scale ultraviolet comb generators, simultaneously showing a gap-free frequency span of 128 terahertz and high conversion efficiency. This process relies on adiabatic quadratic frequency translation of a near-visible supercontinuum sourced by an ultrafast fiber laser. The simultaneous cubic and quadratic nonlinear processes are implemented in single-crystalline aluminum nitride thin films, where chirp-modulated taper waveguides are patterned to ensure a broad phase matching. The heterodyne characterization suggests that both the near-visible and ultraviolet supercontinuum combs maintain high coherence. Our approach is also adaptable to other non-centrosymmetric photonic platforms for ultrafast nonlinear optics with scalable bandwidth.

3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086010

RESUMO

ß-Ga2O3, characterized with high n-type conductivity, little lattice mismatch with III-Nitrides, high transparency (>80%) in blue, and UVA (400-320 nm) as well as UVB (320-280 nm) regions, has great potential as the substrate for vertical structure blue and especially ultra violet LEDs (light emitting diodes). Large efforts have been made to improve the quality of III-Nitrides epilayers on ß-Ga2O3. Furthermore, the fabrication of vertical blue LEDs has been preliminarily realized with the best result that output power reaches to 4.82 W (under a current of 10 A) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) exceeds 78% by different groups, respectively, while there is nearly no demonstration of UV-LEDs on ß-Ga2O3. In this review, with the perspective from materials to devices, we first describe the basic properties, growth method, as well as doping of ß-Ga2O3, then introduce in detail the progress in growth of GaN on (1 0 0) and (-2 0 1) ß-Ga2O3, followed by the epitaxy of AlGaN on gallium oxide. Finally, the advances in fabrication and performance of vertical structure LED (VLED) are presented.

4.
Adv Mater ; 31(23): e1807345, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993771

RESUMO

The growth of single-crystal III-nitride films with a low stress and dislocation density is crucial for the semiconductor industry. In particular, AlN-derived deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) have important applications in microelectronic technologies and environmental sciences but are still limited by large lattice and thermal mismatches between the epilayer and substrate. Here, the quasi-van der Waals epitaxial (QvdWE) growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene/sapphire substrates is reported and their application in high-performance DUV-LEDs is demonstrated. Guided by density functional theory calculations, it is found that pyrrolic nitrogen in graphene introduced by a plasma treatment greatly facilitates the AlN nucleation and enables fast growth of a mirror-smooth single-crystal film in a very short time of ≈0.5 h (≈50% decrease compared with the conventional process), thus leading to a largely reduced cost. Additionally, graphene effectively releases the biaxial stress (0.11 GPa) and reduces the dislocation density in the epilayer. The as-fabricated DUV-LED shows a low turn-on voltage, good reliability, and high output power. This study may provide a revolutionary technology for the epitaxial growth of AlN films and provide opportunities for scalable applications of graphene films.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 30(4): 045604, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485254

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate the growth of horizontal GaN nanowires (NWs) on silicon (111) by a surface-directed vapor-liquid-solid growth. The influence of the Au/Ni catalysts migration and coalescence on the growth of the NWs has been systematically studied. 2D root-like branched NWs were gown spontaneously through catalyst migration. Furthermore, a novel phenomenon that a catalyst particle is embedded in a horizontal NW was observed and attributed the destruction of growth steady state due to the catalysts coalescence. The transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence measurement demonstrated that the horizontal NWs exhibit single crystalline structures and good optical properties. Our work sheds light on the horizontal NWs growth and should facilitate the development of highly integrated III-V nanodevices on silicon.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518146

RESUMO

Van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) has drawn continuous attention, as it is unlimited by lattice-mismatch between epitaxial layers and substrates. Previous reports on the vdWE of III-nitride thin film were mainly based on two-dimensional (2D) materials by plasma pretreatment or pre-doping of other hexagonal materials. However, it is still a huge challenge for single-crystalline thin film on 2D materials without any other extra treatment or interlayer. Here, we grew high-quality single-crystalline AlN thin film on sapphire substrate with an intrinsic WS2 overlayer (WS2/sapphire) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, which had surface roughness and defect density similar to that grown on conventional sapphire substrates. Moreover, an AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diode structure on WS2/sapphire was demonstrated. The electroluminescence (EL) performance exhibited strong emissions with a single peak at 283 nm. The wavelength of the single peak only showed a faint peak-position shift with increasing current to 80 mA, which further indicated the high quality and low stress of the AlN thin film. This work provides a promising solution for further deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting electrodes (LEDs) development on 2D materials, as well as other unconventional substrates.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486245

RESUMO

High density of defects and stress owing to the lattice and thermal mismatch between nitride materials and heterogeneous substrates have always been important problems and limit the development of nitride materials. In this paper, AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown directly on a single-layer graphene-covered Si (111) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without a metal catalyst. The nanorods was nucleated by AlGaN nucleation islands with a 35% Al composition, and included n-AlGaN, 6 period of AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and p-AlGaN. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) showed that the nanorods were vertically aligned and had an accordant orientation along the [0001] direction. The structure of AlGaN nanorod LEDs was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Raman measurements of graphene before and after MOCVD growth revealed the graphene could withstand the high temperature and ammonia atmosphere in MOCVD. Photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterized an emission at ~325 nm and demonstrated the low defects density in AlGaN nanorod LEDs.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(38): 11935-11941, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175921

RESUMO

We study the roles of graphene acting as a buffer layer for growth of an AlN film on a sapphire substrate. Graphene can reduce the density of AlN nuclei but increase the growth rate for an individual nucleus at the initial growth stage. This can lead to the reduction of threading dislocations evolved at the coalescence boundaries. The graphene interlayer also weakens the interaction between AlN and sapphire and accommodates their large mismatch in the lattice and thermal expansion coefficients; thus, the compressive strain in AlN and the tensile strain in sapphire are largely relaxed. The effective relaxation of strain further leads to a low density of defects in the AlN films. These findings reveal the roles of graphene in III-nitride growth and offer valuable insights into the efficient applications of graphene in the light-emitting diode industry.

9.
Opt Lett ; 43(18): 4366-4369, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211865

RESUMO

Chip-scale mode-locked dissipative Kerr solitons have been realized on various materials platforms, making it possible to achieve a miniature, highly coherent frequency comb source with high repetition rates. Aluminum nitride (AlN), an appealing nonlinear optical material having both Kerr (χ3), and Pockels (χ2) effects, has immerse potential for comb self-referencing without the need for external harmonic generators. However, cavity soliton states have not yet been achieved in AlN microresonators. Here, we demonstrate mode-locked Kerr cavity soliton generation in a crystalline AlN microring resonator. By utilizing ultrafast tuning of the pump frequency through single-sideband modulation, in combination with an optimized wavelength scan and pump power-ramp patterns, we can deterministically elongate a ∼400 ns short-lived soliton to a time span as long as we wish to hold it.

10.
Adv Mater ; 30(30): e1801608, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883036

RESUMO

Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and Inx Ga1-x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs.

11.
Nanoscale ; 10(13): 5888-5896, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521388

RESUMO

Recently, horizontal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention due to their increased compatibility with NW-based integrated nanoelectronic and nanophotonic systems. However, it still remains challenging to synthesize horizontal NWs efficiently. Here we introduce a novel method towards controllable growth of horizontal GaN NWs using HVPE with an Au/Ni thin film as the catalyst. By simply flipping the substrate, horizontal GaN NWs with various growth directions and cross sections have been obtained on a sapphire substrate with various facet orientations. Benefiting from the high decomposition frequency of GaCl precursors, the growth rate for the horizontal NWs is as fast as 400 µ h-1. Our results show that the facing orientation of the loaded substrate affects the flow of the local precursor, which determines the growth mode of the GaN NWs, i.e., no matter whether the substrate is facing downward or upwards. Photoluminescence measurements of the horizontal NWs show a finite blue shift of the band edge-related emission. It indicates the presence of compressed stress and is confirmed by the geometrical phase analysis (GPA) further. Our work opens up a new route and sheds light on the horizontal GaN NWs and will advance the development of horizontal NW-based nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices and systems.

12.
Opt Express ; 25(19): 23267-23274, 2017 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041627

RESUMO

A demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm and light output power of 190 µW, at 7 V, with a special silica gel lens on top of it. A -3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment. 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing directions of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link. The measured bit-error rate (BER) of 2.8 ×10-4 and 2.4 ×10-4, respectively, are well below the forward error correction (FEC) criterion of 3.8 ×10-3. The demonstrated high data-rate OFDM-based UVB communication link paves the way for realizing high-speed non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications.

13.
Opt Express ; 25(2): 587-594, 2017 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157948

RESUMO

We demonstrate aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire as a novel platform for integrated optics. High-confinement AlN microring resonators are realized by adopting a partially etched (pedestal) waveguide to relax the required etching selectivity for exact pattern transfer. A wide taper is employed at the chip end facets to ensure a low fiber-to-chip coupling loss of ~2.8 dB/facet for both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes. Furthermore, the intrinsic quality factors (Qint) recorded with a high-resolution linewidth measurement are up to ~2.5 and 1.9 million at telecom band for fundamental TE00 and TM00 modes, corresponding to a low intracavity propagation loss of ~0.14 and 0.2 dB/cm as well as high resonant buildup of 473 and 327, respectively. Such high-Q AlN-on-sapphire microresonators are believed to be very promising for on-chip nonlinear optics.

14.
Opt Lett ; 41(15): 3599-602, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472628

RESUMO

An all-optically tunable microwave photonic phase shifter is demonstrated based on an epitaxial aluminum nitride (AlN) microring with an intrinsic quality factor of 3.2×106. The microring adopts a pedestal structure, which allows overcoupling with 700 nm gap size and facilitates the fabrication process. A phase shift for broadband signals from 4 to 25 GHz is demonstrated by employing the thermo-optic effect and the separate carrier tuning technique. A phase tuning range of 0°-332° is recorded with a 3 dB radio frequency (RF) power variation and 48 mW optical power consumption. In addition, AlN exhibits intrinsic second-order optical nonlinearity. Thus, our work presents a novel platform with a low propagation loss and the capability of electro-optic modulation for applications in integrated microwave photonics.

15.
ACS Photonics ; 3(4): 597-603, 2016 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27331079

RESUMO

We report the first demonstration of flexible white phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on p-n junction core/shell nitride nanowires. GaN nanowires containing seven radial In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on a sapphire substrate by a catalyst-free approach. To fabricate the flexible LED, the nanowires are embedded into a phosphor-doped polymer matrix, peeled off from the growth substrate, and contacted using a flexible and transparent silver nanowire mesh. The electroluminescence of a flexible device presents a cool-white color with a spectral distribution covering a broad spectral range from 400 to 700 nm. Mechanical bending stress down to a curvature radius of 5 mm does not yield any degradation of the LED performance. The maximal measured external quantum efficiency of the white LED is 9.3%, and the wall plug efficiency is 2.4%.

16.
Nanoscale ; 8(21): 11012-8, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174102

RESUMO

We demonstrated for the first time the formation and study of semi-polar AlGaN multiple-quantum-wells (MQWs) grown on highly regular hexagonal AlN nanopyramids. The AlN nanopyramids were obtained by a metal-organic chemical vapor phase deposition regrowth method on a well-ordered AlN nanorod array prepared by a top-down etching process. The growth mechanism of the AlN nanopyramids was ascribed to the slow growth of the (101[combining macron]1) semi-polar plane, which resulted from hydrogen passivation. Beneath the semi-polar facets, air voids were formed. This was attributed to the insufficient delivery of gas reactants to the bottom of the nanorods during the growth process. The polarization effect in semi-polar AlGaN MQWs was numerically calculated. The results showed that the internal electric field (IEF) in the semi-polar MQWs was remarkably reduced by 80% in comparison with c-plane MQWs. Power dependent photoluminescence indicated that the semi-polar AlGaN MQWs had negligible wavelength shifts that resulted from the reduced IEF, which was in accordance with theoretical predictions. In addition, epitaxial strain was greatly relieved in the AlN regrowth layer, which was revealed from the peak shift of the E2(high) phonon using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The advantages of AlGaN-based hexagonal nanopyramid semi-polar three dimensional nanostructures would lead to a large improvement of output power in UV-LEDs.

17.
Opt Express ; 23(9): 11334-40, 2015 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25969228

RESUMO

We demonstrated stimulated emission at 288 nm from a silicon-doped AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) ultraviolet (UV) laser grown on sapphire. The optical pumping threshold energy density of the UV laser was 64 mJ/cm2, while lasing behavior was not observed in undoped AlGaN MQWs. This means silicon doping could effectively reduce the lasing threshold of UV lasers, and the mechanism was studied showing that the silicon-doped AlGaN MQWs had a 41% higher internal quantum efficiency (IQE) compared with the undoped one. The transmission electron microscopy characterization showed that silicon doping explicitly improved the crystallographic quality of MQWs. Calculation of the polarization charge in the MQWs further revealed that the advantage of better structure quality outweighed the reduction of internal polarization field by Si doping for the IQE enhancement and successful stimulated emission.

18.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 2: A320-7, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922241

RESUMO

Nanopillar AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and dry-etching. The optical properties of the nanopillar LEDs were characterized by both temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Compared to an as-grown sample, the nanopillar sample has a PL emission peak blue-shift of 7 meV, a 42% enhanced internal quantum efficiency at room temperature and a reduced radiative recombination lifetime from 870 picosecond to 621 picosecond at 7K. These results are directly from the suppressed quantum confined stark effect that is due to the strain relaxation in the nanopillar MQWs, further revealed by micro-Raman measurement. Additionally, finite-difference time domain simulation also proves better light extraction efficiency in the nanopillar LEDs.

19.
Opt Express ; 22(5): A320-7, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24800288

RESUMO

Nanopillar AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and dry-etching. The optical properties of the nanopillar LEDs were characterized by both temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Compared to an as-grown sample, the nanopillar sample has a PL emission peak blue-shift of 7 meV, a 42% enhanced internal quantum efficiency at room temperature and a reduced radiative recombination lifetime from 870 picosecond to 621 picosecond at 7K. These results are directly from the suppressed quantum confined stark effect that is due to the strain relaxation in the nanopillar MQWs, further revealed by micro-Raman measurement. Additionally, finite-difference time domain simulation also proves better light extraction efficiency in the nanopillar LEDs.

20.
Opt Express ; 21(21): 24497-503, 2013 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24150295

RESUMO

The exciton localization in wurtzite AlxGa1-xN alloys with x varying from 0.41 to 0.63 has been studied by deep-ultraviolet photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and picosecond time-resolved PL spectroscopy. Obvious S-shape temperature dependence was observed indicating that the strong exciton localization can be formed in high Al composition AlxGa1-xN alloys. It was also found that the Al composition dependence of exciton localization energy of AlGaN alloys is inconsistent with that of the excitonic linewidth. We contribute the inconsistency to the strong zero-dimensional exciton localization.

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