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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(42): 11863-11874, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030895

RESUMO

Fruit and leaf possess distinctly different metabolites. Here, metabolites and transcriptome were compared between mature leaves (ML) and juice sacs (JS) of Citrus grandis "Hirado Buntan" to investigate the possible reasons. Results indicated that the remarkable difference in starch, total flavonoids and carotenoids, l-ascorbate, and jasmonic acid between ML and JS was tightly related to the expression levels of their biosynthesis-related genes, while the significant difference in abscisic acid and citrate was mainly related to the gene expression level(s) of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and proton pump genes, respectively. In addition, ATP citrate lyase probably plays a key role in the levels of flavonoids between ML and JS via providing different levels of acetyl-CoA. Taken together, these results identified some key candidate genes responsible for the content of a given metabolite and will contribute to research in regulating such metabolite content in citrus fruits.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17518, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060737

RESUMO

Recently, paradoxical combinations of colistin with anti-Gram-positive bacterial agents were introduced as a treatment alternative for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) infection. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of the colistin-linezolid combination regimen in vitro and in a murine model of Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia. A multidrug-resistant clinical strain (MDRAB31) and an extensively drug-resistant clinical strain (XDRAB78) were used in this study. The survival rates of mice and bacterial counts in lung tissue were used to assess the effects of colistin-linezolid combination. The survival rates of colistin-linezolid combination groups significantly increased compared with colistin groups for MDRAB31 (72% versus 32%, P = 0.03) and for XDRAB78 (92% versus 68%, P = 0.031). The colistin-linezolid combination groups significantly reduced the bacterial counts in lung tissue compared with colistin groups for MDRAB31 and for XDRAB78 (P < 0.05). The colistin-linezolid combination had a bactericidal and synergistic effect compared with colistin alone in time-kill assay and in murine model of pneumonia. Our data demonstrated the synergistic effect of colistin-linezolid combination regimen as a treatment alternative for the severe pulmonary infection caused by MDRAB and XDRAB.

3.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084546

RESUMO

The increasing need for turfgrass seeds is coupled with the high risk of dangerous microbial pathogens being transmitted through the domestic and international trade of seeds. Concerns continue to be raised about seed safety and quality. Here, we show that the next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA represents an effective and reliable tactic to monitor the microbial communities within turfgrass seeds. A comparison of DNA sequence data with reference databases revealed the presence of 26 different fungal orders. Among them, serious plant disease pathogens such as Bipolaris sorokiniana, Boeremia exigua, Claviceps purpurea, and Rhizoctonia zeae were detected. Seedborne bacteria, including Erwinia persicina and Acidovorax avenae, were identified from different bacterial orders. Our study indicated that the traditional culturing method and the NGS approach are complementary to each other for pathogen identification. The reliability of culturing and NGS methods was further validated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. The combination of these different techniques ensures maximum sensitivity and specificity for turfgrass seed pathogen testing assay.

4.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 824-838, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the impact of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) on breast cancer treatment decisions and adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCCN) guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted involving 1,977 patients at high risk for recurrent or metastatic breast cancer from the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology. Ten oncologists provided blinded treatment recommendations for an average of 198 patients before and after viewing therapeutic options offered by the CDSS. Univariable and bivariable analyses of treatment changes were performed, and multivariable logistic regressions were estimated to examine the effects of physician experience (years), patient age, and receptor subtype/TNM stage. RESULTS: Treatment decisions changed in 105 (5%) of 1,977 patients and were concentrated in those with hormone receptor (HR)-positive disease or stage IV disease in the first-line therapy setting (73% and 58%, respectively). Logistic regressions showed that decision changes were more likely in those with HR-positive cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.58; P < .05) and less likely in those with stage IIA (OR, 0.29; P < .05) or IIIA cancer (OR, 0.08; P < .01). Reasons cited for changes included consideration of the CDSS therapeutic options (63% of patients), patient factors highlighted by the tool (23%), and the decision logic of the tool (13%). Patient age and oncologist experience were not associated with decision changes. Adherence to NCCN treatment guidelines increased slightly after using the CDSS (0.5%; P = .003). CONCLUSION: Use of an artificial intelligence-based CDSS had a significant impact on treatment decisions and NCCN guideline adherence in HR-positive breast cancers. Although cases of stage IV disease in the first-line therapy setting were also more likely to be changed, the effect was not statistically significant (P = .22). Additional research on decision impact, patient-physician communication, learning, and clinical outcomes is needed to establish the overall value of the technology.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965677

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had led to a serious public health crisis, and no specific treatments or vaccines are available yet. A nucleocapsid protein (NP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection method is not only important in disease diagnosis, but is required for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy during the development of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In this study, we expressed both the NP and N-terminally truncated NP (ΔN-NP) of SARS-CoV-2 in an Escherichia coli expression system and described the purification of the soluble recombinant NP and ΔN-NP in details. The identities of the NP and ΔN-NP were confirmed with mass spectrometry. We then used immunoglobulin G detection ELISAs to compare the sensitivity of NP and ΔN-NP in detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. ΔN-NP showed greater sensitivity than NP in the analysis of serially diluted sera from mice and rabbits vaccinated with inactive SARS-CoV-2 and in human sera diluted 1:400. ΔN-NP showed a positive detection rate similar to that of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein in human sera. We conclude that ΔN-NP is a better serological marker than NP for evaluating the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2.

6.
J Comp Neurol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965038

RESUMO

Chronic stress can induce cognitive impairment, and synapse number was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of rats suffering from chronic stress. Lingo-1 is a potent negative regulator of axonal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. In the current study, the effects of anti-Lingo-1 antibody on the spatial learning and memory abilities and hippocampal synapses of stressed rats were investigated. After 4 weeks of stress exposure, the model group was randomly divided into a chronic stress group and an anti-Lingo-1 group. Then, the anti-Lingo-1 group rats were treated with anti-Lingo-1 antibody (8 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. The effects of anti-Lingo-1 antibody on the spatial learning and memory abilities were investigated with the Morris water maze test. Immunohistological staining and an unbiased stereological method were used to estimate the total number of dendritic spine synapses in the hippocampus. At the behavioral level, after 3 weeks of treatment, the anti-Lingo-1 group rats displayed significantly more platform location crossings in the Morris water maze test than the chronic stress group rats. Anti-Lingo-1 significantly prevented the declines in dendritic spine synapses and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) expression in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. The present results indicated that anti-Lingo-1 antibody may be a safe and effective drug for alleviating memory impairment in rats after chronic stress and protecting synapses in the hippocampus of stressed rats.

7.
Chin Med Sci J ; 35(3): 226-238, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972500

RESUMO

Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on diabetic patients with coronary heart diseases.Methods We conducted a comprehensive electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases between the inception dates of databases and May 2019 (last search conducted on 30 May 2019) to identify randomized controlled trials. The evaluation method recommended by Cochrane Collaboration for bias risk assessment was employed for quality assessment. Random or fixed models were used to investigate pooled mean differences in left ventricular function, serum glucose metabolism, serum lipid profile, myocardial ischemia episodes and exercise tolerance with effect size indicated by the 95% confidence interval (CI).Results Additional TMZ treatment contributed to considerable improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (WMD=4.39, 95%CI: 3.83, 4.95, P<0.00001), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (WMD=-3.17, 95%CI: -4.90, -1.44, P=0.0003) and left ventricular end systolic diameter (WMD=-4.69, 95%CI: -8.66, -0.72, P=0.02). TMZ administration also significantly decreased fasting blood glucose (SMD=-0.43, 95%CI: -0.70, -0.17, P=0.001), glycosylated hemoglobin level (WMD=-0.59, 95%CI: -0.95, -0.24, P=0.001), serum level of total cholesterol (WMD=-20.36, 95%CI: -39.80, -0.92, P=0.04), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD=-20.12, 95%CI: -32.95, -7.30, P=0.002) and incidence of myocardial ischemia episodes (SMD=-0.84, 95%CI: -1.50, -0.18, P=0.01). However, there were no significant differences in serum triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, exercise tolerance between the TMZ group and the control group. Conclusion TMZ treatment in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease is effective to improve cardiac function, serum glucose and lipid metabolism and clinical symptoms.

8.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 32(4): 497-507, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963462

RESUMO

Objective: Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy through subcutaneous port is an effective treatment for gastric cancer (GC) patients with peritoneal metastasis (PM). The objective of this study is to assess the port complications and risk factors for complications in GC patients with PM. Methods: In retrospective screening of 301 patients with subcutaneous ports implantation, 249 GC patients with PM who received IP chemotherapy were screened out for analysis. Port complications and risk factors for complications were analyzed. Results: Of the 249 analyzed patients, 57 (22.9%) experienced port complications. Subcutaneous liquid accumulation (42.1%) and infection (28.1%) were the main complications, and other complications included port rotation (14.1%), wound dehiscence (12.3%), inflow obstruction (1.7%) and subcutaneous metastasis (1.7%). The median interval between port implantation and occurrence of complications was 3.0 months. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status [odds ratio (OR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.12-2.69], albumin (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.96-6.86), implantation procedure optimization (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.61) and implantation groups (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.20-0.69) were independent risk factors for port complications (P<0.05). ECOG performance status was the only factor that related to the grades of port complications (P=0.016). Conclusions: Port complications in GC patients who received IP chemotherapy are manageable. ECOG performance status, albumin, implantation procedure and implantation group are independent risk factors for port complications in GC patients with PM.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4382, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873802

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a deoxynivalenol (DON) producer. In this study, OSP24 is identified as an important virulence factor in systematic characterization of the 50 orphan secreted protein (OSP) genes of F. graminearum. Although dispensable for growth and initial penetration, OSP24 is important for infectious growth in wheat rachis tissues. OSP24 is specifically expressed during pathogenesis and its transient expression suppresses BAX- or INF1-induced cell death. Osp24 is translocated into plant cells and two of its 8 cysteine-residues are required for its function. Wheat SNF1-related kinase TaSnRK1α is identified as an Osp24-interacting protein and shows to be important for FHB resistance in TaSnRK1α-overexpressing or silencing transgenic plants. Osp24 accelerates the degradation of TaSnRK1α by facilitating its association with the ubiquitin-26S proteasome. Interestingly, TaSnRK1α also interacts with TaFROG, an orphan wheat protein induced by DON. TaFROG competes against Osp24 for binding with the same region of TaSnRKα and protects it from degradation. Overexpression of TaFROG stabilizes TaSnRK1α and increases FHB resistance. Taken together, Osp24 functions as a cytoplasmic effector by competing against TaFROG for binding with TaSnRK1α, demonstrating the counteracting roles of orphan proteins of both host and fungal pathogens during their interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium/imunologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/imunologia , Proteólise , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/imunologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958258

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main conditional pathogen of immunodeficiency individuals. The mechanisms governing immune response to P. aeruginosa infection by macrophages remain incompletely defined. Herein, we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is a critical negative regulator of P. aeruginosa infection response by macrophages. PTP1B-deficient macrophages display greatly enhanced bacterial phagocytosis and killing, accompanied by increased lysosome formation during P. aeruginosa infection. We also found that PTP1B repressed nitric oxide (NO) production and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction following P. aeruginosa infection. PTP1B deficiency tended to upregulate the production of TRIF-interferon (IFN) pathway cytokines and chemokines, including IFN-ß and interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10, IP-10). Unexpectedly, the phosphorylation level of STAT1 was not regulated by PTP1B. In vivo experiments also confirmed that the regulatory function of PTP1B was not dependent on STAT1. These findings demonstrate that STAT1 is dispensable for negative regulation of P. aeruginosa clearance by macrophages.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1991 AF patients were enrolled and divided into two groups according to whether they have DM at recruitment. Baseline information was collected and a mean follow-up of 1 year was carried out. The primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality with the secondary outcomes including cardiovascular mortality, stroke and major adverse events (MAEs). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression were performed to estimate the association between BMI and 1-year outcomes in AF patients with and without DM. 309 patients with AF (15.5%) had comorbid DM at baseline. Patients with DM were more likely to have cardiovascular comorbidities, receive relevant medications but carry worse 1-year outcomes. Multivariable Cox regressions indicated that elevated BMI was related with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and major adverse events. Compared to normal weight, overweight [HR (95% CI): 0.548 (0.405-0.741), p < 0.001] and obesity [HR (95% CI): 0.541 (0.326-0.898), p = 0.018] were significantly related with decreased all-cause mortality for the entire cohort. Remarkably reduced all-cause mortality in the overweight [HR (95% CI): 0.497 (0.347-0.711), p < 0.001] and obesity groups [HR (95% CI): 0.405 (0.205-0.800), p = 0.009] could also be detected in AF patients without DM, but not in those with DM. CONCLUSION: Elevated BMI was associated with reduced mortality in patients with AF. This association was modified by DM. The obesity paradox confined to AF patients without DM, but could not be generalized to those with DM.

12.
Cell Res ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901110

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancy with a complex tumor ecosystem. How the interplay between tumor cells, EBV, and the microenvironment contributes to NPC progression and immune evasion remains unclear. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on ~104,000 cells from 19 EBV+ NPCs and 7 nonmalignant nasopharyngeal biopsies, simultaneously profiling the transcriptomes of malignant cells, EBV, stromal and immune cells. Overall, we identified global upregulation of interferon responses in the multicellular ecosystem of NPC. Notably, an epithelial-immune dual feature of malignant cells was discovered and associated with poor prognosis. Functional experiments revealed that tumor cells with this dual feature exhibited a higher capacity for tumorigenesis. Further characterization of the cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and their interactions with tumor cells revealed that the dual feature of tumor cells was positively correlated with the expression of co-inhibitory receptors on CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T cells. In addition, tumor cells with the dual feature were found to repress IFN-γ production by T cells, demonstrating their capacity for immune suppression. Our results provide new insights into the multicellular ecosystem of NPC and offer important clinical implications.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(74): 10946-10949, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940285

RESUMO

1,2-Dihydro-1,3,5-triazines and symmetrical 1,3,5-triazines were obtained in up to 81% yields from amidines and N,N-dimethylethanolamine catalyzed by CuCl2. The reaction involves three C-N bond formations during the oxidative annulation process and the mechanism was proposed. This efficient synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1,3,5-triazines was developed for the first time.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865402

RESUMO

We present an unprecedented copper(II)-assisted organic ligand fragmentation process under basic conditions leading to several ligands within three families of metallamacrocycle, Cu6, Cu8, and Cu16. The sequential multistep reaction include (i) the deprotonation of the starting alcohol, 1,2-bis(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)ethane-1,2-diol (H2bdped) to its diolate bdped followed by complexation through six bonds (µ6) to three copper atoms in a ring, (ii) the breaking of the ethane-pyrazole C-N bonds by the different solvent alcohols to form 1-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methoxyethane-1,2-diolate (dpmed) or 2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-hydroxyacetate (dpet), while retaining coordination to the copper centers and (iii) the final step to ethane-1,1,2,2-tetraolate, C2H2O44- (et). Importantly, the latter product, only observed on two previous occasions, occupies the core of Cu6 and Cu16 through exceptionally eight coordination bonds (µ8). Its alkyl esters, 2-alkoxyethane-1,1,2-triolate (met, eet, and pet), also occupy the central parts of Cu8 but forming six bonds (µ6) instead. The other product, 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate (dp), acts as peripheral bridges (µ2) but it is not involved in coordination if the starting salt is copper acetate, this may be a consequence of acetate being a better µ2-chelating ligand. In the presence of an oxidizing agent, K2Cr2O7, C2H2O44- (et) is oxidized to oxalate, C2O42- (ox). Thus, an additional µ3-hydroxide and µ4-oxalate in Cu16 widen the complexity of the structures, not to mention the range of coordination geometries of the copper centers, though in the present cases they can be classed in only two types: distorted square-planar and square-pyramid. In addition to single-crystal crystallography, the results from different techniques such as IR, ESI-MS, optical UV-vis, and SQUID magnetometry help in the characterization of these rare metallamacrocycles made from unexpected and in situ generated ligands. We believe the results of the organic transformations are highly relevant to von Liebig's benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement.

15.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 220, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and hypoxaemia are associated with morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of lung ultrasound (LUS) to diagnose PPCs in patients suffering from hypoxaemia after general anaesthesia and compare the results to those of thoracic computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Adult patients who received general anaesthesia and suffered from hypoxaemia in the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) were analysed. Hypoxaemia was defined as an oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SPO2) less than 92% for more than 30 s under ambient air conditions. LUS was performed by two trained anaesthesiologists once hypoxaemia occurred. After LUS examination, each patient was transported to the radiology department for thoracic CT scan within 1 h before returning to the ward. RESULTS: From January 2019 to May 2019, 113 patients (61 men) undergoing abdominal surgery (45 patients, 39.8%), video-assisted thoracic surgery (31 patients, 27.4%), major orthopaedic surgery (17 patients, 15.0%), neurosurgery (10 patients, 8.8%) or other surgery (10 patients, 8.8%) were included. CT diagnosed 327 of 1356 lung zones as atelectasis, while LUS revealed atelectasis in 311 of the CT-confirmed zones. Pneumothorax was detected by CT scan in 75 quadrants, 72 of which were detected by LUS. Pleural effusion was diagnosed in 144 zones on CT scan, and LUS detected 131 of these zones. LUS was reliable in diagnosing atelectasis (sensitivity 98.0%, specificity 96.7% and diagnostic accuracy 97.2%), pneumothorax (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 98.9% and diagnostic accuracy 96.7%) and pleural effusion (sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 96.0% and diagnostic accuracy 95.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasound is feasible, efficient and accurate in diagnosing different aetiologies of postoperative hypoxia in healthy-weight patients in the PACU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NCT03802175 , 2018/12/05, www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

16.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895785

RESUMO

Alcohol use-associated disorders are highly comorbid with anxiety disorders; however, their mechanism remains unknown. The amygdala plays a central role in anxiety. We recently found that 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) significantly reduces withdrawal symptoms in a rat model of chronic intermittent alcohol (ethanol) exposure. This study aimed to determine the role of 7,8-DHF in regulating anxiety induced by chronic alcohol exposure and its associated underlying mechanism. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol for 3 weeks followed by alcohol withdrawal for 12 h with or without 7,8-DHF administered intraperitoneally. All mice were tested using an open field test and elevated plus maze to assess anxiety-like behaviors. Synaptic activity and intrinsic excitability in basal and lateral amygdala (BLA) neurons were assessed using electrophysiological recordings. 7,8-DHF alleviated alcohol-induced anxiety-like behavior and attenuated alcohol-induced enhancement of activities in BLA pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, 7,8-DHF prevented alcohol withdrawal-evoked augmentation of glutamatergic transmission in the amygdala and had no effect on GABAergic transmission in the amygdala, as demonstrated by unaltered frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Microinjection of K252a, a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) antagonist, into the BLA blocked the effects of 7,8-DHF on anxiety-like behavior and neuronal activity in the BLA. Our findings suggest that 7,8-DHF alleviates alcohol-induced anxiety-like behavior induced by chronic alcohol exposure through regulation of glutamate transmission involving TrKB in the BLA.

17.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(4): 487-499, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985163

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-related neurodegenerative disease and is associated with the accumulation of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides in patient brains. AD can be classified into the familial type and sporadic type. Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the major risk gene for familial AD (fAD) because its mutations comprised over 80%of the total mutations causing fAD. PS1 is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme γ-secretase, which is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to produce Aß. Although novel fAD-causing mutations in PS1 are being reported increasingly, the molecular mechanisms underlying how these mutations induce fAD remain elusive. Since over 90%of the fAD-causing mutations in PS1 leads to a reduction of γ-secretase activity, the PS1 loss-of-function mutation hypothesis has been emerged, which suggests that the loss of PS1 functions may be the root cause of AD. Recently, increasing number of evidence supports this hypothesis. First, PS1 loss-of-function mutations increase the production of long-length Aß by disturbing the cleavage sites of γ-secretase APP, thereby increasing the ratio of Aß42/Aß40; Second, PS1 loss-of-function mutations dysregulate endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in neurons; Third, PS1 loss-of-function mutations inhibit the autophagy activity of neurons, resulting in the abnormal accumulation of cleaved products from APP; Fourth, PS1 loss-of-function mutations alter the endocytosis and transcytosis processes in neurons, leading to neuratrophy; Fifth, PS1 loss-of-function mutations activate brain immune cells (astrocytes and microglia), which mount a strong neuroinflammation response; Last, PS1 loss-of-function mutations reduce the rates of glycolysis and the production of lactic acid, disrupting the balance of neuronal energy supply. In this article we summary the research progress on the PS1 loss-of-function hypothesis and pose several topics which would guide studies of this field in future.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Mutação , Presenilina-1 , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Humanos , Presenilina-1/genética
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between April 2015 and June 2016, a 15-month stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial was conducted in 116 villages in Myanmar (stepped monthly in blocks) to test the effectiveness of 12% N,N-diethylbenzamide w/w cream distributed by VHVs, on Plasmodium spp. infection. The median age of participants was 18 years, approximately half were female, and the majority were either village residents (46%) or forest dwellers (40%). No adverse events were reported during the study. Generalised linear mixed modelling estimated the effect of repellent on infection detected by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (primary outcome) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (secondary outcome). Overall Plasmodium infection detected by RDT was low (0.16%; 50/32,194), but infection detected by PCR was higher (3%; 419/13,157). There was no significant protection against RDT-detectable infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.25, 95% CI 0.004-15.2, p = 0.512). In Plasmodium-species-specific analyses, repellent protected against PCR-detectable P. falciparum (adjusted relative risk ratio [ARRR] = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95, p = 0.026), but not P. vivax infection (ARRR = 1.41, 95% CI 0.80-2.47, p = 0.233). Repellent effects were similar when delayed effects were modelled, across risk groups, and regardless of village-level and temporal heterogeneity in malaria prevalence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$256 per PCR-detectable infection averted. Study limitations were a lower than expected Plasmodium spp. infection rate and potential geographic dilution of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed apparent protection against new infections associated with the large-scale distribution of repellent by VHVs. Incorporation of repellent into national strategies, particularly in areas where bed nets are less effective, may contribute to the interruption of malaria transmission. Further studies are warranted across different transmission settings and populations, from the GMS and beyond, to inform WHO public health policy on the deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616001434482).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Voluntários , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/economia , Malária Falciparum/economia , Malária Vivax/economia , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Postgrad Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A questionnaire which provides desirable reliability and validity has been previously developed to assess the disease awareness of diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, conventional paper questionnaires often have disadvantages, including recall bias. To substantially improve this, we therefore aimed to explore the feasibility of developing a smartphone-based electronic version (e-version) based upon its original paper version and subsequently tested its validity, reliability, and applicability. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted at Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine in Guangzhou, China, during August 2019. The e-version had identical content to the paper version and was adapted in terms of layout and assisted functions via the Wechat-incorporated Wen-Juan-Xing platform. Eligible patients with diagnosed CKD were invited to participate and were assigned the e-version. Randomly selected respondents received a test-retest of the same e-version 2 weeks after their first completion. In some instances, psychometric properties, including validity and reliability of the e-version, were examined. In others, its clinical application was also tested, which included comparisons among the clinical profiles of patients who had/had not responded to the questionnaire as well as patients with above or below average questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Of the 225 patients screened, 217 were enrolled to participate, with a response rate of 52.5%. Desirable reliability (Cronbachα = 0.962, ICC for total scores = 0.948), while good convergent validity (Cronbachα = 0.962) and low discriminant validity (one extracted component), of the e-version were detected. Performing inter-group comparisons highlighted statistical differences in terms of higher education level (z = -2.436, P = 0.015) and earlier CKD stages (z = -1.978, P = 0.048), with these patients often preferring to respond. No significant differences were detected in the clinical profiles between respondents who obtained an above or below average questionnaire score. CONCLUSION: The e-version is reliable but was not shown to be a valid approach. Audiences with higher education levels and less advanced disease condition may prefer to respond to the e-version. Adaptation of this e-questionnaire, from its original paper version, may not be a direct transition and meticulous modifications may be required during the transition process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900024633).

20.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 25(5): e12774, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between mortality and the primary diagnosis in AF patients is poorly recognized. The purpose of the study is to compare the differences on mortality in patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF and to identify risk factors amenable to treatment. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study using data from the Chinese AF registry. For admitted patients, a follow-up was completed to obtain the outcomes during 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 2015 patients with confirmed AF were included. AF was the primary diagnosis in 40.9% (n = 825) of them. 78.9% (n = 939) of the secondary AF diagnosis patients and 55.5% (n = 458) of the primary AF diagnosis patients were sustained AF. Compared with primary AF diagnosis group, the secondary AF diagnosis group was older with more comorbidities. At 1 year, the unadjusted mortality was much higher in the secondary AF diagnosis groups compared with the primary AF diagnosis groups. In Cox regression analysis with adjustment for confounding factors, patients with secondary AF diagnosis were associated with an increased mortality (relative risk 1.723; 95% CI: 1.283 to 2.315, p < .001). On multivariate analysis, age ≥ 75, LVSD, COPD, and diabetes were independent predictors of mortality in patients with primary AF diagnosis, while for the secondary AF diagnosis group, the risk factors were age ≥ 75, heart failure, and previous history of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting to ED with secondary diagnosis of AF were suffering from higher mortality risks compared with primary AF diagnosis patients. Physicians should distinguish these two groups in clinical practice.

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