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1.
J Card Surg ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the safety and efficacy of total thoracoscopic repair of ventricular septal defects (VSD). We compared clinical outcomes of VSD via a total thoracoscopic approach with those of mini-sternotomy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from patients with VSD from 2012 to January 2019. According to the surgical pattern, they were divided into two groups: the total thoracoscopic surgery group (36 patients, 27 females, aged 29 ± 9.52 years), and a mini-sternotomy group (31 patients, 12 females, aged 28 ± 8.67 years). RESULTS: There were no deaths in either group. In the thoracoscopic group, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and aortic cross-clamping (ACC) time were significantly longer than those of the mini-sternotomy group (CPB time: 112 ± 23.16 min vs. 78 ± 37.90 min, respectively, p < .001; ACC time: 65 ± 19.94 min vs. 50 ± 24.90 min, respectively, p < .001). postoperative hospital stay time (5.11 ± 2.48 days vs. 5.90 ± 6.27 days, p = .488) and chest drainage (139.86 ± 111.71 ml vs. 196.13 ± 147.34 ml, p = .081) tended to be lower in the thoracoscopy group, although there was no significant difference. No residual shunt or tricuspid regurgitation was found at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Total thoracoscopic repair is safe and effective in patients with VSD, with or without tricuspid regurgitation.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 312, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762574

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that hypoxic responses are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which in turn promote the malignant progression of glioblastoma (GBM) by inhibiting apoptosis and increasing proliferation; these events lead to a poor prognosis of GBM patients. However, there are still no HIF-targeted therapies for the treatment of GBM. We have conducted series of experiments and discovered that GBM cells exhibit features indicative of malignant progression and are present in a hypoxic environment. Knocking out HIF1α or HIF2α alone resulted in no significant change in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in response to acute hypoxia, but cells showed inhibition of stemness expression and chemosensitization to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. However, simultaneously knocking out HIF1α and HIF2α inhibited cell cycle arrest and promoted proliferation with decreased stemness, making GBM cells more sensitive to chemotherapy, which could improve patient prognosis. Thus, HIF1α and HIF2α regulate each other with negative feedback. In addition, HIF1α and HIF2α are upstream regulators of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which controls the malignant development of GBM through the EGFR-PI3K/AKT-mTOR-HIF1α signalling pathway. In brief, the HIF1α/HIF2α-EGF/EGFR-PI3K/AKT-mTOR-HIF1α signalling axis contributes to the growth of GBM through a positive feedback mechanism. Finally, HIF1α and HIF2α regulate Sox2 and Klf4, contributing to stemness expression and inducing cell cycle arrest, thus increasing malignancy in GBM. In summary, HIF1α and HIF2α regulate glioblastoma malignant progression through the EGFR-PI3K/AKT pathway via a positive feedback mechanism under the effects of Sox2 and Klf4, which provides a new tumour development model and strategy for glioblastoma treatment.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1540, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750785

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) harbors a heterogeneous and dynamic stromal population. A comprehensive understanding of this tumor-specific ecosystem is necessary to enhance cancer diagnosis, therapeutics, and prognosis. However, recent advances based on bulk RNA sequencing remain insufficient to construct an in-depth landscape of infiltrating stromal cells in NPC. Here we apply single-cell RNA sequencing to 66,627 cells from 14 patients, integrated with clonotype identification on T and B cells. We identify and characterize five major stromal clusters and 36 distinct subpopulations based on genetic profiling. By comparing with the infiltrating cells in the non-malignant microenvironment, we report highly representative features in the TME, including phenotypic abundance, genetic alternations, immune dynamics, clonal expansion, developmental trajectory, and molecular interactions that profoundly influence patient prognosis and therapeutic outcome. The key findings are further independently validated in two single-cell RNA sequencing cohorts and two bulk RNA-sequencing cohorts. In the present study, we reveal the correlation between NPC-specific characteristics and progression-free survival. Together, these data facilitate the understanding of the stromal landscape and immune dynamics in NPC patients and provides deeper insights into the development of prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the TME.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Linfócitos B , Fibroblastos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células Mieloides , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/imunologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Estromais , Linfócitos T , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1518, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750796

RESUMO

Growing evidences suggest that cancer stem cells exhibit many molecular characteristics and phenotypes similar to their ancestral progenitor cells. In the present study, human embryonic stem cells are induced to differentiate into hepatocytes along hepatic lineages to mimic liver development in vitro. A liver progenitor specific gene, RALY RNA binding protein like (RALYL), is identified. RALYL expression is associated with poor prognosis, poor differentiation, and metastasis in clinical HCC patients. Functional studies reveal that RALYL could promote HCC tumorigenicity, self-renewal, chemoresistance, and metastasis. Moreover, molecular mechanism studies show that RALYL could upregulate TGF-ß2 mRNA stability by decreasing N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification. TGF-ß signaling and the subsequent PI3K/AKT and STAT3 pathways, upregulated by RALYL, contribute to the enhancement of HCC stemness. Collectively, RALYL is a liver progenitor specific gene and regulates HCC stemness by sustaining TGF-ß2 mRNA stability. These findings may inspire precise therapeutic strategies for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo C/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo C/genética , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682054

RESUMO

Plant leaves can accumulate particulate matter (PM) from the air, thus mitigating air pollution. Nine plant species from the central part of Shanxi Province, China, were investigated to characterize differences in their PM retention capacity and the grain sizes of the collected PM. Styphnolobium japonicum, Syringa oblata, and Cerasus serrulata demonstrated strong retention capacity for PM particles of diverse size fractions. Philadelphus incanus, Viburnum opulus, and Yulania biondii had relatively weak retention capacity for overall and fine PM. Generally, species with smaller leaves and roughness surfaces, waxy leaves, or leaves with hair had strong PM retention capacity. Leaves with suitable groove widths better retained fine PM. Foliar dust observed on leaves presented multimodal distribution curves, including bimodal, trimodal, and four-peak distributions, which differed from the trimodal distribution of natural dustfall. The different PM retention capacities of the nine investigated species and the differing grain sizes between foliar dust and atmospheric dustfall indicated that plant leaves could selectively retain PM. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the use of the plant to mitigate particulate air pollution.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111187, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and its comorbidities are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Bupleuri Radix is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine with the prevention and treatment of obesity-related diseases. In this study, we aim to validate the regulation of Bupleuri Radix Extract (BupE) on lipid metabolism in obese mice, and try to find out the potential active components and reveal the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ingredients in BupE, their circulating metabolites in mice and fecal biotransformation products were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA were used for tests of objective genes and proteins. 16 s rRNA sequencing was performed to examine intestinal bacteria composition and microbes' functional changes were predicted with PICRUSt software. An absolute quantification method was set up via the construction of recombinant plasmid for the assays of intestinal flora. Specific microbial strains were cultured in anaerobic conditions and oral administrated to mice for intestinal mono-colonization. RESULTS: BupE attenuated obesity, liver steatosis, and dyslipidemia in HFD-fed mice by up-regulating the expression of FGF21 in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) as well as the downstream proteins of FGF21 signal pathway including ß-klotho, GLUT1 and PGC-1α, etc. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS fingerprints showed no compounds from BupE or their metabolites or biotransformation products were detected in rodent serum samples. High-throughput pyrosequencing data indicated that BupE reversed obesity-induced constructional and functional alterations of intestinal flora. Two bacterial strains, Bacteroides acidifaciens (B. acidifaciens) and Ruminococcus gnavus (R. gnavus), were separated and identified from the feces of obese mice and by intestinal mono-colonization they were verified to intervene in the anti-obesity effects of BupE on mice. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that BupE protects against diet-induced obesity and counteracts metabolic syndrome features consistent with a mechanism involving the gut-liver axis that boosts hepatic FGF21 secretion and consequent down-stream proteins expression relating to lipid metabolism. And in this gut-liver axis, intestinal microbes such as B.acidifaciens and R.gnavus play an indispensable role.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570384

RESUMO

Pillar[n]arene-based supramolecular polymers have attracted great interest because of their tunable morphologies and external stimuli responsiveness. However, most of the investigations of supramolecular polymers previously reported were focused on their formation and transformation, and investigations on their applications are rare. Herein, we designed and prepared hybrid polymeric materials by incorporating Pd nanoparticles into a supramolecular polymer, constructed from a pillar[5]arene dimer and a three-arm guest. The obtained hybrid polymer was fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, and X-ray diffraction technologies. Importantly, the hybrid supramolecular polymeric materials exhibited desirable catalytic activity for reductions of toxic nitroaromatics and C-C bond-forming Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in aqueous solution.

8.
J Artif Organs ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and effective percutaneous approach to create tricuspid regurgitation in swine. METHODS: Eleven pigs (71.68 ± 7.70 kg, 3 male) were involved in this study. A grasping forceps was introduced into the right ventricle through a steerable sheath under fluoroscopic guidance and used to disrupt the tricuspid valve apparatus by avulsing leaflet or chordae tendineae repeatedly. Transthoracic echocardiography and right ventricular angiography were used to evaluate the degree of tricuspid regurgitation created. RESULTS: Ten of the 11 pigs (90.91%) achieved severe tricuspid regurgitation and 1 (9.09%) obtained moderate tricuspid regurgitation immediately after the procedure. Heart rate of the pigs significantly increased immediately after tricuspid regurgitation creation compared to baseline (88.64 ± 23.24 vs. 76.00 ± 15.30 bpm, P = 0.02), but recovered to normal level at one month follow-up (77.09 ± 11.97 bpm, P = 0.85). The right atrium, tricuspid valve annulus, and right ventricle dilated obviously one month after tricuspid regurgitation creation (dimension changes: 3.01 ± 0.35 vs. 3.56 ± 0.40 cm, P = 0.02; 2.92 ± 0.36 vs. 3.37 ± 0.39 cm, P = 0.01; 3.06 ± 0.42 vs. 3.60 ± 0.47 cm, P = 0.03 respectively). Autopsy findings showed that rupture of leaflet and/or chordae tendineae finally led to the tricuspid regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: Severe tricuspid regurgitation can be created by a simple and effective percutaneous approach with a grasping forceps in swine model and right heart dilation can be observed consistently at one-month follow-up. This model will be valuable in pre-clinical studies for developing new tricuspid valve repair or replacement technique to treat severe tricuspid regurgitation.

9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 45, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Regal Splendour' (Hosta variety) is famous for its multi-color leaves, which are useful resources for exploring chloroplast development and color changes. The expressions of chlorophyll biosynthesis-related genes (HrHEMA, HrPOR and HrCAO) in Hosta have been demonstrated to be associated with leaf color. Herein, we isolated, sequenced, and analyzed HrHEMA, HrPOR and HrCAO genes. Subcellular localization was also performed to determine the location of the corresponding enzymes. After plasmid construction, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was carried out to reduce the expressions of those genes. In addition, HrHEMA-, HrPOR- and HrCAO-overexpressing tobacco plants were made to verify the genes function. Changes of transgenic tobacco were recorded under 2000 lx, 6000 lx and 10,000 lx light intensity. Additionally, the contents of enzyme 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), porphobilinogen (PBG), chlorophyll a and b (Chla and Chlb), carotenoid (Cxc), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline (Pro) and catalase (CAT) under different light intensities were evaluated. RESULTS: The silencing of HrHEMA, HrPOR and HrCAO genes can induce leaf yellowing and chloroplast structure changes in Hosta. Specifically, leaves of Hosta with HrCAO silencing were the most affected, while those with HrPOR silencing were the least affected. Moreover, all three genes in tobacco were highly expressed, whereas no expression was detected in wild-type (WT). However, the sensitivities of the three genes to different light intensities were different. The highest expression level of HrHEMA and HrPOR was detected under 10,000 lx of illumination, while HrCAO showed the highest expression level under 6000 lx. Lastly, the 5-ALA, Chla, Cxc, SOD, POD, MDA, Pro and CAT contents in different transgenic tobaccos changed significantly under different light intensities. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of these three genes in tobacco enhanced photosynthesis by accumulating chlorophyll content, but the influential level varied under different light intensities. Furthermore, HrHEMA-, HrPOR- and HrCAO- overexpressing in tobacco can enhance the antioxidant capacity of plants to cope with stress under higher light intensity. However, under lower light intensity, the antioxidant capacity was declined in HrHEMA-, HrPOR- and HrCAO- overexpressing tobaccos.

10.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 20, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485358

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies worldwide with very poor prognosis. Resistance to targeted therapeutic drugs such as sorafenib remains one of the major challenges in clinical treatment. In the present study, PARP1 was found to be highly expressed in human embryonic stem cells, but progressively decreased upon specified hepatic differentiation. Reactivation of PARP1 expression was also detected in HCC residual tumors after sorafenib treatment in xenograft mouse model, indicating the potential important roles of PARP1 in stem cell pluripotency and HCC sorafenib treatment resistance. Overexpression of PARP1 was frequently observed in HCC patients, and closely associated with poor clinical outcome. Treatment of Sorafenib induced activation of DNA damage repair signaling, which is highly active and essential for maintenance of stem cell pluripotency in HCC residual tumors. PARP inhibitor Olaparib extensively suppressed the DNA damage repair signaling, and significantly inhibited the global pluripotent transcriptional network. The repression of key pluripotent transcriptional factors and DNA damage repair signaling by Olaparib was mainly through CHD1L-mediated condensation of the chromatin structure at their promotor regions. The global reshaping of the pluripotent transcriptome by Olaparib might reinforce Sorafenib in eliminating HCC residual tumors and enhance therapeutic efficiency.

11.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500560

RESUMO

Poorly differentiated tumors usually exhibit phenotypes similar to that of their developmental precursor cells. Tumor cells that acquire the lineage progenitor cells feature usually exploit developmental signaling to potentiate cancer progression. However, the underlying molecular events remain elusive. In this study, based on analysis of an in vitro hepatocyte differentiation model, the maternal factor PGC7 (also known as DPPA3, STELLA) was found closely associated with liver development and tumor differentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Expression of PGC7 decreased during hepatocyte maturation and increased progressively from well-differentiated HCCs to poorly differentiated HCCs. Whole-genome methylation sequencing found that PGC7 could induce promoter demethylation of genes related to development. Pathway-based network analysis indicated that downstream targets of PGC7 might form networks associated with developmental transcription factor activation. Overexpression of PGC7 conferred progenitor-like features of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism studies revealed that PGC7 could impede nuclear translocation of UHRF1, and thus facilitate promoter demethylation of GLI1 and MYCN, both of which are important regulators of HCC self-renewal and differentiation. Depletion or inhibition of GLI1 effectively downregulated MYCN, abolished the effect of PGC7, and sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib treatment. In addition, we found a significant correlation of PGC7 with GLI1/MYCN and lineage differentiation markers in clinical HCC patients. PGC7 expression might drive HCC toward a "dedifferentiated" progenitor lineage through facilitating promoter demethylation of key developmental transcription factors; further inhibition of PGC7/GLI1/MYCN might reverse poorly differentiated HCCs and provide novel therapeutic strategies.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(2): 833-844, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) plays a neuroprotective role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), inhibiting amyloid-ß (Aß) production and promoting Aß clearance. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote Aß aggregation and tau hyperphosphorylation. The activation of mTOR signaling occurring at the early stage of AD has a prominent impact on the Aß production. This work focused on whether BBR regulates the production and clearance of ribosylation-induced Aß pathology via inhibiting mTOR signaling. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether BBR ameliorates ribosylation-induced Aß pathology in APP/PS1 mice. METHODS: Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the related proteins of the mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and autophagy, as well as the related kinases of Aß generation and clearance. Tissue sections and Immunofluorescence staining were used to observe Aß42 in APP/PS1 mice hippocampal. Morris water maze test was used to measure the spatial learning and memory of APP/PS1 mice. RESULTS: BBR improves spatial learning and memory of APP/PS1 mice. BBR limits the activation of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway and enhances autophagy process. BBR reduces the activity of BACE1 and γ-secretase induced by D-ribose, and enhances Aß-degrading enzymes and Neprilysin, and inhibits the expression of Aß in APP/PS1 mice. CONCLUSION: BBR ameliorates ribosylation-induced Aß pathology via inhibiting mTOR/p70S6K signaling and improves spatial learning and memory of the APP/PS1 mice.

13.
Oncogene ; 40(6): 1147-1161, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323975

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is strongly associated with the initiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the genetic alterations and pathogenesis mechanisms remain significantly unexplored, especially for HBV-induced metabolic reprogramming. Analysis of integration breakpoints in HBV-positive HCC samples revealed the preferential clustering pattern within the 3'-end of X gene in the HBV genome, leading to the production of C-terminal truncated X protein (Ct-HBx). In this study, we not only characterized the oncogenic role of two Ct-HBx (HBx-120 and HBx-134) via in vitro and in vivo functional assays but also deciphered their underlying molecular mechanisms. Gene expression profiling by transcriptome sequencing identified potential targets of Ct-HBx and novel malignant hallmarks such as glycolysis, cell cycle, and m-TORC1 signaling in Ct-HBx-expressing cells. TXNIP, a well-established regulator of glucose metabolism, was shown to be downregulated by Ct-HBx and play a pivotal role in Ct-HBx-mediated HCC progression. Suppression of TXNIP is frequently observed in HCC patients with Ct-HBx expression and significantly (P = 0.015) correlated to a poorer prognosis. Re-introduction of TXNIP attenuated the metabolic reprogramming induced by the Ct-HBx and inhibited the tumor growth in the mice model. Further study suggested that Ct-HBx could downregulate TXNIP via a transcriptional repressor nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFACT2). Collectively, our findings indicate that TXNIP plays a critical role in Ct-HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, serving as a novel therapeutic strategy in HCC treatment.

14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 248, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in colorectal cancer (CRC) has already been discussed. However, the feedback loop of HDAC3/microRNA (miR)-296-3p and transforming growth factor ß-induced factor 1 (TGIF1) in CRC has not been explained clearly. Thus, the mainstay of this study is to delve out the mechanism of this axis in CRC. METHODS: To demonstrate that HDAC3 regulates the miR-296-3p/TGIF1/TGFß axis and is involved in CRC progression, a series of cell biological, molecular and biochemical approaches were conducted from the clinical research level, in vitro experiments and in vivo experiments. These methods included RT-qPCR, Western blot assay, cell transfection, MTT assay, EdU assay, flow cytometry, scratch test, Transwell assay, dual luciferase reporter gene assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, nude mouse xenograft, H&E staining and TUNEL staining. RESULTS: Higher HDAC3 and TGIF1 and lower miR-296-3p expression levels were found in CRC tissues. HDAC3 was negatively connected with miR-296-3p while positively correlated with TGIF1, and miR-296-3p was negatively connected with TGIF1. Depleted HDAC3 elevated miR-296-3p expression and reduced TGIF1 expression, decreased TGFß pathway-related proteins, inhibited CRC proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro and slowed down tumor growth and induction of apoptosis in vivo, which were reversed by miR-296-3p knockdown. Restored miR-296-3p suppressed TGIF1 and reduced TGFß pathway-related proteins, inhibited CRC proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro and slowed down tumor growth and induction of apoptosis in vivo, which were reversed by TGIF1 overexpression. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates that down-regulation of HDAC3 or TGIF1 or up-regulation of miR-296-3p discourages CRC cell progression and slows down tumor growth, which guides towards a novel direction of CRC treatment.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 992, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208727

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) promotes the malignant progression of glioblastoma under hypoxic conditions, leading to a poor prognosis for patients with glioblastoma; however, none of the therapies targeting HIF1α in glioblastoma have successfully eradicated the tumour. Therefore, we focused on the reason and found that treatments targeting HIF1α and HIF2α simultaneously increased tumour volume, but the combination of HIF1α/HIF2α-targeted therapies with temozolomide (TMZ) reduced tumourigenesis and significantly improved chemosensitization. Moreover, miR-210-3p induced HIF1α expression but inhibited HIF2α expression, suggesting that miR-210-3p regulates HIF1α/HIF2α expression. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to upregulate HIF1α expression under hypoxic conditions. However, in the present study, in addition to the signalling pathways mentioned above, the upstream proteins HIF1α and HIF2α have been shown to induce EGF expression by binding to the sequences AGGCGTGG and GGGCGTGG. Briefly, in a hypoxic microenvironment the HIF1α/HIF2α-miR210-3p network promotes the malignant progression of glioblastoma through a positive feedback loop with EGF. Additionally, differentiated glioblastoma cells underwent dedifferentiation to produce glioma stem cells under hypoxic conditions, and simultaneous knockout of HIF1α and HIF2α inhibited cell cycle arrest but promoted proliferation with decreased stemness, promoting glioblastoma cell chemosensitization. In summary, both HIF1α and HIF2α regulate glioblastoma cell proliferation, dedifferentiation and chemoresistance through a specific pathway, which is important for glioblastoma treatments.

16.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002420

RESUMO

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the predominant form of bladder cancer. Significant molecular heterogeneity caused by diverse molecular alterations brings about large variations in the response to treatment in UC. An improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of UC is essential. Through deep analysis of next-generation sequencing data of 99 UC patients, we found that 18% of cases had recurrent somatic mutations in zinc finger protein gene zinc finger protein 83 (ZNF83). ZNF83 mutations were correlated with poor prognosis of UC. We also found a hotspot mutation, p.E293V, in the evolutionarily well-conserved region of ZNF83. ZNF83-E293V increased tumor growth and reduced the apoptosis of UC cells compared to wild-type ZNF83 both in vitro and in mice xenografted tumors. ZNF83-E293V activated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) more potently than did the wild-type protein owing to its decreased transcriptional repression for S100A8. The NF-κB inhibitors could pharmacologically block the tumor growth in mice engrafted with ZNF83-E293V-transfected UC cells. These findings provide a mechanistic insight and a potential therapeutic strategy for UC, which established a foundation for using the ZNF83-E293V mutation as a predictive biomarker of therapeutic response from NF-κB inhibitors.

17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(2): 505-514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044180

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in several neurodegenerative disorders, including in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and Huntington disease. An increasing number of studies have implicated altered glucose and energy metabolism in patients with AD. There is compelling evidence of abnormalities in some of the key mitochondrial enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, which play a great significance role in the pathogenesis of AD. Changes in some of the enzyme activities of the mitochondria found in AD have been linked with the pathology of amyloid-ß (Aß). This review highlights the role of mitochondrial function in the production and clearance of Aß and how the pathology of Aß leads to a decrease in energy metabolism by affecting mitochondrial function.

18.
BioData Min ; 13: 17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082858

RESUMO

Background: Chinese medicine Xuebijing (XBJ) has proven to be effective in the treatment of mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. But the bioactive compounds and potential mechanisms of XBJ for COVID-19 prevention and treatment are unclear. This study aimed to examine the potential effector mechanisms of XBJ on COVID-19 based on network pharmacology. Methods: We searched Chinese and international papers to obtain the active ingredients of XBJ. Then, we compiled COVID-19 disease targets from the GeneCards gene database and via literature searches. Next, we used the SwissTargetPrediction database to predict XBJ's effector targets and map them to the abovementioned COVID-19 disease targets in order to obtain potential therapeutic targets of XBJ. Cytoscape software version 3.7.0 was used to construct a "XBJ active-compound-potential-effector target" network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and then to carry out network topology analysis of potential targets. We used the ClueGO and CluePedia plugins in Cytoscape to conduct gene ontology (GO) biological process (BP) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway enrichment analysis of XBJ's effector targets. We used AutoDock vina and PyMOL software for molecular docking. Results: We obtained 144 potential COVID-19 effector targets of XBJ. Fourteen of these targets-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), albumin (ALB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), Caspase-3 (CASP3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), MAPK8, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), JUN, interleukin-2 (IL-2), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), and MAPK14 had degree values > 40 and therefore could be considered key targets. They participated in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1, ERK2) cascade, the T-cell receptor signaling pathway, activation of MAPK activity, cellular response to lipopolysaccharide, and other inflammation- and immune-related BPs. XBJ exerted its therapeutic effects through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), MAPK, phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), toll-like receptor (TLR), TNF, and inflammatory-mediator regulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) signaling pathways to ultimately construct a "drug-ingredient-target-pathway" effector network. The molecular docking results showed that the core 18 effective ingredients had a docking score of less than - 4.0 with those top 10 targets. Conclusion: The active ingredients of XBJ regulated different genes, acted on different pathways, and synergistically produced anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory effects, which fully demonstrated the synergistic effects of different components on multiple targets and pathways. Our study demonstrated that key ingredients and their targets have potential binding activity, the existing studies on the pharmacological mechanisms of XBJ in the treatment of sepsis and severe pneumonia, could explain the effector mechanism of XBJ in COVID-19 treatment, and those provided a preliminary examination of the potential effector mechanism in this disease.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899646

RESUMO

Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of the important components for evaluating fruit quality. The rapid development of hyperspectral imagery provides an efficient method for non-destructive detection of SSC. Previous studies have shown that the internal quality evaluation of fruits based on spectral information features achieves better results. However, the lack of comprehensive features limits the accurate estimation of fruit quality. Therefore, the deep learning theory is applied to the estimation of the soluble solid content of peaches, a method for estimating the SSC of fresh peaches based on the deep features of the hyperspectral image fusion information is proposed, and the estimation models of different neural network structures are designed based on the stack autoencoder-random forest (SAE-RF). The results show that the accuracy of the model based on the deep features of the fusion information of hyperspectral imagery is higher than that of the model based on spectral features or image features alone. In addition, the SAE-RF model based on the 1237-650-310-130 network structure has the best prediction effect (R2 = 0.9184, RMSE = 0.6693). Our research shows that the proposed method can improve the estimation accuracy of the soluble solid content of fresh peaches, which provides a theoretical basis for the non-destructive detection of other components of fresh peaches.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e20500, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) have been proven beneficial to patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with chemotherapy. The network meta-analysis (NMA) was designed to update and expand on previous work to better evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different Yiqi Fuzheng (YQFZ) CHIs combined with the Vinorelbine plus cisplatin (NP) regimen versus NP alone for NSCLC. METHODS: We searched multiple electronic databases and identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning different YQFZ CHIs combined with the NP regimen for treating NSCLC up to March 1st, 2019. The outcomes are the objective response rate, performance status and adverse reactions (ADRs). Two individuals accomplished the quality assessment of this NMA based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the methodological section of the CONSORT statement. Random effects models were generated to estimate efficacy and safety outcomes. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated via Stata 14 software. Furthermore, the rankings for the efficacy and safety of different YQFZ CHIs for each outcome were determined by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). RESULTS: Initially, a total of 4775 citations were retrieved through comprehensive searching, and 88 eligible articles involving 6695 participants and 8 CHIs were ultimately included. The cluster analysis results of the current evidence indicated that the NP regimen combined with Delisheng, Shenfu and Shenmai injections have a higher clinical effectiveness rate and better performance status compared with the NP regimen alone. Additionally, the NP regimen combined with Shenqifuzheng, Shengmai and Shenfu injections may be considered a favorable choice for reliving ADRs among patients with NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence demonstrated that the combination of Shenfu injection plus NP regimen could produce better outcomes than other YQFZ CHIs groups in terms of efficacy and safety. However, meticulously designed, strictly executed, high-quality trials are still required to further assess and confirm the results due to the inadequacy of the included RCTs.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Vinorelbina/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções , Metanálise em Rede , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico
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