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PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182277


First reported in March 2014, an Ebola epidemic impacted West Africa, most notably Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. We demonstrate the value of social media for automated surveillance of infectious diseases such as the West Africa Ebola epidemic. We experiment with two variations of an existing surveillance architecture: the first aggregates tweets related to different symptoms together, while the second considers tweets about each symptom separately and then aggregates the set of alerts generated by the architecture. Using a dataset of tweets posted from the affected region from 2011 to 2014, we obtain alerts in December 2013, which is three months prior to the official announcement of the epidemic. Among the two variations, the second, which produces a restricted but useful set of alerts, can potentially be applied to other infectious disease surveillance and alert systems.

Mineração de Dados/métodos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Ebolavirus , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Guiné/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
Opt Express ; 23(3): A106-17, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836236


Metallic back reflectors has been used for thin-film and wafer-based solar cells for very long time. Nonetheless, the metallic mirrors might not be the best choices for photovoltaics. In this work, we show that solar cells with all-dielectric reflectors can surpass the best-configured metal-backed devices. Theoretical and experimental results all show that superior large-angle light scattering capability can be achieved by the diffuse medium reflectors, and the solar cell J-V enhancement is higher for solar cells using all-dielectric reflectors. Specifically, the measured diffused scattering efficiency (D.S.E.) of a diffuse medium reflector is >0.8 for the light trapping spectral range (600nm-1000nm), and the measured reflectance of a diffuse medium can be as high as silver if the geometry of embedded titanium oxide(TiO(2)) nanoparticles is optimized. Moreover, the diffuse medium reflectors have the additional advantage of room-temperature processing, low cost, and very high throughput. We believe that using all-dielectric solar cell reflectors is a way to approach the thermodynamic conversion limit by completely excluding metallic dissipation.

Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 3: A880-94, 2014 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922394


Dielectric mirrors have recently emerged for solar cells due to the advantages of lower cost, lower temperature processing, higher throughput, and zero plasmonic absorption as compared to conventional metallic counterparts. Nonetheless, in the past, efforts for incorporating dielectric mirrors into photovoltaics were not successful due to limited bandwidth and insufficient light scattering that prevented their wide usage. In this work, it is shown that the key for ultra-broadband dielectric mirrors is aperiodicity, or randomization. In addition, it has been proven that dielectric mirrors can be widely applicable to thin-film and thick wafer-based solar cells to provide for light trapping comparable to conventional metallic back reflectors at their respective optimal geometries. Finally, the near-field angular emission plot of Poynting vectors is conducted, and it further confirms the superior light-scattering property of dielectric mirrors, especially for diffuse medium reflectors, despite the absence of surface plasmon excitation. The preliminary experimental results also confirm the high feasibility of dielectric mirrors for photovoltaics.

Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Luz , Membranas Artificiais , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Energia Solar , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Nanoestruturas , Espalhamento de Radiação