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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3745, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111951

RESUMO

During mung bean post-germination seedling growth, various metabolic and physiological changes occurred, leading to the improvement of its nutritional values. Here, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of mung bean samples from 6-hour, 3-day and 6-day after imbibition (6-HAI, 3-DAI, and 6-DAI) were performed to characterize the regulatory mechanism of the primary metabolites during the post-germination seedling growth. From 6-HAI to 3-DAI, rapid changes in transcript level occurred, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acids synthesis, and plant hormones regulation. Later changes in the metabolites, including carbohydrates and amino acids, appeared to be driven by increases in transcript levels. During this process, most amino acids and monosaccharides kept increasing, and accumulated in 6-day germinated sprouts. These processes were also accompanied with changes in hormones including abscisic acid, gibberellin, jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, etc. Overall, these results will provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the primary metabolic regulation in mung bean during post-germination seedling growth.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given their geographical proximity but differences in cultural and religious dietary customs, we hypothesize that children from the three main ethnic populations (Han, Hui, and Tibetan) residing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region differs in their non-iatrogenic antibiotic loads. METHODS: To determine the antibiotic burden of the school children unrelated to medical treatment, we quantified the antibiotic residues in morning urine samples from 92 Han, 72 Tibetan, and 85 Muslim Hui primary school children aged 8 to 12 years using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and performed correlation analysis between these data and concurrent dietary nutrition assessments. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 18 targeted antibiotics (4 macrolides, 3 ß-lactams, 2 tetracyclines, 4 quinolones, 3 sulfonamides, and 2 aminoanols) were identified in the urine samples with an overall detection frequency of 58.63%. The detection frequency of the six antibiotic classes ranged from 1.61% to 32.53% with ofloxacin showing the single highest frequency (18.47%). Paired comparison analysis revealed significant differences in antibiotic distribution frequency among groups, with Tibetans having higher enrofloxacin (P = 0.015) and oxytetracycline (P = 0.021) than Han children. Norfloxacin (a human/veterinary antibiotic) was significantly higher in the Hui children than in the Han children (P = 0.024). Dietary nutrient intake assessments were comparable among participants, showing adequate levels of essential vitamins and minerals across all three ethnic groups. However, significant differences in specific foods were observed among groups, notably in lower fat consumption in the Hui group. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction and accumulation of antibiotic residues in school children through non-iatrogenic routes (food or environmental sources) poses a serious potential health risk and merits closer scrutiny to determine the sources. While the exact sources of misused or overused antibiotics remains unclear, further study can potentially correlate ethnicity-specific dietary practices with the sources of contamination.

3.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 20, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying genotype-phenotype links and causative genes from quantitative trait loci (QTL) is challenging for complex agronomically important traits. To accelerate maize gene discovery and breeding, we present the Complete-diallel design plus Unbalanced Breeding-like Inter-Cross (CUBIC) population, consisting of 1404 individuals created by extensively inter-crossing 24 widely used Chinese maize founders. RESULTS: Hundreds of QTL for 23 agronomic traits are uncovered with 14 million high-quality SNPs and a high-resolution identity-by-descent map, which account for an average of 75% of the heritability for each trait. We find epistasis contributes to phenotypic variance widely. Integrative cross-population analysis and cross-omics mapping allow effective and rapid discovery of underlying genes, validated here with a case study on leaf width. CONCLUSIONS: Through the integration of experimental genetics and genomics, our study provides useful resources and gene mining strategies to explore complex quantitative traits.

4.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835666

RESUMO

Foliage of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) as a byproduct of agriculture, is a traditional nutraceutical material in China. Previous studies have shown that it is a rich resource of polyphenols. However, information on its complete phenolic profile and the difference between cultivars is still limited. This study investigated and compared phytochemical profiles of leaves of 66 Chinese jujube cultivars. Forty-two compounds, including 22 flavonols, two flavanols, one flavanone, 13 derivatives of phenolic acids, three simple acids, and one unknown hexoside were identified/tentatively identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Eight major flavonols were quantified by HPLC coupled with an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The contents of total flavonoids ranged from 2.6-25.1 mg/g dry weight (DW). Differences between cultivars were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). This study presents a systematic study on the phenolic compounds in Chinese jujube leaves of different cultivars.

5.
Plant J ; 100(1): 114-127, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169939

RESUMO

Phytol is one of the key precursors for tocopherol synthesis in plants, however, the underlying mechanisms concerning the accumulation of tocopherol remain poorly understood. In this study, qVE5, a major QTL affecting tocopherol accumulation in maize kernels was identified via a positional cloning approach. qVE5 encodes a protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (ZmPORB2), which localizes to the chloroplast. Overexpression of ZmPORB2 increased tocopherol content in both leaves and kernels. Candidate gene association analysis identified a 5/8-bp insertion/deletion (InDel058) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) as the causal polymorphism in affecting ZmPORB2 expression and being highly associated with tocopherol content. We showed that higher expression of ZmPORB2 correlated with more chlorophyll metabolites in the leaf following pollination. RNA-sequencing and metabolic analysis in near isogenic lines (NILs) support that ZmPORB2 participates in chlorophyll metabolism enabling the production of phytol, an important precursor of tocopherol. We also found that the tocopherol content in the kernel is mainly determined by the maternal genotype, a fact that was further confirmed by in vitro culture experiments. Finally, a PCR-based marker based on Indel058 was developed in order to facilitate the high tocopherol (vitamin E) maize breeding.

6.
Food Chem ; 297: 125016, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253287

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding concerning factors underlying carotenoid metabolism in banana pulp we investigated the carotenoid profile, metabolome, proteome and relative expression levels of carotegenesis-associated genes of fruit pulp in the two banana varieties ON and GN, with ON being characterized of high carotenoid accumulation. Results showed that high carotenoid content in banana pulp was well correlated with the relative expression of carotenogenesis-associated genes and the abundance of the corresponding proteins. An elevated accumulation of sugar metabolism-related compounds and a decreased amino acid accumulation were also observed in ON. Additionally proteins involved in the glycolytic pathway were more highly abundant in ON suggesting that this supports the higher accumulation of carotenoid in this genotype. We suggest that up-regulated expression of carotenogenesis-associated genes alongside elevated carbohydrate accumulation contribute to high carotenoid content in banana pulp, implying that a multi-target approach is necessary in order to improve carotenoid content in banana.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Musa/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicólise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Plant Cell ; 31(6): 1328-1343, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996077

RESUMO

It has long been recognized that stomatal movement modulates CO2 availability and as a consequence the photosynthetic rate of plants, and that this process is feedback-regulated by photoassimilates. However, the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this regulatory loop remain poorly understood, especially in monocot crop species. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a maize (Zea mays) mutant named closed stomata1 (cst1). Map-based cloning of cst1 followed by confirmation with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR associated protein 9 system identified the causal mutation in a Clade I Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEET) family gene, which leads to the E81K mutation in the CST1 protein. CST1 encodes a functional glucose transporter expressed in subsidiary cells, and the E81K mutation strongly impairs the oligomerization and glucose transporter activity of CST1. Mutation of CST1 results in reduced stomatal opening, carbon starvation, and early senescence in leaves, suggesting that CST1 functions as a positive regulator of stomatal opening. Moreover, CST1 expression is induced by carbon starvation and suppressed by photoassimilate accumulation. Our study thus defines CST1 as a missing link in the feedback-regulation of stomatal movement and photosynthesis by photoassimilates in maize.

9.
Food Res Int ; 120: 330-338, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000247

RESUMO

The chemical composition of black tea during tea processing is in a state of flux. However, the dynamic changes of this sophisticated metabolic process are far from clear. GC-MS-based metabolomic analyses were performed to examine changes in volatile and non-volatile compounds throughout the five stages of tea processing. The results showed that the most striking differences were observed at the withering and rolling stages, during which 62 non-volatile and 47 volatile compounds were significantly changed. The levels of most monosaccharides decreased at the withering stage and increased in subsequent stages while di-saccharides decreased as the process progressed. Free amino acids increased sharply at the withering stage, and most kept increasing or remained stable afterwards. However, levels of catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate decreased after withering and remained at low levels afterwards. Among the 47 volatile compounds with altered levels, phenylpropanoids/benzenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles, which contribute to the honey-like and rose-like fragrances and quality of Danxia2 tea, kept increasing during the processing, among them eight were newly produced. Furthermore, 19 volatiles with a grassy odor decreased during processing. This study provides a comprehensive profile of metabolic changes during black tea processing, which is potentially important for both quality control and improvement of the flavor of black teas.

10.
Food Chem ; 286: 669-677, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827662

RESUMO

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an abundant source of polyphenols. Although phenolic species in the walnut kernel have been studied comprehensively, their compositional profile in the internal fruit septum, a traditional nutraceutical material in China, has been rarely explored. In the current study, the methanolic extract of the walnut septum was analysed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Totally seventy-five phenolics belonging to flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids were identified based on mass spectra, references and literatures. Among them, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-rhamnose-pentoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-rhamnose-hexoside, kaempferol-rhamnoside, and two isomers of quercetin-rhamnoside were reported for the first time in walnut. The total polyphenol content was found to be 122.78 ±â€¯2.55 mg GAE/g dry weight in septum. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate and identify phenolic compounds in the fruit septum of walnut and indicates that the septum to be a rich resource of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Juglans/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , China , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Glucosídeos/análise , Nozes/química , Polifenóis/análise , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597417

RESUMO

A determination method to identify and quantify 18 multi-class antibiotics in urine was developed using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS). Targeted antibiotics were extracted using preliminary dilution followed by d-SPE extraction. Specificity and selectivity, linearity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy, and precision were validated. LOQ of the majority of targeted compounds ranged from 0.3-7.5 µg/L. Excellent recovery in the range of 73-136% was achieved for most antibiotics, except macrolides whose recovery were of 52-78%. High precision was obtained with coefficients of variation (CV) less than 20%. All compounds were clearly separated and detected after a total run time of 15 min. Following development and validation, the method was applied to real urine samples where five out of 18 antibiotics were detected and high precision with CV less than 15% was obtained. The method was validated to be capable of quantifying antibiotics in urine for applications in supervision of antibiotics consumption or in pharmacokinetic studies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida
12.
Rice (N Y) ; 12(1): 2, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed dormancy directly affects the phenotype of pre-harvest sprouting, and ultimately affects the quality and yield of rice seeds. Although many genes controlling seed dormancy have been cloned from cereals, the regulatory mechanisms controlling this process are complex, and much remains unknown. The MAPK cascade is involved in many signal transduction pathways. Recently, MKK3 has been reported to be involved in the regulation of seed dormancy, but its mechanism of action is unclear. RESULTS: We found that MKKK62-overexpressing rice lines (OE) lost seed dormancy. Further analyses showed that the abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity of OE lines was decreased. In yeast two-hybrid experiments, MKKK62 interacted with MKK3, and MKK3 interacted with MAPK7 and MAPK14. Knock-out experiments confirmed that MKK3, MAPK7, and MAPK14 were involved in the regulation of seed dormancy. The OE lines showed decreased transcript levels of OsMFT, a homolog of a gene that controls seed dormancy in wheat. The up-regulation of OsMFT in MKK3-knockout lines (OE/mkk3) and MAPK7/14-knockout lines (OE/mapk7/mapk14) indicated that the MKKK62-MKK3-MAPK7/MAPK14 system controlled seed dormancy by regulating the transcription of OsMFT. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that MKKK62 negatively controls seed dormancy in rice, and that during the germination stage and the late stage of seed maturation, ABA sensitivity and OsMFT transcription are negatively controlled by MKKK62. Our results have clarified the entire MAPK cascade controlling seed dormancy in rice. Together, these results indicate that protein modification by phosphorylation plays a key role in controlling seed dormancy.

13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 98(4-5): 289-302, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387038

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This is the first time to dissect the mechanism of NACs-mediated disease resistance in plants using metabolomic approach and discover the involvement of ABA signaling pathway in NACs-mediated disease resistance. NAC transcription factors have been validated as important regulators in stress responses, but their molecular mechanisms in plant disease resistance are still largely unknown. Here we report that the NAC gene ONAC066 (LOC_Os01g09550) is significantly activated by rice blast infection. ONAC066 is ubiquitously expressed and this protein is localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of ONAC066 quantitatively enhances resistance to blast disease and bacterial blight in rice. The transcript levels of PR genes are also dramatically induced in ONAC066 overexpressing plants. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) strongly activates the transcription of ONAC066 in rice. Further analysis shows that overexpression of ONAC066 remarkably suppresses the expression of ABA-related genes, whereas there are no obvious differences for salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes between wild-type and ONAC066 overexpressing plants. Consistently, lower endogenous ABA levels are identified in ONAC066 overexpressing plants compared with wild-type plants before and after blast inoculation, while no significant differences are observed for the SA and JA levels. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that ONAC066 directly binds to the promoters of LIP9 and NCED4 to modulate their expression. Moreover, the metabolomic study reveals that the ONAC066 overexpressing plants accumulated higher contents of soluble sugars and amino acids both before and after pathogen attack, when compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results suggest that ONAC066 positively regulates rice resistance to blast and bacterial blight, and ONAC066 exerts its functions on disease resistance by modulating of ABA signaling pathway, sugars and amino acids accumulation in rice.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 257, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WRKY proteins are one of the largest gene families and are well-known for their regulatory roles in many aspects of plant development, including plant response to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the roles of WRKY proteins in leaf blast resistance have been well-documented in rice, their functions in panicle blast, the most destructive type of blast disease, are still largely unknown. RESULTS: Here, we identified that the transcription of OsWRKY67 was strongly activated by leaf and panicle blast infection. OsWRKY67 is ubiquitously expressed and sub-localized in the nucleus. Rice plants overexpressing OsWRKY67 showed quantitatively enhanced resistance to leaf blast, panicle blast and bacterial blight. In contrast, silencing of OsWRKY67 increased the susceptibility to blast and bacterial blight diseases. RNA-seq analysis indicated that OsWRKY67 induces the transcription of a set of defense-related genes including the ones involved in the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway. Consistent with this, the OsWRKY67-overexpressing plants accumulated higher amounts of endogenous SA, whereas lower endogenous SA levels were observed in OsWRKY67-silenced plants relative to wild-type Nipponbare plants before and after pathogen attack. Moreover, we also observed that OsWRKY67 directly binds to the promoters of PR1a and PR10 to activate their expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest the positive role of OsWRKY67 in regulating rice responses to leaf blast, panicle blast and bacterial blight disease. Furthermore, conferring resistance to two major diseases makes it a good target of molecular breeding for crop improvement in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Magnaporthe/patogenicidade , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 127: 590-598, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729608

RESUMO

Seed storability is an important trait for crop breeding, however, the mechanism underlying seed storability remains largely unknown. Here, a mass spectrometry-based comparative metabolomic study was performed for rice seeds before and after 24-month natural storage between two hybrid rice cultivars, IIYou 998 (IIY) with low storability and BoYou 998 (BY) with relative high storability. A total of 48 metabolites among 90 metabolite peaks detected were conclusively identified, and most of them are involved in the primary metabolism. During the 24-month storage, 19 metabolites with significant changes in abundance were found in the storage-sensitive IIY seeds, but only 8 in the BY seeds, most of which are free amino acids and soluble sugars. The observed changes of the metabolites in IIY seeds that are consistent with our protoemics results are likely to be involved in its sensitivity to storage. Levels of all identified 18 amino acid-related metabolites and most sugar-related metabolites were significantly higher in IIY seeds both before and after storage. However the level of raffinose was lower in IIY seeds before and after storage, and did not change significantly throughout the storage period in both two cultivars, suggesting its potential role in seed storability. Taken together, these results may help to improve our understanding of seed storability.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Oryza/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1812, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983290

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the microbiome and metabolome differences in the colon lumen from two pig breeds with different genetic backgrounds. Fourteen weaned piglets at 30 days of age, including seven Landrace piglets (a lean-type pig breed with a fast growth rate) and seven Meihua piglets (a fatty-type Chinese local pig breed with a slow growth rate), were fed the same diets for 35 days. Untargeted metabolomics analyses showed that a total of 401 metabolites differed between Landrace and Meihua. Seventy of these 401 metabolites were conclusively identified. Landrace accumulated more short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and secondary bile acids in the colon lumen. Moreover, expression of the SCFAs transporter (solute carrier family 5 member 8, SLC5A8) and receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 41, GPR41) in the colon mucosa was higher, while the bile acids receptor (farnesoid X receptor, FXR) had lower expression in Landrace compared to Meihua. The relative abundances of 8 genera and 16 species of bacteria differed significantly between Landrace and Meihua, and were closely related to the colonic concentrations of bile acids or SCFAs based on Pearson's correlation analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that there were differences in the colonic microbiome and metabolome between Meihua and Landrace piglets, with the most profound disparity in production of SCFAs and secondary bile acids.

17.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 59(11): 774-791, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731217

RESUMO

Due to global climate change, temperature stress has become one of the primary causes of crop losses worldwide. Much progress has been made in unraveling the complex stress response mechanisms in plants, particularly in the identification of temperature stress responsive protein-coding genes. Recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRN As) have also been demonstrated as important players in plant temperature stress response. Using high-throughput sequencing, many small RNAs, especially miRNAs, have been identified to be triggered by cold or heat. Subsequently, several studies have shown an important functional role for these small RNAs in cold or heat tolerance. These findings greatly broaden our understanding of endogenous small RNAs in plant stress response control. Here, we highlight new findings regarding the roles of miRNAs and siRNAs in plant temperature stress response and acclimation. We also review the current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of small RNAs in temperature stress response, and explore the outlook for the use of these small RNAs in molecular breeding for improvement of temperature stress tolerance in plants.


Assuntos
RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Temperatura
18.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41403, 2017 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134261

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Microbiota , Moringa oleifera/química , Silagem , Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Leite , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Food Funct ; 8(2): 808-815, 2017 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121324

RESUMO

Dietary phenolics exhibit hypolipidemic activity by changing lipid metabolism-related microRNA (miRNA) expression. Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), rutin and (-)-epicatechin are the main phenolics in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp. A previous study reported that quercetin 3-rut-7-rha and rutin had hypolipidemic effects. To elucidate these effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of lychee pulp phenolics (LPPs), the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and their associated miRNAs were measured after ten weeks of treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with LPPs. The administration of LPPs significantly reduced the HFD-induced increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased the HDL-c content. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were upregulated, while fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA and the corresponding protein expression levels were downregulated by LPPs. Furthermore, the expression levels of miR-33, which directly modulates ABCA1 and CPT1a, and miR-122, which indirectly regulates FAS, were downregulated in mouse hepatocytes. The repression of miR-33 and miR-122 is a possible molecular mechanism of the hypolipidemic effects of LPPs in the liver. Our results suggest a novel hypolipidemic mechanism of LPPs.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Litchi/química , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
20.
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao ; 57(1): 24-32, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746057

RESUMO

Seeds with high oil contents are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination after infected by Aspergillus species. However, in vitro studies showed that different types of fatty acids have striking difference on fungal growth, sporulation and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus. Recent studies revealed that, although all fatty acids examined promote aflatoxin production, oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis. The inhibiting effect is derived from oxylipins produced during autoxidation. In this article, we provide an overview for recent progress in fatty acids and oxylipins on fungal growth, sporulation and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus species.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo
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