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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI in the differentiation of mucosal high-grade neoplasia (MHN) from early invasive squamous cell cancer (EISCC) of the esophagus. METHODS: Between March 2015 and January 2019, 72 study participants with MHN (n = 46) and EISCC (n = 26) of the esophagus were enrolled in this prospective study. Postoperative histopathologic analysis was the reference standard. All participants underwent MRI (T2-multi-shot turbo spin-echo sequence (msTSE), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 3D gradient-echo-based sequence (3D-GRE)). Two radiologists, blinded to participants' data, independently evaluated MRI and assigned MR features including shape (mucosal thickening or focal mass), signal on T2-msTSE and DWI, enhancement degree (intense or slight), and enhancement pattern (homogeneous, heterogeneous, or heart-shaped). Diagnostic performance of the 5 features was compared using the chi-square test; kappa values were assessed for reader performance. RESULTS: Surgery was performed within 3.6 + 3.5 days after MR imaging. Inter-reader agreement on MR features was excellent (kappa value = 0.854, p < 0.001). All 8 mass-like MHN were "heart-shaped" in appearance. The degree of enhancement showed the best diagnosis performance in differentiating between MHN and EISCC of the esophagus. The combination of all 5 features had only borderline improved sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 100%, 96.2%, and 0.999, respectively, which was not statistically significant compared with the degree of enhancement alone. CONCLUSIONS: MRI can differentiate MHN from EISCC in esophagus; the presence of "heart-shaped" appearance favors the diagnosis of MHN. KEY POINTS: • All 8 mass-like MHN showed a "heart-shaped" enhancement pattern which may help differentiating MHN from EISCC. • Degree of enhancement had the best diagnostic performance in differentiating between MHN and EISCC in esophagus. • The combined 5 features (shape, signal in T2-msTSE and DWI, enhancement degree, and enhancement pattern) provided sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 100%, 96.2%, and 0.999, respectively, which was not statistically significant than tumor enhancement alone in distinguishing MHN from EISCC.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3030793, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047808

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify noninvasive immune biomarkers of exercise-induced immunosuppression using the iTRAQ proteomics technique. Methods: Fifteen healthy males were recruited and subjected to a four-week incremental treadmill running training program. After each week of training, WBC counts and CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were measured to monitor the immune function status. iTRAQ proteomics technology was used to identify differential proteins and their characteristics in urine. Results: Our data showed that the WBC counts, CD4+ lymphocytes, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased by more than 10% after four weeks of training, suggesting exercise-induced immunosuppression. A total of 1854 proteins were identified in urine during the incremental running using the iTRAQ technology. Compared with the urine before training, there were 89, 52, 77, and 148 proteins significantly upregulated and 66, 27, 68, and 114 proteins significantly downregulated after each week, respectively. Among them, four upregulated proteins, SEMG-1, PIP, PDGFRL, and NDPK, increased their abundance with the increased exercise intensity. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that these proteins are involved in stress response and immune function. Conclusion: Four weeks of incremental treadmill running induced immunosuppression in healthy males. By using iTRAQ proteomics, four proteins in the urine, SEMG-1, PIP, PDGFRL, and NDPK, were found to increase incrementally with the increased exercise intensity, which have the potential to be used as noninvasive immune biomarkers of exercise-induced immunosuppression.

3.
Anal Chem ; 92(4): 3198-3205, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008315

RESUMO

Synthesis of red emissive carbon dots (CDs) is highly desirable for sensing applications, as they still remain as bottlenecks in terms of precursor synthesis and product purification. Herein, we have designed a new strategy for realizing efficient red emissive CD optimal emission at 610 nm (fluorescence quantum yield ca. 24.0%) based on solvothermal treatment of citric acid and thiourea using dimethylformamide as solvent. Further investigations reveal that the conjugating sp2-domain controlling the incorporation of nitrogen and surface engineering are mainly responsible for the obtained red emission of CDs. Taking advantage of optical properties and abundant surface functional groups, CDs were considered to facilely construct a ratiometric fluorescent platform for quantifying trace levels of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Combining the acetylcholinesterase-mediated polymerization of dopamine and the inhibition of pesticide toward the enzyme, the degree of polymerization of dopamine rationally depends on the concentration of OPs. By measuring the fluorescence intensity ratio, the proposed platform exhibited highly selective and robust performance toward OPs, displaying ultrasensitive recognition in the pg L-1 level. The multiexcitation format could efficiently shield background interference from complex samples by introducing a self-calibrated reference signal, which affords accurate and reliable quantitative information, endowing CDs as a universal candidate for a biosensing application by combining target-specific recognition elements.

4.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968628

RESUMO

Thrombin, a key enzyme of the serine protease superfamily, plays an integral role in the blood coagulation cascade and thrombotic diseases. In view of this, it is worthwhile to establish a method to screen thrombin inhibitors (such as natural flavonoid-type inhibitors) as well as investigate their structure activity relationships. Virtual screening using molecular docking technique was used to screen 103 flavonoids. Out of this number, 42 target compounds were selected, and their inhibitory effects on thrombin assayed by chromogenic substrate method. The results indicated that the carbon-carbon double bond group at the C2, C3 sites and the carbonyl group at the C4 sites of flavones were essential for thrombin inhibition, whereas the methoxy and O-glycosyl groups reduced thrombin inhibition. Noteworthy, introduction of OH groups at different positions on flavonoids either decreased or increased anti-thrombin potential. Myricetin exhibited the highest inhibitory potential against thrombin with an IC50 value of 56 µM. Purposively, the established molecular docking virtual screening method is not limited to exploring flavonoid structure activity relationships to anti-thrombin activity but also usefully discovering other natural active constituents.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(4): 4333-4342, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935068

RESUMO

The abuse of antibiotics resulted in the emergence of antibiotics-resistant bacteria, which has raised a great social concern together with the impetus to develop effective antibacterial materials. Herein, the synthesis of biocompatible enzyme-responsive Ag nanoparticle assemblies (ANAs) and their application in the high-efficiency targeted antimicrobial treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been demonstrated. The ANAs could collapse and undergo stable/collapsed transition on approaching MRSA because of the serine protease-like B enzyme proteins (SplB)-triggered decomposition of the branched copolymers which have been employed as the macrotemplate in the synthesis of responsive ANAs. This transition contributed greatly to the high targeting affinity and efficiency of ANAs to MRSA. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against MRSA were 2.0 and 32.0 µg mL-1, respectively. Skin wound healing experiments confirmed that the responsive ANAs could serve as an effective wound dressing to accelerate the healing of MRSA infection.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 359-369, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901896

RESUMO

A reduction in aerobic capacity and the shortening of telomeres are hallmarks of the ageing process. We examined whether a lower aerobic capacity is associated with shorter TL in skeletal muscle and/or leukocytes, across a wide age range of individuals. We also tested whether TL in human skeletal muscle (MTL) correlates with TL in leukocytes (LTL). Eighty-two recreationally active, healthy men from the Gene SMART cohort (31.4±8.2 years; body mass index (BMI)=25.3±3.3kg/m2), and 11 community dwelling older men (74.2±7.5years-old; BMI=28.7±2.8kg/m2) participated in the study. Leukocytes and skeletal muscle samples were collected at rest. Relative telomere length (T/S ratio) was measured by RT-PCR. Associations between TL, aerobic capacity (VO2 peak and peak power) and age were assessed with robust linear models. Older age was associated with shorter LTL (45% variance explained, P<0.001), but not MTL (P= 0.7). Aerobic capacity was not associated with MTL (P=0.5), nor LTL (P=0.3). MTL and LTL were correlated across the lifespan (rs=0.26, P=0.03). In healthy individuals, age explain most of the variability of LTL and this appears to be independent of individual aerobic capacity. Individuals with longer LTL also have a longer MTL, suggesting that there might be a shared molecular mechanism regulating telomere length.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927971

RESUMO

Gravimetric resonators based on micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS) are potential candidates in developing smaller, less expensive, and higher-performance gas sensors. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high surface areas have recently come into focus as advanced nanoporous sensitive materials in microgravimetric gas sensors. The surface of MOFs on those sensors is critical in offering water stability and varying absorption behaviors. However, the influences of the surface on sensing performance are less explored and the strategy to tune surface properties of MOFs mounted on gravimetric resonators is still rare. In this paper, a straightforward strategy to engineer surface properties of MOFs, specifically Cu3(benzenetricarboxylate)2 (known as HKUST-1), is reported and the surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of HKUST-1 is tuned by chemical vapor deposition combined with monolayer self-assembly. It was found that the hybrid inorganic and organic surface engineering strategy not only preserves the absorption capacity of inner MOFs but also significantly enhances the sensor's stability toward water.

8.
FASEB J ; 34(2): 2978-2986, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919888

RESUMO

Mitochondrial respiration using the oxygraph-2k respirometer (Oroboros) is widely used to estimate mitochondrial capacity in human skeletal muscle. Here, we measured mitochondrial respiration variability, in a relatively large sample, and for the first time, using statistical simulations, we provide the sample size required to detect meaningful respiration changes following lifestyle intervention. Muscle biopsies were taken from healthy, young men from the Gene SMART cohort, at multiple time points. We utilized samples for each measurement with two technical repeats using two respirometer chambers (n = 160 pairs of same muscle after removal of low-quality samples). We measured the Technical Error of measurement (TEM ) and the coefficient of variation (CV) for each mitochondrial complex. There was a high correlation between measurements from the two chambers (R > 0.7 P < .001) for all complexes, but the TEM was large (7.9-27 pmol s-1  mg-1 ; complex dependent), and the CV was >15% for all complexes. We performed statistical simulations of a range of effect sizes at 80% power and found that 75 participants (with duplicate measurements) are required to detect a 6% change in mitochondrial respiration after an intervention, while for interventions with 11% effect size, ~24 participants are sufficient. The high variability in respiration suggests that the typical sample sizes in exercise studies may not be sufficient to capture exercise-induced changes.

9.
Water Res ; 170: 115324, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770649

RESUMO

Aeration and mechanical agitation are the main drivers of aerosol generation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the effect of aeration mode on aerosol characteristics remains poorly understood. In this study, horizontal rotor aeration and fine bubble aeration in the same WWTP were selected to identify the effect on the emission, size distribution, microbial and chemical composition. For bacteria, fungi, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in aerosols, the horizontal rotor aeration had higher contributions to the emissions than the fine bubble aeration. Horizontal rotor aeration generated a more coarse fraction (size > 7 µm) and a comparable respirable fraction (RF; size < 3.3 µm) compared with those of fine bubble aeration. More types of potential pathogens were generated by horizontal rotor aeration. The most easily aerosolized genera generated by horizontal rotor aeration and fine bubble aeration, were Trichosporon and Mycobacterium, with the aerosolization factors of 633.70 and 192.56, respectively. For Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, Zn, Ba, Cd, Sc, V, Rb, Ca, K, Ca, K, Mg, Na and Si in the aerosols, the contributions of fine bubble aeration were higher than those of horizontal rotor aeration. Due to the aerosol specialty from the different aeration modes, targeted manipulations should be employed to reduce the exposure risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Águas Residuárias , Aerossóis , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos , Tamanho da Partícula
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 226: 117589, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634714

RESUMO

Cornu Caprae Hircus (goat horn, GH) is one of the frequently used medicinal animal horns in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Hydrolysis is one of the key steps for GH pretreatment in pharmaceutical manufacturing. However, the physicochemical complexity of the hydrolysis samples imposes a challenge for hydrolysis process analysis and monitoring. In this study, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), one of the most popular deep learning methods, were used to develop quantitative calibration models based on on-line Raman spectroscopy for monitoring the GH hydrolysis process. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were also developed for model performance comparison. For CNN modeling, raw Raman spectra were used as inputs and hyperparameters in the CNN structure were optimized. Results show for four of the seven analytes, the optimized CNN models using raw spectra as inputs outperform the optimized PLS models developed with preprocessed spectra. Therefore, compared with the commonly used PLS algorithm, CNN modeling is also a practicable regression method and can be employed for the analytical purpose of this study. Models with better performance are expected to be obtained by improving the CNN model structure and using more effective hyperparameter optimization approaches in further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case study of combining CNNs and on-line Raman spectroscopy for a regression task.

11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 136: 110955, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712109

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that at certain levels can be harmful to human health. Although DBP has been widely linked to immunotoxicity, any association between DBP exposure and splenic injury remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether DBP exposure can induce splenic injury and the antagonistic effects of two antioxidants, vitamin E (VitE) and curcumin (Cur), on DBP-induced splenic injury. The levels of ROS, GSH, T-AOC, IL-1ß, TNF-α, cytochrome C, caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the spleen homogenate of mice were measured. Any histopathological changes in the spleen were observed using H&E and toluidine blue staining. And the morphology of mitochondria was observed using Janus Green B staining. The results indicate that exposure to 50 mg/kg DBP could cause histopathological changes of the spleen and result in inflammation and apoptosis associated with oxidative stress, which may lead to splenic injury in mice. Moreover, both VitE and Cur could antagonize the oxidative stress induced by DBP to reduce splenic injury. These findings help to expand our understanding of DBP-mediated immunotoxicity, and to show that VitE and Cur can alleviate DBP-induced splenic injury and the possible DBP-associated decline in immune function.

12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1609: 460509, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515076

RESUMO

A simple and efficient sample preparation method to extract four bioactive compounds (echinacoside, specnuezhenide, oleuropein and nuezhenoside G13) from Ligustri Lucidi Fructus was established by vortex-forced matrix solid phase dispersion (VFMSPD) method. Chitosan solution was applied as green eluent in this procedure and Celite AZO was employed as dispersant. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet (UV) detector was used to analyze the target analytes. The best result of the investigation was obtained with Celite AZO as dispersant, sample/ dispersant ratio as 1:1, grinding for 2 min, 1 mL high-viscosity chitosan solution (0.5 mg mL-1) used as the elution reagent and vortex mixing for 1.5 min. The method exhibit a good linearity for the analytes (r2 > 0.999). The absolute recoveries of the four target compounds in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus ranged from 90.7% to 98.8% and the relative recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 99.2% to 102% (RSD ≤ 3.4%), which were obtained by the final optimization method. Consequently, the newly developed chitosan solution-based vortex-forced matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) combined with HPLC could be efficiently applied to extract and analyze the target compounds in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus samples.

13.
Bone ; 130: 115085, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteocalcin (OC), an osteoblast-specific secreted protein expressed by mature osteoblasts, is used in clinical practice and in research as a marker of bone turnover. The carboxylated (cOC) and undercarboxylated (ucOC) forms may have a different biological function but age-specific reference ranges for these components are not established. Given the different physiological roles, development of reference ranges may help to identify people at risk for bone disease. METHODS: Blood was collected in the morning after an overnight fast from 236 adult men (18 to 92 years old) free of diabetes, antiresorptive, warfarin or glucocorticoid use. Serum was analyzed for total osteocalcin (tOC) and the ucOC fraction using the hydroxyapatite binding method. cOC, ucOC/tOC and cOC/tOC ratios were calculated. Reference intervals were established by polynomial quantile regression analysis. RESULTS: The normal ranges for young men (≤30 years) were: tOC 17.9-56.8 ng/mL, ucOC 7.1-22.0 ng/mL, cOC 8.51-40.3 ng/mL (2.5th to 97.5th quantiles). Aging was associated with a "U" shaped pattern for tOC, cOC and ucOC levels. ucOC/tOC ratio was higher, while cOC/tOC ratio was lower in men of advanced age. Age explained ∼31%, while body mass index explained ∼4%, of the variance in the ratios. CONCLUSIONS: We have defined normal reference ranges for the OC forms in Australian men and demonstrated that the OC ratios may be better measures, than the absolute values, to identify the age-related changes on OC in men. These ratios may be incorporated into future research and clinical trials, and their associations with prediction of events, such as fracture or diabetes risk, should be determined.

14.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(1): 132-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cornu Caprae Hircus (goat horn, GH), a medicinal animal horn, is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine, and hydrolysis is one of the most important processes for GH pretreatment in pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this study, on-line Raman spectroscopy was applied to monitor the GH hydrolysis process by the development of partial least squares (PLS) calibration models for different groups of amino acids. METHODS: Three steps were considered in model development. In the first step, design of experiments (DOE)-based preprocessing method selection was conducted. In the second step, the optimal spectral co-addition number was determined. In the third step, sample selection or reconstruction methods based on hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were used to extract or reconstruct representative calibration sets from the pool of hydrolysis process samples and investigated for their ability to improve model performance. KEY FINDINGS: This study has shown the feasibility of using on-line Raman spectral analysis for monitoring the GH hydrolysis process based on the designed measurement system and appropriate model development steps. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed Raman-based calibration models are expected to be used in GH hydrolysis process monitoring, leading to more rapid material information acquisition, deeper process understanding, more accurate endpoint determination and thus better product quality consistency.

15.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792004

RESUMO

A trispecific hybrid, MTP (hereafter called tripsazea), was developed from intergeneric crosses involving tetraploid Zea mays (2n = 4x = 40, genome: MMMM), tetraploid Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 4x = 72, TTTT), and tetraploid Z perennis (2n = 4x = 40, PPPP). On crossing maize-Tripsacum (2n = 4x = 56, MMTT) with Z perennis, 37 progenies with varying chromosome numbers (36-74) were obtained, and a special one (i.e., tripsazea) possessing 2n = 74 chromosomes was generated. Tripsazea is perennial and expresses phenotypic characteristics affected by its progenitor parent. Flow cytometry analysis of tripsazea and its parents showed that tripsazea underwent DNA sequence elimination during allohexaploidization. Of all the chromosomes in diakinesis I, 18.42% participated in heterogenetic pairing, including 16.43% between the M- and P-genomes, 1.59% between the M- and T-genomes, and 0.39% in T- and P-genome pairing. Tripsazea is male sterile and partly female fertile. In comparison with previously synthesized trihybrids containing maize, Tripsacum and teosinte, tripsazea has a higher chromosome number, higher seed setting rate, and vegetative propagation ability of stand and stem. However, few trihybrids possess these valuable traits at the same time. The potential of tripsazea is discussed with respect to the deployment of the genetic bridge for maize improvement and forage breeding.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121772, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813685

RESUMO

In this paper, YSZ-based mixed potential SO2 sensor with ZnGa2O4 and Pt electrodes was developed and the effect of the continuous testing and aging process on the sensing characteristics was discussed. The results showed that with this process the response of the sensor to SO2 performed an opposite direction to that in the sensor's initial state. The reason might be that the PtS produced at the Pt electrode increased the electrochemical catalytic activity of the Pt electrode, leading to the mixed potential of the Pt electrode higher than that of the ZnGa2O4 electrode. XPS and EDS results proved that a lot of Pt2+ and S2- were produced at Pt electrode after this process. Moreover, vulcanized sensor also performed similar sensing properties to the above aging sensor, which indicated that the produced PtS should be the reason that the sensor performed reverse deflection on sensing properties. In addition, the sensor after sulfuration can detect 0.05-500 ppm SO2 with the sensitivity being 5 mV/decade to 0.05-1 ppm and 41 mV/decade to 1-500 ppm. The sensor also had a reliable stability during the continuous measurement.

17.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 5093803, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885737

RESUMO

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers for left ventricular remodeling in postinfarction heart failure (HF). However, the diagnostic reproducibility of the use of circulating miRNAs may be affected by the temporal expression of miRNAs following myocardial infarction (MI). In the current study, using a MI-induced HF rat cohort (4-, 8-, and 12-week post-MI groups), we investigated the temporal expression of plasma miRNAs during the development of left ventricular remodeling. The plasma miRNA expression profile was obtained using miRNA sequencing. The expression of candidate miRNAs in plasma and tissues was examined with real-time PCR. Target genes of candidate miRNAs were predicted using a parallel miRNA-messenger RNA expression profiling approach. The value of plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for left ventricular remodeling was evaluated in patients with postinfarction HF (n = 32) and control patients with stable angina and without significant coronary lesions and HF (n = 16) with real-time PCR. Although the expression levels of miR-20a-5p, miR-340-5p, and let-7i-5p were temporally regulated in plasma, myocardium, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the expression levels of plasma miRNAs, especially miR-20a-5p, were associated with the development of left ventricular remodeling in the postinfarction HF rat cohort. The target genes of these 3 miRNAs were associated with the mechanistic target of rapamycin, nuclear factor-κB, tumour necrosis factor, apoptosis, and p53 signaling pathways. Additionally, the plasma levels of miR-20a-5p, miR-340-5p, and let-7i-5p were significantly increased in patients with postinfarction HF. However, only the expression levels of miR-20a-5p presented significant positive correlations with left ventricular internal end diastolic dimension and left ventricular end diastolic volume. In conclusion, the expression levels of plasma miR-20a-5p were significantly associated with the degree of left ventricular dilatation, and plasma miR-20a-5p may be a potential biomarker for postinfarction left ventricular remodeling.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3924-3934, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854854

RESUMO

Based on the concentrations of 21 inorganic elements in particulate matter with diameters less than 10 µm (PM10) in 2004, and PM2.5 in 2004 and 2013 of representative road dust in Beijing, the pollution characteristics and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in this dust were analyzed and discussed. The results showed that the six main elements in road dust in Beijing were Si, Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, and K, and the proportions of the total content of the six elements in PM10 in 2004, PM2.5 in 2004, and PM2.5 in 2013 accounted for 96.51%, 96.42%, and 96.53% of the total content of all elements tested, respectively. The elemental enrichment level and the pollution degree and the potential ecological risk of heavy metal in road dust in Beijing in 2004 were PM2.5>PM10. Se, a characteristic element of coal dust, was highly enriched in PM2.5 in 2004, and Cd was high in PM10 and PM2.5 in 2004 with enrichment factors of 1024.03, 68.15, and 871.55, respectively. Co, Zn, Ca, and Cu were significantly enriched in PM10 and PM2.5 in 2004 with enrichment factors of 12.93, 12.33, 8.30, and 8.07 in PM10 and 17.41, 21.80, 12.83, and 19.73 in PM2.5, respectively; Na and Si were not enriched in the road dust. The pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals was 3.95 in PM10 and 7.71 in PM2.5 in 2004. Owing to the implementation of dust, motor vehicles, and combustion source control measures in Beijing and the relocation of the Shougang corporation, the elemental enrichment level, pollution degree, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in road dust PM2.5 in 2013 were significantly lower than those in 2004. The enrichment factors of Cd and Se in PM2.5 in 2013 decreased to 98.47 and 0.95, respectively; those of Cu, Ca, and Zn decreased to 11.90, 8.84, and 8.20, respectively; and PLI decreased to 2.56. The results showed that the total potential ecological risk of heavy metals in road dust in Beijing was extremely strong. Heavy metal Cd was the most significant pollution factor and the main potential ecological risk source; its potential ecological risk index (RI) contribution to the total RI of heavy metals was more than 85%. In 2004, the pollution degree of heavy metals in road dust of main roads was significantly higher than that for other road types. The pollution degree of heavy metals in PM10 was main road > expressway entrance to Beijing > secondary main road > ring road; that for PM2.5 was main road > ring road > expressway entrance to Beijing > secondary main road. For PM2.5 in 2013, however, the order was expressway entrance to Beijing > main road > ring road > secondary main road. The pollution degree of heavy metals in road dust of secondary main roads was significantly lower than that for other road types. In 2013, for road dust PM2.5 in Beijing, the correlation of heavy metals Ti, Zn, V, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Ni was significant owing mainly to traffic-related emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Medição de Risco , Pequim , Poeira , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5334, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767869

RESUMO

Protein products of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) gene family are important regulators of many cellular processes. Here we functionally characterise a non-protein coding product of the family, the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) REG1CP that is transcribed from a DNA fragment at the family locus previously thought to be a pseudogene. REG1CP forms an RNA-DNA triplex with a homopurine stretch at the distal promoter of the REG3A gene, through which the DNA helicase FANCJ is tethered to the core promoter of REG3A where it unwinds double stranded DNA and facilitates a permissive state for glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα)-mediated REG3A transcription. As such, REG1CP promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenicity and its upregulation is associated with poor outcome of patients. REG1CP is also transcriptionally inducible by GRα, indicative of feedforward regulation. These results reveal the function and regulation of REG1CP and suggest that REG1CP may constitute a target for cancer treatment.

20.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769594

RESUMO

Hydrosoluble trehalose lipid (a biosurfactant) was employed for the first time as a green extraction solution to extract the main antioxidant compounds (geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin) from functional plant tea (Eucommia ulmoides leaves). Single-factor tests and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the extraction conditions for ultrasound-assisted micellar extraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography in succession. A Box-Behnken design (three-level, three-factorial) was used to determine the effects of extraction solvent concentration (1-5 mg/mL), extraction solvent volume (5-15 mL), and extraction time (20-40 min) at a uniform ultrasonic power and temperature. In consequence, the best analyte extraction yields could be attained when the trehalose lipid solution concentration was prepared at 3 mg/mL, the trehalose lipid solution volume was 10 mL and the extraction time was set to 35 min. In addition, the recoveries of the antioxidants from Eucommia ulmoides leaves analyzed by this analytical method ranged from 98.2 to 102%. These results indicated that biosurfactant-enhanced ultrasound-assisted micellar extraction coupled with a simple ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography method could be effectively applied in the extraction and analysis of antioxidants from Eucommia ulmoides leaf samples.

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