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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(15): 5826-5835, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848163

RESUMO

Parastichy, the spiral arrangement of plant organs, is an example of the long-range apparent order seen in biological systems. These ordered arrangements provide scientists with both an aesthetic challenge and a mathematical inspiration. Synthetic efforts to replicate the regularity of parastichy may allow for molecular-scale control over particle arrangement processes. Here we report the packing of a supramolecular truncated cuboctahedron (TCO) into double-helical (DH) nanowires on a graphite surface with a non-natural parastichy pattern ascribed to the symmetry of the TCOs and interactions between TCOs. Such a study is expected to advance our understanding of the design inputs needed to create complex, but precisely controlled, hierarchical materials. It is also one of the few reported helical packing structures based on Platonic or Archimedean solids since the discovery of the Boerdijk-Coxeter helix. As such, it may provide experimental support for studies of packing theory at the molecular level.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(2): 1162-1170, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382241

RESUMO

Nature has been inspiring scientists to fabricate impact protective materials for applications in various aspects. However, it is still challenging to integrate flexible, stiffness-changeable, and protective properties into a single polymer, although these merits are of great interest in many burgeoning areas. Herein, we report an impact-protective supramolecular polymeric material (SPM) with unique impact-hardening and reversible stiffness-switching characteristics by mimicking sea cucumber dermis. The emergence of softness-stiffness switchability and subsequent protective properties relies on the dynamic aggregation of the nanoscale hard segments in soft transient polymeric networks modulated by quadruple H-bonding. As such, we demonstrate that our SPM could efficiently reduce the impact force and increase the buffer time of the impact. Importantly, we elucidate the underlying mechanism behind the impact hardening and energy dissipation in our SPM. Based on these findings, we fabricate impact- and puncture-resistant demos to show the potential of our SPM for protective applications.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251790

RESUMO

A thin filament stimulated by Ca2+ to combine with myosin is the structural basis to achieve filament sliding and muscle contraction. Though a large variety of artificial materials has been developed by mimicking muscle, the on-demand combination of the actin filament and myosin has never been precisely reproduced in polymeric systems. Herein, we show that both the combination process and the combined structure of actin filament and myosin have been mimicked to construct synergistic covalent and supramolecular polymers (CSPs). Specifically, photoirradiation as a stimulus induces the independently formed covalent polymers (CPs) and supramolecular polymers (SPs) to interact with each other through activated quadruple H-bonding. The resultant CSPs possess a unique network structure which not only facilitates the synergistic effect of CPs and SPs to afford stiff, strong, yet tough materials but also provides efficient pathways to dissipate energy with the damping capacity of the representative material being higher than 95%. Furthermore, muscle functions, for example, by becoming stiff during contraction and self-growth by training, are imitated well in our system via in situ phototriggered formation of CSP in the solid state. We hope that the fundamental understanding gained from this work will promote the development of synergistic CSP systems with emergent functions and applications by mimicking the principle of muscle movements.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946649

RESUMO

Supramolecular cages/vesicles in biology display sophisticated structures and functions by utilizing a few types of protein subunit quasi-equivalently at distinct geometrical locations. However, synthetic supramolecular cages still lack comparable complexity to reach the high levels of functionality found in natural systems. Herein we report the self-assembly of giant pentagonal supramolecular prisms (molecular weight >50 kDa) with tetratopic pyridinyl subunits serving different geometrical roles within the structures, and their packing into a novel superstructure with unexpected three-fold rotational symmetry in a single two-dimensional layer of crystalline state. The formation of these complicated structures is controlled by both the predetermined angles of the ligands and the mismatched structural tensions created from the multi-layered geometry of the building blocks. Such a self-assembly strategy is extensively used by viruses to increase the volume and complexity of capsids and would provide a new approach to construct highly sophisticated supramolecular architectures.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(33): 14343-14349, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787257

RESUMO

Weaving technology has been widely used to manufacture macroscopic fabrics to meet the artistic and practical needs of humanity for thousands of years. However, the fabrication of molecular fabrics with fascinating topologies and unique mechanical properties represents a significant challenge. Herein, we describe a topological transformation strategy to construct woven polymer networks (WPNs) at the molecular level via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a zinc-template [2]catenane. The key feature of this approach is the exploitation of the pre-existing catenane crossing points that maintain the dense woven structure and the flexible alkyl chains on the [2]catenane that synergistically work with the crossing points to modulate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the woven materials. As a result, the WPN possesses a certain degree of flexibility and stretchability, as well as high thermostability and mechanical robustness. Furthermore, we could remove the zinc ions to endow the WPN with more degrees of freedom and then enhance its mechanical behaviors by remetalation. This study not only provides a novel strategy toward woven materials with intriguing structural features and emergent mechanical adaptivities, but also highlights that mechanically interlocked molecules could offer unique opportunities for the construction of smart supramolecular materials with peculiar interlaced topologies at the molecular scale.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3362, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620794

RESUMO

Intrinsically and fully stretchable active-matrix-driven displays are an important element to skin electronics that can be applied to many emerging fields, such as wearable electronics, consumer electronics and biomedical devices. Here, we show for the first time a fully stretchable active-matrix-driven organic light-emitting electrochemical cell array. Briefly, it is comprised of a stretchable light-emitting electrochemical cell array driven by a solution-processed, vertically integrated stretchable organic thin-film transistor active-matrix, which is enabled by the development of chemically-orthogonal and intrinsically stretchable dielectric materials. Our resulting active-matrix-driven organic light-emitting electrochemical cell array can be readily bent, twisted and stretched without affecting its device performance. When mounted on skin, the array can tolerate to repeated cycles at 30% strain. This work demonstrates the feasibility of skin-applicable displays and lays the foundation for further materials development.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Elastômeros/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletroquímica , Éteres/química , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Luminescência , Teste de Materiais , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Pele
7.
Small ; 16(26): e2000923, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500637

RESUMO

Supramolecular polymer sorting is a promising approach to separating single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electronic type. Unlike conjugated polymers, they can be easily removed from the CNTs after sorting by breaking the supramolecular bonds, allowing for isolation of electronically pristine CNTs as well as facile recycling of the sorting polymer. However, little is understood about how supramolecular polymer properties affect CNT sorting. Herein, chain stoppers are used to engineer the conformation of a supramolecular sorting polymer, thereby elucidating the relationship between sorting efficacy and polymer conformation. Through NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and thermodynamic modeling, it is shown that this supramolecular polymer exhibits ring-chain equilibrium, and that this equilibrium can be skewed toward chains by the addition of chain stoppers. Furthermore, by controlling the stopper-monomer ratio, the sorting yield can be doubled from 7% to 14% without compromising the semiconducting purity (>99%) or properties of sorted CNTs.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(29): 12139-12146, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293777

RESUMO

Nature has engineered delicate synergistic covalent and supramolecular polymers (CSPs) to achieve advanced life functions, such as the thin filaments that assist in muscle contraction. Constructing artificial synergistic CSP materials with bioinspired mechanically adaptive features, however, represents a challenging goal. Here, we report an artificial CSP system to illustrate the integration of a covalent polymer (CP) and a supramolecular polymer (SP) in a synergistic fashion, along with the emergence of notable mechanical and dynamic properties which are unattainable when the two polymers are formed individually. The synergistic effect relies on the peculiar network structures of the SP and CPs, which endow the resultant CSPs with overall improved mechanical performance in terms of the stiffness, strength, stretchability, toughness, and elastic recovery. Moreover, the dynamic properties of the SP, including self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and reprocessing, are also retained in the CSPs, thus leading to their application as programmable and tunable materials.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(58): 8031-8034, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167120

RESUMO

Herein, supramolecular polymeric elastomers crosslinked by metal-organic polyhedra (ElastoMOPs) were designed and developed as a novel hybrid system featuring not only tunable mechanical properties but also dynamic actuation behaviors in response to dichloromethane vapor.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(25): 10013-10017, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011799

RESUMO

Herein, the trackable supramolecular transformation of a two-component molecular cage to a three-component cage through supramolecular fusion with another two-component molecular square is described. The use of tetraphenylethene (TPE), a chromophore with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) character, as a component for the molecular cages enables facile fluorescence monitoring of the transformation process: while both cages exhibit fluorescence emission via the restriction of intramolecular motion of the TPE motif, the interactions between TPE and 4,4'-bipyridine introduced in the supramolecular fusion process result in partial fluorescence quenching and shifts in the emission maximum. This study provides a simple and efficient approach towards complex supramolecular cages with emergent functions and demonstrates that AIE features could provide unique opportunities for the characterization of complex, dynamic supramolecular transformation processes.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(4): 2051-2058, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905287

RESUMO

Supramolecular polymers based on host-guest molecular recognition have emerged as promising platforms for the development of smart materials. However, the studies on them are primarily conducted in solution and/or in the gel state. In contrast, little is known about dynamic properties and applications of supramolecular polymers in bulk. Herein, we present a self-cross-linking supramolecular polymer network (SPN) as a model system to understand the bulk properties controlled by noncovalent interactions. Specifically, the SPN monomer is composed of two benzo-21-crown-7 (B21C7) host units and two dialkylammonium salt guest moieties on a four-arm core, wherein complementary host-guest complexation drives the formation of the SPN with [2]pseudorotaxane linkages between B21C7 and ammonium motifs. The dynamic and reversible behaviors of the linkages are evaluated by measurement of viscoelasticity. The results indicate that the host-guest molecular recognition becomes highly dynamic at elevated temperature. Moreover, the relatively high activation energy of the SPN manifests itself as a new type of thermoplastic material with network topology freezing glass transition. Finally, we demonstrate how these findings provide insights into the malleability and processability of the SPN by simple demos. The fundamental understanding gained from the research on this SPN in bulk will facilitate the advancement and application of supramolecular materials.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5384, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772158

RESUMO

The emergence of wearable electronics puts batteries closer to the human skin, exacerbating the need for battery materials that are robust, highly ionically conductive, and stretchable. Herein, we introduce a supramolecular design as an effective strategy to overcome the canonical tradeoff between mechanical robustness and ionic conductivity in polymer electrolytes. The supramolecular lithium ion conductor utilizes orthogonally functional H-bonding domains and ion-conducting domains to create a polymer electrolyte with unprecedented toughness (29.3 MJ m-3) and high ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C). Implementation of the supramolecular ion conductor as a binder material allows for the creation of stretchable lithium-ion battery electrodes with strain capability of over 900% via a conventional slurry process. The supramolecular nature of these battery components enables intimate bonding at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Combination of these stretchable components leads to a stretchable battery with a capacity of 1.1 mAh cm-2 that functions even when stretched to 70% strain. The method reported here of decoupling ionic conductivity from mechanical properties opens a promising route to create high-toughness ion transport materials for energy storage applications.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23437-23443, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685638

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has become one of the major threats to global health. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) develops little antibiotic resistance; thus, it becomes a promising strategy in the control of bacterial infection. During a PDI process, light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage the membrane components, leading to the membrane rupture and bacteria death. Due to the short half-life and reaction radius of ROS, achieving the cell-membrane intercalation of photosensitizers is a key challenge for PDI of bacteria. In this work, a tetraphenylethylene-based discrete organoplatinum(II) metallacycle (1) acts as a photosensitizer with aggregation-induced emission. It self-assembles with a transacting activator of transduction (TAT) peptide-decorated virus coat protein (2) through electrostatic interactions. This assembly (3) exhibits both ROS generation and strong membrane-intercalating ability, resulting in significantly enhanced PDI efficiency against bacteria. By intercalating in the bacterial cell membrane or entering the bacteria, assembly 3 decreases the survival rate of gram-negative Escherichia coli to nearly zero and that of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus to ∼30% upon light irradiation. This study has wide implications from the generation of multifunctional nanomaterials to the control of bacterial infection, especially for gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Ácidos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos do Gene tat/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Ácidos Acíclicos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Staphylococcus aureus/ultraestrutura , Eletricidade Estática , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(24): 9673-9679, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125220

RESUMO

The intrinsic relationship between the properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its encapsulated small molecular light machine has spurred many biomimicking studies, aiming at revealing the detailed mechanism and further promoting its wide applications in different disciplines. However, how to build a similar confined microenvironment to mimic the cavity of a ß-barrel and the fluorescence turn-on process is a fundamental challenge for both chemists and biologists. Herein, two distinct exo- and endo-functionalized tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-based M12L24 nanospheres with precise distribution of anchored TPE moieties and unique photophysical properties were constructed by means of a coordination-driven self-assembly strategy. Under dilute conditions, the nanospheres fluoresce more strongly than the corresponding TPE subcomponents. Meanwhile, the endo-functionalized sphere is able to induce a higher local concentration and more restrained motion of the enclosed 24 TPE units compared with exo-functionalized counterpart and thus induces much stronger emission due to the restriction of the rotation of the pendant TPE units. The biomimetic methodology developed here represents a promising way to understand and construct artificial GFP materials on the platforms of supramolecular coordination complexes.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanosferas/química , Estilbenos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Materiais Biomiméticos/efeitos da radiação , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Ligantes , Nanosferas/efeitos da radiação , Estilbenos/síntese química , Estilbenos/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
Adv Mater ; 31(12): e1807328, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694589

RESUMO

A novel ion-conducting supramolecular hydrogel with reversible photoconductive properties in which the azobenzene motif, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), and ionic liquid are grafted onto the gel matrix is reported. Host-guest interactions with different association constants between α-CD and azobenzene or the anionic part of the ionic liquid can be readily tuned by photoinduced trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene unit. When irradiated by 365 nm light, α-CD prefers to form a complex with the anionic part of the ionic liquid, resulting in decreased ionic mobility and thus high resistance of the hydrogel. However, under 420 nm light irradiation, a more stable complex is again formed between α-CD and trans-azobenzene, thereby releasing the bound anions to regenerate the low-resistive hydrogel. As such, remote control of the ionic conductivity of the hydrogel is realized by simple host-guest chemistry. With the incorporation of a logic gate, this hydrogel is able to reversibly switch an electric circuit on and off by light irradiation with certain wavelengths. The concept of photoswitchable ionic conductivity of a hydrogel mediated by competitive molecular recognition is potentially promising toward the fabrication of optoelectronic devices and applications in bioelectronic technology.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(32): 10297-10304, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067349

RESUMO

Three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon materials with flower-like superstructures are of great interest for energy applications since their unique shape not only provides high accessible surface area and consequently more exposed active sites but also facilitates ion transport for high-rate capability. However, finding a controllable way to make porous carbons with such specific shapes has been challenging. Herein, we report a tunable and simple method for one-pot synthesis of polyacrylonitrile and its copolymer nanostructured particles with various superstructures (flower, pompom, hairy leave, and petal shapes) controlled by employing various solvents or by the incorporation of different co-monomers. The correlation between polymer particle shapes and solvent properties has been identified through Hansen solubility parameters analysis. The obtained uniform polyacrylonitrile particles could be readily converted into porous carbons by high-temperature gas treatment while maintaining the original shape of the polymer precursor structures. The resulting carbon materials have high nitrogen-doping concentration (7-15 at%) and tunable porous structures. This novel synthetic method provides a simple way to make porous carbons with controllable morphology and potentially advantageous properties for a variety of potential energy and environmental applications, such as electrochemical energy conversion and wastewater treatment.

17.
Adv Mater ; : e1801435, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978512

RESUMO

Adopting self-healing, robust, and stretchable materials is a promising method to enable next-generation wearable electronic devices, touch screens, and soft robotics. Both elasticity and self-healing are important qualities for substrate materials as they comprise the majority of device components. However, most autonomous self-healing materials reported to date have poor elastic properties, i.e., they possess only modest mechanical strength and recoverability. Here, a substrate material designed is reported based on a combination of dynamic metal-coordinated bonds (ß-diketone-europium interaction) and hydrogen bonds together in a multiphase separated network. Importantly, this material is able to undergo self-healing and exhibits excellent elasticity. The polymer network forms a microphase-separated structure and exhibits a high stress at break (≈1.8 MPa) and high fracture strain (≈900%). Additionally, it is observed that the substrate can achieve up to 98% self-healing efficiency after 48 h at 25 °C, without the need of any external stimuli. A stretchable and self-healable dielectric layer is fabricated with a dual-dynamic bonding polymer system and self-healable conductive layers are created using polymer as a matrix for a silver composite. These materials are employed to prepare capacitive sensors to demonstrate a stretchable and self-healable touch pad.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(24): 7674-7680, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856215

RESUMO

Herein, we report the preparation of a multifunctional metallacage-core supramolecular gel by orthogonal metal coordination and host-guest interactions. A tetragonal prismatic cage with four appended 21-crown-7 (21C7) moieties in its pillar parts was first prepared via the metal-coordination-driven self-assembly of cis-Pt(PEt3)2(OTf)2, tetraphenylethene (TPE)-based sodium benzoate ligands and linear dipyridyl ligands. Further addition of a bisammonium linker to the cage delivered a supramolecular polymer network via the host-guest interactions between the 21C7 moieties and ammonium salts, which formed a supramolecular gel at relatively higher concentrations. Due to the incorporation of a TPE derivative as the fluorophore, the gel shows emission properties. Multiple stimuli responsiveness and good self-healing properties were also observed because of the dynamic metal coordination and host-guest interactions used to stabilize the whole network structure. Moreover, the storage and loss moduli of the gel are 10-fold those of the gel without the metallacage cores, indicating that the rigid metallacage plays a significant role in enhancing the stiffness of the gel. The studies described herein not only enrich the functionalization of fluorescent metallacages via elegant ligand design but also provide a way to prepare stimuli-responsive and self-healing supramolecular gels as robust and smart materials.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Géis/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Polímeros/química , Compostos de Benzilideno/síntese química , Compostos de Benzilideno/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Éteres de Coroa/síntese química , Éteres de Coroa/química , Fluorescência , Géis/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/síntese química , Polímeros/síntese química , Reologia
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(25): 7851-7859, 2018 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874062

RESUMO

Heteroatom-doped carbons have drawn increasing research interest as catalysts for various electrochemical reactions due to their unique electronic and surface structures. In particular, co-doping of carbon with boron and nitrogen has been shown to provide significant catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, limited experimental work has been done to systematically study these materials, and much remains to be understood about the nature of the active site(s), particularly with regards to the factors underlying the activity enhancements of these boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) materials. Herein, we prepare several BCN materials experimentally with a facile and controlled synthesis method, and systematically study their electrochemical performance. We demonstrate the existence of h-BN domains embedded in the graphitic structures of these materials using X-ray spectroscopy. These synthesized structures yield higher activity and selectivity toward the 2e- ORR to H2O2 than structures with individual B or N doping. We further employ density functional theory calculations to understand the role of a variety of h-BN domains within the carbon lattice for the ORR and find that the interface between h-BN domains and graphene exhibits unique catalytic behavior that can preferentially drive the production of H2O2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of h-BN domains in carbon identified as a novel system for the electrochemical production of H2O2.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(15): 5280-5289, 2018 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595956

RESUMO

Herein, we report a de novo chemical design of supramolecular polymer materials (SPMs-1-3) by condensation polymerization, consisting of (i) soft polymeric chains (polytetramethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol) and (ii) strong and reversible quadruple H-bonding cross-linkers (from 0 to 30 mol %). The former contributes to the formation of the soft domain of the SPMs, and the latter furnishes the SPMs with desirable mechanical properties, thereby producing soft, stretchable, yet tough elastomers. The resulting SPM-2 was observed to be highly stretchable (up to 17 000% strain), tough (fracture energy ∼30 000 J/m2), and self-healing, which are highly desirable properties and are superior to previously reported elastomers and tough hydrogels. Furthermore, a gold, thin film electrode deposited on this SPM substrate retains its conductivity and combines high stretchability (∼400%), fracture/notch insensitivity, self-healing, and good interfacial adhesion with the gold film. Again, these properties are all highly complementary to commonly used polydimethylsiloxane-based thin film metal electrodes. Last, we proceed to demonstrate the practical utility of our fabricated electrode via both in vivo and in vitro measurements of electromyography signals. This fundamental understanding obtained from the investigation of these SPMs will facilitate the progress of intelligent soft materials and flexible electronics.


Assuntos
Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/síntese química , Polímeros/síntese química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Eletrodos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Conformação Molecular , Polímeros/química
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