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1.
Phytochemistry ; 186: 112736, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799193

RESUMO

Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata, as a traditional medicine, is widely distributed in China, Korea and Japan. In China, the dried root of this plant is named 'langdu'. It is traditionally used to treat oedema, skin ulcers, abdominal distension, cough, asthma, tuberculosis swelling and other diseases. Previous studies have found that the chemical constituents of E. ebracteolata are mainly concentrated in terpenoids, acetophenones, and flavonoids. Both extracts and pure compounds from E. ebracteolata were found to possess many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects. In addition, it was reported that E. ebracteolata shows toxicity. To provide inspiration for further in-depth studies on this plant, this review will provide a timely and systematic summary of E. ebracteolata in traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology toxicology, and quality control.

2.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways are known to improve patient outcomes after surgery. In recent years, there have been growing interest in ERAS for reconstructive surgery. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and summarise literature on the key components and outcomes of ERAS pathways for autologous flap-based reconstruction. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and reference lists of relevant studies. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All primary studies of ERAS pathways for free and pedicled flap-based reconstructions reported in the English language. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was length of stay. Secondary outcomes were complication rates including total flap loss, partial flap loss, unplanned reoperation within 30 days, readmission to hospital within 30 days, surgical site infections and medical complications. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included. Eleven studies describe ERAS pathways for autologous breast reconstructions and five for autologous head and neck reconstructions. Length of stay was lower in ERAS groups compared to control groups (mean reduction, 1.57 days; 95% CI, - 2.15 to - 0.99). Total flap loss, partial flap loss, unplanned reoperations, readmissions, surgical site infections and medical complication rates were similar between both groups. Compliance rates were poorly reported. CONCLUSION: ERAS pathways for flap-based reconstruction reduce length of stay without increasing complication rates. ERAS pathways should be adapted to each institution according to their needs, resources and caseload. There is potential for the development of ERAS pathways for chest wall, perineum and lower limb reconstruction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 159, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) is a common manifestation of preclinical cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence in a cohort of young Chinese individuals. METHODS: (1) A total of 1515 participants aged 36-45 years old from our previously established cohort who were followed up in 2017 were included. Cross-sectional analysis was used to examine risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence. (2) A total of 235 participants were recruited from the same cohort in 2013 and were followed up in 2017. Longitudinal analysis was used to determine the predictors of LVH occurrence over the 4-year period. We used multivariable logistic regression models to calculate OR and 95% CIs and to analyze risk factors for ECG-LVH. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, the prevalence of LVH diagnosed by the Cornell voltage-duration product in the overall population and the hypertensive population was 4.6% and 8.8%, respectively. The logistic regression results shown that female sex [2.611 (1.591-4.583)], hypertension [2.638 (1.449-4.803)], systolic blood pressure (SBP) [1.021 (1.007-1.035)], serum uric acid (SUA) [1.004 (1.001-1.006)] and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) [67.670 (13.352-342.976)] were significantly associated with the risk of LVH (all P < 0.05). In the longitudinal analysis, fasting glucose [1.377 (1.087-1.754)], SBP [1.046 (1.013-1.080)] and female sex [1.242 (1.069-1.853)] were independent predictors for the occurrence of LVH in the fourth year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that female sex, hypertension, SBP, SUA and CIMT were significantly associated with the risk of LVH in young people. In addition, fasting glucose, SBP and female sex are independent predictors of the occurrence of LVH in a young Chinese general population.

4.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817972

RESUMO

Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim.) is a synonym of J. cathayensis, a diploid, vulnerable, temperate deciduous tree valued for its wood and nut. It is also valued as a rootstock for Juglans regia because of its reported tolerance of lesion nematode. Reference genomes are available for several Juglans species, our goal was to produce a de novo, chromosome-level assembly of the J. mandshurica genome. Here, we reported an improved assembly of J. mandshurica with a contig N50 size of 6.49 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 36.1 Mb. The total genome size was 548 Mb encoding 29,032 protein coding genes which were annotated. The collinearity analysis showed that J. mandshurica and J. regia originated from a common ancestor, with both species undergoing two WGD events. A genomic comparison showed that J. mandshurica was missing 1,657 genes found in J. regia, and J. mandshurica includes 2,827 genes not found in of the J. regia genome. The J. mandshurica contained 1,440 unique paralogs that were highly enriched for flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. Four gene families related to disease resistance notable contraction (rapidly evolving) (LEA, WAK, PPR, and PR) in J. mandshurica compared to eight species. JmaPR10 and JmaPR8 contained 3 orthologous gene pairs with J. regia that were highly expressed in root bark. JmaPR10 is a strong candidate gene for lesion nematodes resistance in J. mandshurica. This J. mandshurica genome should be a useful resource for study of the evolution, breeding, and genetic variation in walnuts (Juglans).

5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 41: 127956, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744439

RESUMO

The production of ß-lactamases represents the main cause of resistance to clinically important ß-lactam antibiotics. Boron containing compounds have been demonstrated as promising broad-spectrum ß-lactamase inhibitors to combat ß-lactam resistance. Here we report a series of 3-aryl substituted benzoxaborole derivatives, which manifested broad-spectrum inhibition to representative serine-ß-lactamases (SBLs) and metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs). The most potent inhibitor 9f displayed an IC50 value of 86 nM to KPC-2 SBL and micromolar inhibitory activity towards other tested enzymes. Cell-based assays further revealed that 9f was able to significantly reduce the MICs of meropenem in clinically isolated KPC-2-producing bacterial strains and it showed no apparent toxicity in HEK293T cells.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 125002, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770731

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the metabolic alteration of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), a representative bacterium among methanotrophs, in microbial gas-phase reactions. For comparative metabolome analysis, a bioreactor was designed to be capable of supplying gaseous substrates and liquid nutrients continuously. Methane degradation by M. capsulatus (Bath) was more efficient in a gas-phase reaction operated in the bioreactor than in an aqueous phase reaction operated in a batch reactor. Metabolome analysis revealed remarkable alterations in the metabolism of cells in the gas-phase reaction; in particular, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, some amino acids, xanthine, and hypoxanthine were accumulated, whereas 2,6-diaminopimelate was decreased. Based on the results of metabolome analysis, cells in the gas-phase reaction seemed to alter their metabolism to reduce the excess ATP and NADH generated upon increased availability of methane and oxygen. Our findings will facilitate the development of efficient processes for methane-based bioproduction with low energy consumption.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Methylococcus capsulatus , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Methylococcus capsulatus/metabolismo , Oxigênio , Oxigenases/metabolismo
7.
Environ Int ; 152: 106495, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730632

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been increasingly and widely utilized in various fields, such as agriculture, food and cosmetics. However, various levels of adverse impacts of ZnO NPs on the ecological environment and public health have been associated with each stage of their production, use and disposal. ZnO NPs can be ingested by pregnant women and transferred to developing embryos/foetus through the placental barrier, however, the potential toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic and foetal development is largely unclear. In this study, we discovered that ZnO NPs exposure caused growth proportional failure of neural tube closure in mouse and chicken embryos and a simultaneous increase in apoptosis in the developing neural tubes of chicken embryos, which was verified in an in vitro experiment using the SH-SY5Y cell line. Furthermore, removal of free Zn2+ ions with EDTA or inhibition of Zn2+ ion absorption by CaCl2 partially alleviated the neurotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs, implying that ZnO NPs-induced developmental neurotoxicity is probably due to both ZnO NPs and the Zn2+ ions released from ZnO NPs. In addition, we found that ZnO NPs exposure caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis driven mainly by an increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, rather than by the activation of three membrane protein receptors (ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK). Thus, Ca2+ imbalance-mediated apoptosis in the context of ZnO NPs exposure may lead to cellular dysfunctions in developing neural precursors, such as, abnormalities involved in neural tube closure, ultimately leading to neural tube defects (NTDs) during embryogenesis. In sum, our results revealed that ZnO NPs exposure greatly increases the risk of failure of neural tube closure through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated neural cell death in the developing embryos, which may further lead to the NTD in fetal stage, including failure of neural tube closure.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144705, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736359

RESUMO

The pollution characteristics, spatiotemporal variation, sediment-water partitioning, and potential ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the sediment-seawater system of the Hangzhou Bay (HZB) in summer and autumn were researched. The sum of the concentrations of the 10 PAEs in seawater ranges from 7305 ng/L to 22,861 ng/L in summer and from 8100 ng/L to 33,329 ng/L in autumn, with mean values of 15,567 ± 4390 and 17,884 ± 6850 ng/L, respectively. The Σ16PAEs in the sediments are between 118 and 5888 µg/kg and 145 and 4746 µg/kg in summer and autumn, respectively. The level of PAEs in seawater varies with the seasons, but it is relatively stable in the sediments. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) are the predominant PAE congeners in the HZB. The DnBP and DiBP concentrations in seawater are greater than the DEHP concentration, which is the opposite in the sediments. The sediment-seawater equilibrium distribution study indicates that the PAEs with medium molecular weights, such as DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate, and DnBP, are near dynamic equilibrium in the sediment-seawater system; PAEs with high molecular weights (e.g., di-n-octyl phthalate and DEHP) tend to transfer from water to the sediments; and PAEs with low molecular weights (e.g., dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, and diamyl phthalate) tend to spread to seawater. The risk assessment results in seawater indicate that DEHP and DiBP might pose high potential risks to sensitive organisms, and DnBP might exhibit medium ecological risks. In the sediment, DiBP might display a high potential risk to fish, and the potential risk of DEHP is high in several sites.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767379

RESUMO

Urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) are important targets for the development of uric acid-lowering drugs. We previously showed that the flexible linkers of URAT1 inhibitors could enhance their potency. In this study we designed and synthesized CDER167, a novel RDEA3710 analogue, by introducing a linker (methylene) between the naphthalene and pyridine rings to increase flexibility, and characterized its pharmacological and pharmacokinetics properties in vitro and in vivo. We showed that CDER167 exerted dual-target inhibitory effects on both URAT1 and GLUT9: CDER167 concentration-dependently inhibited the uptake of [14C]-uric acid in URAT1-expressing HEK293 cells with an IC50 value of 2.08 ± 0.31 µM, which was similar to that of RDEA3170 (its IC50 value was 1.47 ± 0.23 µM). Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that CDER167 might interact with URAT1 at S35 and F365. In GLUT9-expressing HEK293T cells, CDER167 concentration-dependently inhibited GLUT9 with an IC50 value of 91.55 ± 15.28 µM, whereas RDEA3170 at 100 µM had no effect on GLUT9. In potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice, oral administration of CDER167 (10 mg·kg-1 · d-1) for 7 days was more effective in lowering uric acid in blood and significantly promoted uric acid excretion in urine as compared with RDEA3170 (20 mg·kg-1 · d-1) administered. The animal experiment proved the safety of CDER167. In addition, CDER167 displayed better bioavailability than RDEA3170, better metabolic stability and no hERG toxicity at 100 µM. These results suggest that CDER167 deserves further investigation as a candidate antihyperuricemic drug targeting URAT1 and GLUT9.

10.
Oncol Rep ; 45(3): 1306-1314, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650669

RESUMO

Non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains an intractable disease, which is primarily due to tumor metastasis and the acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutics to overcome these obstacles. It was recently demonstrated that upregulated expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) contributes to the progression of NSCLC. G10, a tumor­targeting representative conjugate of heptamethine carbocyanine dye and an inhibitor of MAOA, was shown to exert potent cytotoxic effects, comparable to those of doxorubicin, against prostate cancer cell lines, as well as moderate MAOA inhibitory activity. The research described herein aimed to extend our previous study on the antitumor function of G10 in NSCLC in vitro and in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanisms through which G10 exerts its antineoplastic effects. G10 markedly inhibited the proliferation of paclitaxel­resistant NSCLC cells (H460/PTX) and reduced tumor cell migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling of paclitaxel­resistant NSCLC cells following treatment with G10 demonstrated that the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix was significantly affected, particularly the metastasis­related genes matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)2, MMP14 and COL6A, which exhibited notably reduced expression. Additionally, the results also demonstrated that MAOA­related pathways, including AKT and hypoxia­inducible factor­1α, were also inhibited by G10 treatment and, subsequently, the downstream molecules of these pathways, such as p21, MMP2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, were also downregulated, highlighting a possible mechanism through which G10 suppresses tumor cell migration, invasion and proliferation. Importantly, in mouse NSCLC xenografts, combined treatment with G10 and paclitaxel resulted in pronounced inhibition of tumor growth. Taken together, the results of the present study highlight the potential of G10 as a novel therapeutic targeting MAOA in paclitaxel­resistant NSCLC.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723747

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in cardiac fibrosis. We aimed to elucidate the effect of miRNA miR-25-3p on cardiac fibrosis. MiRNA microarray was used to profile miRNAs in the myocardium of angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-infused mice. Effect of miR-25-3p on expression of fibrosis-related genes, including Col1a1, Col3a1, and Acta2, was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-25-3p was shown increased in the myocardium of Ang-II-infused mice and patients with heart failure. MiR-25-3p enhanced fibrosis-related gene expression in mouse cardiac fibroblasts (mCFs) and in the myocardium of Ang-II-infused mice. Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) was identified as a target gene of miR-25-3p, and Dkk3 could ameliorate Smad3 activation and fibrosis-related gene expression via enhancing Smad7 expression in mCFs. Additionally, NF-κB signal was proven to mediate upregulation of miR-25-3p in cardiac fibrosis. Our findings suggest that miR-25-3p enhances cardiac fibrosis by suppressing Dkk3 to activate Smad3 and fibrosis-related gene expression.

12.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1897267, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720807

RESUMO

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1410-1416, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787139

RESUMO

The extract rates, multicomponent content and fingerprint were determined in this study to investigate the quality diffe-rence between standard decoction of raw Paeoniae Radix Alba and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba. UPLC fingerprint was established for 17 batches of standard decoction of raw and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba, and the contents of gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoyl paeoniflorin were determined. The peak areas of standard decoction were analyzed by the independent t-test and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. There was no significant difference in extract rates between the standard decoction of raw and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba. After fried processing, the content of albiflorin increased by 0.26%, while the contents of gallic acid, catechin, paeoniflorin and benzoyl paeoniflorin decreased by 13.04%, 27.97%, 10.30% and 18.79% respectively. There were 14 common peaks in the fingerprint of standard decoction of raw Paeoniae Radix Alba, and 16 common peaks in the fried Paeoniae Radix Alba. Peak 1 and peak 3 were new ones after processing, among which the peak 3 was 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. The results showed that peak 1, peak 3, peak 11 and peak 15 were the key compounds to distinguish standard decoction of raw and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba. In conclusion, this method is stable and can be used for the study of quantity transfer and quality control in the preparation process of standard decoction, granules and other dosage forms for raw and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba, providing reference for the identification of raw and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba and related preparations.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Paeonia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
14.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is the homolog of PAPP-A in the vertebrate genome and its role in protecting against salt-induced hypertension in salt-sensitive rats has been confirmed. We sought to examine the associations of plasma PAPP-A2 levels and its genetic variants with salt sensitivity, blood pressure (BP) changes and hypertension incidence in humans. METHODS: Eighty participants (18-65 years old) sequentially consuming a usual diet, a 7-day low-salt diet (3.0 g/day) and a 7-day high-salt diet (18 g/day). In addition, we studied participants of the original Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study, recruited from 124 families in Northern China in 2004 who received the same salt intake intervention, and evaluated them for the development of hypertension over 14 years. RESULTS: The plasma PAPPA2 levels significantly decreased with the change from baseline to a low-salt diet and decreased further when converting from the low-salt to high-salt diet. SNP rs12042763 in the PAPP-A2 gene was significantly associated with systolic BP responses to both low-salt and high-salt diet while SNP rs2861813 showed a significant association with the changes in SBP and pulse pressure at 14-year follow-up. Additionally, SNPs rs2294654 and rs718067 demonstrated a significant association with the incidence of hypertension over the 14-year follow-up. Finally, the gene-based analysis found that Pappa2 was significantly associated with longitudinal SBP changes and the incidence of hypertension over the 14-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that dietary salt intake affects plasma PAPP-A2 levels and that PAPP-A2 may play a role in salt sensitivity, BP progression and development of hypertension in the Chinese populations.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1306-1314, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742927

RESUMO

Taking the typical heavy air pollution process in Yangquan from December 26, 2018 to January 20, 2019 as an example, the characteristics and cause analysis of heavy air pollution in a mountainous city in winter were analyzed in this study. The results showed that fine particle mass (PM2.5) was the primary pollutant during the heavy pollution period. The water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components were the main components of PM2.5. The secondary ions of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ had the lager contribution to water-soluble ions (87.7%), and the secondary organic carbon (SOC) was the main component of the carbonaceous components (71.6%). The concentration of the secondary ions during the heavy pollution period increased by 5.3 times compared to levels before the heavy pollution period, and was an important component resulting in the fast increase of PM2.5. An analysis of meteorological conditions showed that PM2.5 and its main components had a significantly positive relationship with humidity and a significantly negative relationship with wind speed. And that pollution became stronger with an increase in humidity and a decrease in wind speed. The typical meteorological characteristics of mountainous cities are high relative humidity and large temperature variations, which can accelerate the formation of secondary pollutants and are the main reasons for the rapid aggravation of PM2.5. In addition, the lower average wind speed caused by the relatively closed terrain in mountainous cities makes the diffusion conditions of air pollutants relatively poor, which is one of the reasons for the accumulation of pollutants. The source apportionment results showed that the secondary sources (46.0%) were the most important source of PM2.5, followed by coal combustion (32.6%), vehicle exhaust (19.8%), and fugitive dust (1.6%). Therefore, mountainous cities should pay more attention to controlling secondary components, especially secondary ions.

16.
Phytomedicine ; 84: 153505, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a major neurological condition associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Oxymatrine (OMT), a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the root of Sophora flavescens, has neuroprotective properties and protects against IS. However, whether its protective effect involves alterations in the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is unknown. PURPOSE: Here, we used in vivo and in vitro models of IS to evaluate the protective effects of OMT and to establish whether its effects are mediated via the modulation of the BBB function. METHODS: We assessed the effects of OMT by using neurological function scores, triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, Nissl staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. RESULTS: OMT significantly prevented cellular damage, improved neurological function, and reduced BBB permeability in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Additionally, OMT protected the function of the tight junctions of bEend.3 cells against the consequences of oxygen-glucose deprivation. Furthermore, intracranial lentivirus injection of short hairpin RNA targeting Cav1 decreased caveolin-1 expression and inhibited the neuroprotective effects of OMT. CONCLUSIONS: OMT attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced damage to the BBB, and this neuroprotective action was at least partially dependent on the expression levels of CAV1 and MMP9 proteins. Therefore, OMT may offer effective protection against BBB injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion episodes.

17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(2): 2036-2047, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy and safety of PSORI-CM01 granules with Yinxieling tablets in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP), we plan to conduct a multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, controlled trial. This pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility and the potential of the protocol for the full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: This pilot study was conducted in three centers, and compared PSORI-CM01 granules with Yinxieling tablets in patients with CPP during a 12-week treatment and 3-month follow-up period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the decrease of the psoriasis area severity index (PASI) at week 12. The secondary outcome measures included reduction rates of PASI, pruritus scores on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), body surface area (BSA), and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Safety was assessed via the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in each treatment group. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were screened, and 63 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomised to PSORI-CM01 granule group (N=31) or Yinxieling tablets group (N=32) while 39 subjects finished the study. The primary outcome measure showed a mean decrease of PASI of 2.03 in the PSORICM01 group compared to 0.89 in the Yinxieling group at week 12. Except for the VAS score (t=-2.261, P=0.027), the secondary outcomes showed no significant improvement from baseline in both groups at week 12. No safety or tolerability concerns related to the drugs were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study showed that the RCT is feasible for randomization, patient recruitment, and assessment. Major strategies are necessary to reduce the patient dropout rate before conducting the full RCT. In this pilot study, the PSORI-CM01 granule exhibited greater potential for development compared to its original formula (Yinxieling tablets) for the treatment of CPP.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The host innate immune system can recognize Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) through Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), thereby initiating innate immune responses and subsequent adaptive immune responses. PAMPs can be developed as a vaccine adjuvant for modulating and optimizing antigen-specific immune responses, especially in combating viral infections and tumor therapy. Although several PAMP adjuvants have been successfully developed, they are still lacking in general, and many are in the preclinical exploration stage. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the research progress and development direction of PAMP adjuvants, focusing on their immune mechanisms and clinical applications. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were screened for this information. We highlight the immune mechanisms and clinical applications of PAMP adjuvants. RESULTS: Because of the differences in receptor positions, specific immune cells targets, and signaling pathways, the detailed molecular mechanism and pharmacokinetic properties of one agonist cannot be fully generalized to another agonist, and each PAMP should be studied separately. In addition, combination therapy and effective integration of different adjuvants can increase the additional efficacy of innate and adaptive immune responses. CONCLUSION: The mechanisms by which PAMPs exert adjuvant functions are diverse. With continuous discovery in the future, constant adjustments should be made to build new understandings. At present, the goal of therapeutic vaccination is to induce T cells that can specifically recognize and eliminate tumor cells and establish long-term immune memory. Following immune checkpoint modulation therapy, cancer treatment vaccines may be an option worthy of clinical testing.

19.
Int J Prosthodont ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the wear of zirconia on natural teeth in humans in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Embase, the Cochrane Database, PubMed, and the Web of Science were searched (January 2014 to May 2019), and all references were retrieved. After preliminary screening of the literature, two researchers read the full texts of the remaining literature and determined whether the literature should be included. Data and information were extracted from the included literature, then analyzed and discussed. RESULTS: A total of 49 in vivo experiments and 229 in vitro experiments were retrieved. After duplication removal and screening, 7 in vivo studies and 13 in vitro studies were included. The results of the in vitro studies showed that fine polished zirconia causes less antagonist wear on natural teeth than other treatments with zirconia or other restorative materials. The results of the in vivo studies showed the antagonist wear of zirconia on natural teeth was within the clinically acceptable range. CONCLUSION: Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown polishing can reduce the wear of zirconia on natural teeth more than glazed or veneering porcelain. However, whether glazed zirconia causes less natural tooth wear after polishing is still a matter of debate. Due to the short observation period and heterogeneity of the experiment, the above conclusions should be carefully interpreted.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 116, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558464

RESUMO

Depression, cognitive deficits, and sleep disturbances are common and often severe in menopausal women. Hormone replacement cannot effectively alleviate these symptoms and sometimes elicits life-threatening adverse reactions. Exploring effective therapies to target psychological problems is urgently needed. In this work, we developed a mouse model of menopause by bilateral ovariectomies (OVXs) and investigated whether menopausal mental symptoms can be ameliorated by psychostimulant modafinil (MOD) as well as explored the underlying mechanisms. At ~3 weeks after OVXs, mice got daily intraperitoneal administrations of MOD at the beginning of the active phase. Several behavioral tests and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were conducted. Electrophysiological and immunohistochemical experiments were carried out to evaluate the synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, respectively. We found that chronic MOD administration in OVX mice significantly decreased immobility time. The spatial memory performance of OVX mice improved significantly in response to MOD administration in the Morris water-maze test. The OVX mice were characterized by an attenuation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and synaptic long-term potentiation and had fewer 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus, which were restored after MOD administration. Antagonists of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and GABAA receptor agonists were involved in MOD-exerted anti-depressant actions and augments of hippocampal neurogenesis in OVX mice. Moreover, night-dosed MOD therapy significantly promoted the night-time delta-band EEG power during wakefulness and the day-time rapid eye movement sleep amount, which were significantly reduced by OVXs. Collectively, these findings suggest that MOD is a promising therapeutic candidate for menopausal women.

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