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1.
ACS Omega ; 6(37): 24139-24146, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568692

RESUMO

In this work, a durable superhydrophobic fabric was fabricated by a facile covalent surface modification strategy, in which the anchoring of 10-undecenoyl chloride (UC) onto the fabric through the esterification reaction and covalent grafting of n-dodecyl-thiol (DT) via thiol-ene click chemistry were integrated into one step. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement results demonstrated that UC and DT were covalently grafted onto the fabric surface. The formed gully-like rough structure by the grafted UC and DT on the fabric surface together with the inherent microfiber structure, combined with the grafted low-surface-energy materials of UC and DT, gave the resultant modified DT-UC@fabric superhydrophobic performance. The superhydrophobic DT-UC@fabric was used for separation of oil-water mixtures; it exhibited high separation efficiency of more than 98%. In addition, it presented excellent durability against mechanical damage; even after 100 cyclic tape-peeling and abrasion tests, the DT-UC@fabric could preserve superhydrophobic performance, which was ascribed to the formed covalent interactions between the fabric surface and the grafted UC and DT. Therefore, this work provided a facile, efficient strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic composites with excellent durability, which exhibited a promising prospect in the application of self-cleaning and oil-water separation.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4575-4580, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581064

RESUMO

This study analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of existing animal models in China and abroad and their goodness of fit based on the clinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and western medicine, followed by the collation and summarization of model evaluation methodologies. The results showed that the existing animal models of stable COPD were mainly modeled via smoke exposure or the combination of multiple methods like smoke exposure plus lipopolysaccharide or protease or bacterial infection. These animal models generally failed to simulate the clinical characteristics of TCM, and their goodness of fit in western medicine was higher than that in TCM. There is a lack of research on the animal models of stable COPD and the disease-syndrome combination models. Although the modeling is guided by the pathogenesis or mechanism of diseased humans, the established models were still not identical with the actual clinical situations. In-depth research is needed to develop quantitative standards for stable COPD models.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Modelos Animais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3052-3057, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467695

RESUMO

To study the material basis and mechanism of volatile oil from Alpinia oxyphylla in treating Alzheimer's disease(AD) based on GC-MS and network pharmacology. Ingredients of volatile oil from A.oxyphylla were analyzed by GC-MS. Targets of those ingredients were obtained through Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). Relevant targets of AD were obtained through such databases as DrugBank, STITCH, OMIM. Intersection targets of ingredients and diseases were obtained by Online Venny map, and PPI network was established by STRING to screen out core targets. Gene ontology(GO) functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed by DAVID. The "ingredients-target-pathway" network was constructed by software Cytoscape 3.8.1 to screen out potential active ingredients of volatile oil from A.oxyphylla in the treatment of AD. The results showed that a total of 6 active ingredients were screened from the volatile oil of A.oxyphylla by GC-MS, 17 targets corresponding to 6 active ingredients were found in TCMSP database, and 3 448 AD targets were found in DrugBank database. "Ingredients-target-pathway" network and PPI network showed there were 4 potential active ingredients in the treatment of AD and 4 core targets. GO analysis and KEGG analysis showed 34(P<0.05) and 5(P<0.05) pathways, respectively, including nerve ligand receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway, cholinergic synapse and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic synapse. This suggested that volatile oil from A.oxyphylla could synergistically treat AD by regulating calcium balance, cholinergic balance and phosphorylation. This study provided reference and guidance for further study of volatile oil from A.oxyphylla in the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Doença de Alzheimer , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óleos Voláteis , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
4.
Arch Med Res ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with diabetes face disproportionately more. This study was performed to clarify anti-inflammatory effects of anti-diabetic agents on COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Relevant literature was searched on 15 databases up to November 14, 2020 and was updated on April 13, 2021. The pooled ORs along with 95% CIs were calculated to evaluate combined effects. 31 studies with 66,914 patients were included in qualitative and quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis showed that metformin was associated with a statistically significant lower mortality (pooled OR = 0.62, 95% CI, 0.50-0.76, p = 0.000) and poor composite outcomes (pooled OR = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.71-0.97, p = 0.022) in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Significance of slight lower mortality remained in sulfonylurea/glinides (pooled OR = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.89-0.98, p = 0.004), but of poor composite outcomes was not (pooled OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 0.61-3.60, p = 0.384). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) were associated with statistically non-significant lower mortality (pooled OR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.72-1.26, p = 0.739) or poor composite outcomes (pooled OR = 1.27, 95% CI, 0.91-1.77, p = 0.162) of COVID-19 in diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: Metformin might be beneficial in decreasing mortality and poor composite outcomes in diabetic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. DPP-4 inhibitors, sulfonylurea/glinides, SGLT-2 inhibitors, and GLP-1RA would not seem to be adverse. There was insufficient evidence to conclude effects of other anti-diabetic agents. Limited by retrospective characteristics, with relative weak capability to verify causality, more prospective studies, especially RCTs are needed. Registration number: PROSPERO-CRD42020221951.

5.
Liver Transpl ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify whether radical treatment for HCC oligo-recurrence after liver transplantation conveys survival benefits. METHODS: A retrospective study of 144 patients with post-transplant HCC recurrence was performed. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for baseline covariates between patients receiving radical and palliative treatment. The primary endpoint was post-recurrence survival. RESULTS: Fifty patients (35%) received radical treatment for recurrence, while 76 (53%) and 18 (13%) patients received palliative and supportive treatment, respectively. Comparing to the radical group, patients who received palliative treatment had more early recurrences (time from transplant 17 vs. 11 months, p=0.01) and more extensive disease in terms of tumour numbers (1 vs. 4, p<0.001), size of largest tumour (1.8 vs. 2.5 cm, p=0.046), numbers of involved organs (IQR 1-1 vs. 1-2, p=0.02) and AFP level (7 vs. 40 ng/ml, p=0.01. Multivariate cox-regression analysis revealed that early recurrence (time from transplant HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p=0.001), larger recurrent tumour (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.23, p=0.01), liver recurrence (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.17-2.90, p=0.01) and log10AFP level upon recurrence (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.52, p=0.01) predicted poor survival. mTOR inhibitor (HR 0.331, 95% CI 0.213-0.548, p<0.0001) and radical treatment (HR 0.342, 95% CI 0.213-0.548, p<0.0001) were associated with improved survival. After 2-to-1 propensity score matching for covariates, the 50 patients receiving curative treatment survived significantly longer than the 25 matched patients receiving palliative treatment (median survival 30.9+/-2.4 vs. 19.5+/-3.0 months, p=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Radical treatment conveys survival benefits to hepatocellular carcinoma oligo-recurrence after liver transplantation.

6.
iScience ; 24(8): 102884, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401668

RESUMO

Catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of biomass-derived furfural (FAL) to furfuryl alcohol is recognized as one of the most versatile techniques for biomass valorization. However, the irreversible sintering of metal sites under the high-temperature reaction or during the coke removal regeneration process poses a serious concern. Herein, we present a silicalite-1-confined ultrasmall CuO structure (CuO@silicalite-1) and then compared its catalytic efficiency against conventional surface-supported CuO structure (CuO/silicalite-1) toward CTF of FAL with alcohols. Characterization results revealed that CuO nanoparticles encapsulated within the silicalite-1 matrix are ∼1.3 nm in size in CuO@silicalite-1, exhibiting better dispersion as compared to that in the CuO/silicalite-1. The CuO@silicalite-1, as a result, exhibited nearly 100-fold higher Cu-mass-based activity than the CuO/silicalite-1 counterpart. More importantly, the activity of the CuO@silicalite-1 catalyst can be regenerated via facile calcination to remove the surface-bound carbon deposits, unlike the CuO/silicalite-1 that suffered severe deactivation after use and cannot be effectively regenerated.

7.
Oncogene ; 40(37): 5626-5638, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321603

RESUMO

We identified fermitin family member 2 (FERMT2, also known as kindlin-2) as a potential target in A375 cell line by siRNA library screening. Drugs that target mutant BRAF kinase lack durable efficacy in the treatment of melanoma because of acquired resistance, thus the identification of novel therapeutic targets is needed. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify kindlin-2 expression in melanoma samples. The interaction between kindlin-2 and Rac1 or p-Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor 6 (α-Pix) was investigated. Finally, the tumor suppressive role of kindlin-2 was validated in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of clinical samples and Oncomine data showed that higher levels of kindlin-2 predicted a more advanced T stage and M stage and facilitated metastasis and recurrence. Kindlin-2 knockdown significantly inhibited melanoma growth and migration, whereas kindlin-2 overexpression had the inverse effects. Further study showed that kindlin-2 could specifically bind to p-α-Pix(S13) and Rac1 to induce a switch from the inactive Rac1-GDP conformation to the active Rac1-GTP conformation and then stimulate the downstream MAPK pathway. Moreover, we revealed that a Rac1 inhibitor suppressed melanoma growth and metastasis and the combination of the Rac1 inhibitor and vemurafenib resulted in a better therapeutic outcome than monotherapy in melanoma with high kindlin-2 expression and BRAF mutation. Our results demonstrated that kindlin-2 promoted melanoma progression, which was attributed to specific binding to p-α-Pix(S13) and Rac1 to stimulate the downstream MAPK pathway. Thus, kindlin-2 could be a potential therapeutic target for treating melanoma.

8.
Front Genet ; 12: 633059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290731

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of multi-organs, and SSc-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. To explore molecular biological mechanisms of SSc-ILD, we constructed a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network for prediction. Expression profiling data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and differential expressed mRNAs and miRNAs analysis was further conducted between normal lung tissue and SSc lung tissue. Also, the interactions of miRNA-lncRNA, miRNA-mRNA, and lncRNA-mRNA were predicted by online databases including starBase, LncBase, miRTarBase, and LncACTdb. The ceRNA network containing 11 lncRNAs, 7 miRNAs, and 20 mRNAs were constructed. Based on hub genes and miRNAs identified by weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) method, three core sub-networks-SNHG16, LIN01128, RP11-834C11.4(LINC02381)/hsa-let-7f-5p/IL6, LINC01128/has-miR-21-5p/PTX3, and LINC00665/hsa-miR-155-5p/PLS1-were obtained. Combined with previous studies and enrichment analyses, the lncRNA-mediated network affected LPS-induced inflammatory and immune processes, fibrosis development, and tumor microenvironment variations. The ceRNA network, especially three core sub-networks, may be served as early biomarkers and potential targets for SSc, which also provides further insights into the occurrence, progression, and accurate treatment of SSc at the molecular level.

9.
Foods ; 10(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206678

RESUMO

In this study, Vidal grape must was fermented using commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae F33 in pure culture as a control and in mixed culture with five indigenous non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Hanseniaspora uvarum QTX22, Saccharomycopsis crataegensis YC30, Pichia kluyveri HSP14, Metschnikowia pulcherrima YC12, and Rhodosporidiobolus lusitaniae QTX15) through simultaneous fermentation in a 1:1 ratio. Simultaneous fermentation inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae F33 and delayed the time to reach the maximum biomass. Compared with pure fermentation, the contents of polyphenols, acetic esters, ethyl esters, other esters, and terpenes were increased by R. lusitaniae QTX15, S. crataegensis YC30, and P. kluyveri HSP14 through simultaneous fermentation. S. crataegensis YC30 produced the highest total aroma activity and the most abundant aroma substances of all the wine samples. The odor activity values of 1 C13-norisoprenoid, 3 terpenes, 6 acetic esters, and 10 ethyl esters improved significantly, and three lactones (δ-decalactone, γ-nonalactone, and γ-decalactone) related to coconut and creamy flavor were only found in this wine. Moreover, this sample showed obvious "floral" and "fruity" note odor due to having the highest amount of ethyl ester aromatic substances and cinnamene, linalool, citronellol, ß-damascenone, isoamyl ethanoate, benzylcarbinyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, etc. We suggest that simultaneous fermentation of S. crataegensis YC30 with S. cerevisiae might represent a novel strategy for the future production of Vidal icewine.

10.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2580-2594, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are no prospective data on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a bridge to liver transplantation for HCC. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBRT as bridging therapy, with comparison with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). APPROACH AND RESULTS: Patients were prospectively enrolled for SBRT under a standardized protocol from July 2015 and compared with a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent TACE or HIFU from 2010. The primary endpoint was tumor control rate at 1 year after bridging therapy. Secondary endpoints included cumulative incidence of dropout, toxicity, and posttransplant survival. During the study period, 150 patients were evaluated (SBRT, n = 40; TACE, n = 59; HIFU, n = 51). The tumor control rate at 1 year was significantly higher after SBRT compared with TACE and HIFU (92.3%, 43.5%, and 33.3%, respectively; P = 0.02). With competing risk analysis, the cumulative incidence of dropout at 1 and 3 years after listing was lower after SBRT (15.1% and 23.3%) compared with TACE (28.9% and 45.8%; P = 0.034) and HIFU (33.3% and 45.1%; P = 0.032). Time-to-progression at 1 and 3 years was also superior after SBRT (10.8%, 18.5% in SBRT, 45%, 54.9% in TACE, and 47.6%, 62.8% in HIFU; P < 0.001). The periprocedural toxicity was similar, without any difference in perioperative complications and patient and recurrence-free survival rates after transplant. Pathological complete response was more frequent after SBRT compared with TACE and HIFU (48.1% vs. 25% vs. 17.9%, respectively; P = 0.037). In multivariable analysis, tumor size <3 cm, listing alpha-fetoprotein <200 ng/mL, Child A, and SBRT significantly reduced the risk of dropout. CONCLUSIONS: SBRT was safe, with a significantly higher tumor control rate, reduced the risk of waitlist dropout, and should be used as an alternative to conventional bridging therapies.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147060, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with mortality and hospital admission, emergency ambulance calls (EACs) could be a more accurate outcome indicator to reflect the health effects of short-term air pollution exposure. However, such studies have been scarce, especially on a multicity scale in China. METHODS: We estimated the associations of different diameter particles [i.e., inhalable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PMc), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] with EACs for all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases in seven Chinese cities. We collected data on EACs and air pollution from 2014 to 2019. We used generalized additive models and random-effects meta-analysis to examine the city-specific and overall associations. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine the effect modifications of gender, age, and season. RESULTS: Significant associations of PM10 and PM2.5 with EACs were observed, while the PMc associations were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses. Specifically, each 10 µg/m3 increase in 2-day moving average concentration of PM10 was associated with a 0.25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04%, 0.47%] increase in all-cause EACs, 0.13% (95% CI: -0.01%, 0.26%) in cardiovascular EACs, and 0.35% (95% CI: 0.04%, 0.66%) in respiratory EACs. The corresponding increases in daily EACs for PM2.5 were 0.30% (95% CI, 0.03%, 0.57%), 0.13% (95% CI, -0.07%, 0.33%), and 0.46% (95% CI, 0.01%, 0.92%). Season of the year also modifies the association between particulate matter pollution and EACs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 were positively associated with daily all-cause and respiratory-related EACs. The associations were stronger during warm season than cold season. Our findings suggest that the most harmful fraction of particulate matter pollution is PM2.5, which has important implications for current air quality guidelines and regulations in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambulâncias , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 10(3): 308-314, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159158

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) signifies advanced disease, whether LT confers any survival superiority over resection remains uncertain. Methods: A propensity score matched (PSM) analysis of liver transplantation (LT) and liver resection (LR) for HCC with PVTT was performed. Results: A consecutive series of 88 patients who received either LT (10 DDLTs and 3 LDLTs) or LR (n=75) respectively were recruited. Before PSM, the LT group has a higher MELD score (17.3 vs. 7.8, P<0.001), lower serum AFP levels (96 vs. 2,164 ng/mL, P=0.017) and smaller tumour size (4 vs. 10 cm, P<0.001). The 5-year overall survival for LT and LR were 55.4% and 15.9% respectively (P=0.007). After matching for serum AFP levels and tumour size, 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival for LT were 81 ng/mL, 3.9 cm, 80%, 70% and 70% and the corresponding rates for LR were 1,417 ng/mL, 5.3 cm, 51.8%, 19,6% and 9.8% (P value =0.12, 0.27 and 0.009 respectively). Conclusions: LT is associated with significantly better oncological outcomes in HCC patients with PVTT involving the lobar or segmental level. A modest expansion of selection criteria to include small HCC with segmental PVTT should be considered.

13.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 81, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076749

RESUMO

We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the relationships among a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the use of stimulant medication, and the risk of fracture. There was a significant positive association between ADHD and the risk of fracture. However, stimulant ADHD medication therapy appears to be associated with a reduced risk of fracture in patients with ADHD. INTRODUCTION: ADHD is associated with an increased fracture risk due to a lack of impulse control. ADHD medication may have a protective effect via behavior modification. However, previous research found an adverse effect of stimulant use on bone mass. Therefore, this meta-analysis study assessed the relationships among ADHD, the use of stimulant medication, and fracture risk. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE from inception through December 2020. Random-effects models were used to determine overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 10 observational studies. Our results showed that ADHD diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of fracture (OR = 1.17; 1.01-1.35, p = 0.035). Notably, a higher risk of fracture (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.2-1.58, p < 0.001) was observed in non-stimulant-treated ADHD. However, no significant association, but a trend toward a lower risk, was observed for stimulant-treated ADHD patients compared with non-stimulant-treated ADHD patients (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.47-1.03, p = 0.073). In terms of fracture type, non-stimulant-treated ADHD was associated with traumatic fracture (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.54-2.08, p < 0.001) or stress fracture (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.2, p = 0.004) compared to healthy control (HC). In addition, further findings from our systematic review showed that the risk of traumatic (OR = 1, 95% CI 0.88-1.13, p = 0.954) or stress (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.62-1.14, p = 0.256) fracture was comparable between treated stimulant-ADHD patients and HC. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with ADHD are at higher risk of fracture than the general population. Stimulant ADHD medication appears to be associated with a lower risk of traumatic fracture but not with a higher risk of stress fracture.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Fraturas de Estresse , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Risco
14.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070919

RESUMO

This work aims to explore the interaction between water and ion-exchanged aluminosilicate glass. The surface mechanical properties of ion-exchanged glasses after different hydration durations are investigated. The compressive stress and depth of stress layer are determined with a surface stress meter on the basis of photo-elasticity theory. The hardness and Young's modulus are tested through nanoindentation. Infrared spectroscopy is used to determine the variation in surface structures of the glass samples. The results show that hydration has obvious effects on the hardness and Young's modulus of the raw and ion-exchanged glasses. The hardness and Young's modulus decrease to different extents after different hydration times, and the Young's modulus shows some recovery with the prolonging of hydration time. The ion-exchanged glasses are more resistant to hydration. The tin side is more resistant to hydration than the air side. The results are expected to serve as reference for better understanding the hydration process of ion-exchanged glass.

15.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053958

RESUMO

Previous researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk of severe disease (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.20-1.99, P<0.001;) and secondary infection (OR=4.33, 95% CI=2.57-7.29). In summary, PPI use is not associated with an increased risk of infection and may not change the mortality risk of COVID-19, but appeared to be associated with an increased risk of progression to severe disease and secondary infection. However, more original studies to further clarify the relationship between PPI and COVID-19 are still urgently needed.

16.
Ecol Evol ; 11(9): 4564-4576, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976831

RESUMO

Male genitalia present an extraordinary pattern of rapid divergence in animals with internal fertilization, which is usually attributed to sexual selection. However, the effect of ecological factors on genitalia divergence could also be important, especially so in animals with nonretractable genitalia because of their stronger interaction with the surrounding environment in comparison with animals with retractable genitalia. Here, we examine the potential of a pervasive ecological factor (predation) to influence the length and allometry of the male genitalia in guppies. We sampled guppies from pairs of low-predation (LP) and high-predation (HP) populations in seven rivers in Trinidad, and measured their body and gonopodium length. A key finding was that HP adult males do not have consistently longer gonopodia than do LP adult males, as had been described in previous work. However, we did find such divergence for juvenile males: HP juveniles have longer gonopodia than do LP juveniles. We therefore suggest that an evolutionary trend toward the development of longer gonopodia in HP males (as seen in the juveniles) is erased after maturity owing to the higher mortality of mature males with longer gonopodia. Beyond these generalities, gonopodium length and gonopodium allometry were remarkably variable among populations even within a predation regime, thus indicating strong context dependence to their development/evolution. Our findings highlight the complex dynamics of genitalia evolution in Trinidadian guppies.

17.
Nano Lett ; 21(10): 4371-4380, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984236

RESUMO

Anticancer immunotherapy is hampered by poor immunogenicity and a profoundly immunosuppressive microenvironment in solid tumors and lymph nodes. Herein, sequential pH/redox-responsive nanoparticles (SRNs) are engineered to activate the immune microenvironment of tumor sites and lymph nodes. The two-modular SRNs could sequentially respond to the acidic tumor microenvironment and endosome compartments of dendritic cells (DCs) to precisely deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and imidazoquinolines (IMDQs). In the tumor microenvironment, released DOX triggers immunogenic cell death. In sentinel lymph nodes, the IMDQ nanoparticle module is dissociated in the acidic endosome compartment to specifically stimulate toll-like receptor 7/8 for DC maturation. Thus, the orchestrated nanoparticle system could enhance the infiltration of CD8α+ T cells in tumors and provoke a strong antitumor immune response toward primary and abscopal tumors in B16-OVA and CT26 tumor-bearing mice models. The cooperative self-assembled nanoparticle strategy provides a potential candidate of nanomedicine to advance the synergistic cancer chemo-immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina , Morte Celular Imunogênica , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(593)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980577

RESUMO

Immune-related adverse events induced by anti-programmed cell death-1 antibodies (PD-1-Ab), including destructive thyroiditis (thyroid-irAE), are thought to be caused by activated T cells. However, the T cell subsets that are directly responsible for damaging self-organs remain unclear. To clarify which T cell subsets are involved in the development of thyroid-irAE, a mouse model of thyroid-irAE was analyzed. PD-1-Ab administration 2.5 months after immunization with thyroglobulin caused destructive thyroiditis. Thyroiditis was completely prevented by previous depletion of CD4+ T cells and partially prevented by depleting CD8+ T cells. The frequencies of central and effector memory CD4+ T cell subsets and the secretion of interferon-γ after stimulation with thyroglobulin were increased in the cervical lymph nodes of mice with thyroid-irAE compared with controls. Histopathological analysis revealed infiltration of CD4+ T cells expressing granzyme B in thyroid glands and major histocompatibility complex class II expression on thyrocytes in mice with thyroid-irAE. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from cervical lymph nodes in mice with thyroid-irAE caused destruction of thyroid follicular architecture in the irradiated recipient mice. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the frequencies of central and effector memory CD4+ T cells expressing the cytotoxic marker CD27 were higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from patients with thyroid-irAE induced by PD-1-Ab versus those without. These data suggest a critical role for cytotoxic memory CD4+ T cells activated by PD-1-Ab in the pathogenesis of thyroid-irAE.


Assuntos
Tireoidite Autoimune , Tireoidite , Animais , Autoanticorpos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Tireoglobulina
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(26): 14512-14520, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860575

RESUMO

Noninvasive imaging strategies have been extensively investigated for in vivo mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, the current imaging strategies fail to accurately assess tumor metastatic status in SLNs with high sensitivity. Here we report pH-amplified self-illuminating near-infrared nanoparticles, which integrate chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) and signal amplification strategy, enabling accurate identification of metastatic SLNs. After draining into lymph nodes, the nanoparticles were phagocytosed and dissociated in acidic phagosomes of inflammatory macrophages to emit near-infrared luminescent light. Using these nanoparticles, we successfully differentiated tumor metastatic lymph nodes from benign ones. These nanoparticles also exhibited excellent imaging capability for early detection of metastatic SLNs in diverse animal tumor models with small tumor volume (100-200 mm3 ).


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917375

RESUMO

A batch of Sn oxides was fabricated by pulse direct current reactive magnetron sputtering (pDC-RMS) using different Ar/O2 flow ratios at 0.3 Pa; the influence of stoichiometry on the physical and electrochemical properties of the films was evaluated by the characterization of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflection (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and more. The results were as follows. First, the film surface transitioned from a particle morphology (roughness of 50.0 nm) to a smooth state (roughness of 3.7 nm) when Ar/O2 flow ratios changed from 30/0 to 23/7; second, all SnOx films were in an amorphous state, some samples deposited with low O2 flow ratios (≤2 sccm) still included metallic Sn grains. Therefore, the stoichiometry of SnOx calculated by XPS spectra increased linearly from SnO0.0.08 to SnO1.71 as the O2 flow ratios increased, and the oxidation degree was further calibrated by the average valence method and SnO2 standard material. Finally, the electrochemical performance was confirmed to be improved with the increase in oxidation degree (x) in SnOx, and the SnO1.71 film deposited with Ar/O2 = 23/7 possessed the best cycle performance, reversible capacity of 396.1 mAh/g and a capacity retention ratio of 75.4% after 50 cycles at a constant current density of 44 µA/cm2.

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