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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(1): 017001, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678655

RESUMO

The combination of spin-orbit coupling with interactions results in many exotic phases of matter. In this Letter, we investigate the superconducting pairing instability of the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling within the mean-field level at both zero and finite temperature. We find that both first- and second-order time-reversal symmetry breaking topological gapped phases can be achieved under appropriate parameters and temperature regimes due to the presence of a favored even-parity s+id-wave pairing even in the absence of an external magnetic field or intrinsic magnetism. This results in two branches of chiral Majorana edge states on each edge or a single zero-energy Majorana corner state at each corner of the sample. Interestingly, we also find that not only does tuning the doping level lead to a direct topological phase transition between these two distinct topological gapped phases, but also using the temperature as a highly controllable and reversible tuning knob leads to different direct temperature-driven topological phase transitions between gapped and gapless topological superconducting phases. Our findings suggest new possibilities in interacting spin-orbit coupled systems by unifying both first- and higher-order topological superconductors in a simple but realistic microscopic model.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1259, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144239

RESUMO

The experimental discovery of Weyl semimetals offers unprecedented opportunities to study Weyl physics in condensed matters. Unique electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals such as chiral magnetic effect has been observed and presented by the axial θ E · B term in electromagnetic Lagrangian (E and B are the electric and magnetic field, respectively). But till now, the experimental progress in this direction in Weyl semimetals is restricted to the DC regime. Here we report experimental access to the dynamic regime in Weyl semimetal NbAs by combining the internal deformation potential of coupled phonons with applied static magnetic field. While the dynamic E · B field is realized, it produces an anomalous phonon activity with a characteristic angle-dependence. Our results provide an effective approach to achieve the dynamic regime beyond the widely-investigated DC limit which enables the coupling between the Weyl fermions and the electromagnetic wave for further study of novel light-matter interactions in Weyl semimetals.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 177001, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702245

RESUMO

The topological property of a gapped odd-parity superconductor is jointly determined by its pairing nodes and Fermi surfaces in the normal state. We reveal that the contractibility of Fermi surfaces without crossing any time-reversal invariant momentum and the presence of nontrivial Berry phase on Fermi surfaces are two key conditions for the realization of higher-order topological odd-parity superconductors. When the normal state is a normal metal, we reveal the necessity of removable Dirac pairing nodes and provide a general and simple principle to realize higher-order topological odd-parity superconductors. Our findings can be applied to design new platforms of higher-order topological superconductors, as well as higher-order topological insulators owing to their direct analogy in Hamiltonian description.

4.
ACS Sens ; 4(2): 488-497, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644736

RESUMO

Exosomes contain cell- and cell-state-specific cargos of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and play significant roles in cell signaling and cell-cell communication. Current research into exosome-based biomarkers has relied largely on analyzing candidate biomarkers, i.e., specific proteins or nucleic acids. However, this approach may miss important biomarkers that are yet to be identified. Alternative approaches are to analyze the entire exosome system, either by "omics" methods or by techniques that provide "fingerprints" of the system without identifying each individual biomolecule component. Here, we describe a platform of the latter type, which is based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in combination with multivariate analysis, and demonstrate the utility of this platform for analyzing exosomes derived from different biological sources. First, we examined whether this analysis could use exosomes isolated from fetal bovine serum using a simple, commercially available isolation kit or necessitates the higher purity achieved by the "gold standard" ultracentrifugation/filtration procedure. Our data demonstrate that the latter method is required for this type of analysis. Having established this requirement, we rigorously analyzed the Raman spectral signature of individual exosomes using a unique, hybrid SERS substrate made of a graphene-covered Au surface containing a quasi-periodic array of pyramids. To examine the source of the Raman signal, we used Raman mapping of low and high spatial resolution combined with morphological identification of exosomes by scanning electron microscopy. Both approaches suggested that the spectra were collected from single exosomes. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that our platform can distinguish among exosomes from different biological sources based on their Raman signature, a promising approach for developing exosome-based fingerprinting. Our study serves as a solid technological foundation for future exploration of the roles of exosomes in various biological processes and their use as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Animais , Análise Multivariada , Ultracentrifugação
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(9): 096803, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230860

RESUMO

We introduce two-dimensional topological insulators in proximity to high-temperature cuprate or iron-based superconductors as high-temperature platforms of Majorana Kramers pairs of zero modes. The proximity-induced pairing at the helical edge state of the topological insulator serves as a Dirac mass, whose sign changes at the sample corner because of the pairing symmetry of high-T_{c} superconductors. This sign changing naturally creates at each corner a pair of Majorana zero modes protected by time-reversal symmetry. Conceptually, this is a topologically trivial superconductor-based approach for Majorana zero modes. We provide quantitative criteria and suggest candidate materials for this proposal.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1854, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748535

RESUMO

Recently, Weyl semimetals have been experimentally discovered in both inversion-symmetry-breaking and time-reversal-symmetry-breaking crystals. The non-trivial topology in Weyl semimetals can manifest itself with exotic phenomena, which have been extensively investigated by photoemission and transport measurements. Despite the numerous experimental efforts on Fermi arcs and chiral anomaly, the existence of unconventional zeroth Landau levels, as a unique hallmark of Weyl fermions, which is highly related to chiral anomaly, remains elusive owing to the stringent experimental requirements. Here, we report the magneto-optical study of Landau quantization in Weyl semimetal NbAs. High magnetic fields drive the system toward the quantum limit, which leads to the observation of zeroth chiral Landau levels in two inequivalent Weyl nodes. As compared to other Landau levels, the zeroth chiral Landau level exhibits a distinct linear dispersion in magnetic field direction and allows the optical transitions without the limitation of zero z momentum or [Formula: see text] magnetic field evolution. The magnetic field dependence of the zeroth Landau levels further verifies the predicted particle-hole asymmetry of the Weyl cones. Meanwhile, the optical transitions from the normal Landau levels exhibit the coexistence of multiple carriers including an unexpected massive Dirac fermion, pointing to a more complex topological nature in inversion-symmetry-breaking Weyl semimetals. Our results provide insights into the Landau quantization of Weyl fermions and demonstrate an effective tool for studying complex topological systems.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(14): 147003, 2017 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430502

RESUMO

Majorana zero modes are usually attributed to topological superconductors. We study a class of two-dimensional topologically trivial superconductors without chiral edge modes, which nevertheless host robust Majorana zero modes in topological defects. The construction of this minimal single-band model is facilitated by the Hopf map and the Hopf invariant. This work will stimulate investigations of Majorana zero modes in superconductors in the topologically trivial regime.

8.
Nano Lett ; 16(10): 6282-6289, 2016 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616333

RESUMO

ß-Amyloid aggregates in the brain play critical roles in Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurodegenerative condition. Amyloid-associated metal ions, particularly zinc and copper ions, have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. Despite the importance of such ions, the binding sites on the ß-amyloid peptide remain poorly understood. In this study, we use scanning tunneling microscopy, circular dichroism, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to probe the interactions between Cu2+ ions and a key ß-amyloid peptide fragment, consisting of the first 16 amino acids, and define the copper-peptide binding site. We observe that in the presence of Cu2+, this peptide fragment forms ß-sheets, not seen without the metal ion. By imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy, we are able to identify the binding site, which involves two histidine residues, His13 and His14. We conclude that the binding of copper to these residues creates an interstrand histidine brace, which enables the formation of ß-sheets.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Sítios de Ligação , Cobre/química , Doença de Alzheimer , Histidina/química , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(8): 087402, 2016 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588882

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals and nodal line semimetals are characterized by linear band touching at zero-dimensional points and one-dimensional lines, respectively. We predict that a circularly polarized light drives nodal line semimetals into Weyl semimetals. The Floquet Weyl points thus obtained are tunable by the incident light, which enables investigations of them in a highly controllable manner. The transition from nodal line semimetals to Weyl semimetals is accompanied by the emergence of a large and tunable anomalous Hall conductivity. Our predictions are experimentally testable by transport measurement in film samples or by pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

10.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16197, 2015 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26541611

RESUMO

For time-reversal symmetric cold atomic insulating systems, it is found that the usual driving approach based on electromagnetic field used in solid state systems loses its power to drive them from trivial regimes to topological regimes if the driven systems still hold time-reversal symmetry (TRS). For such systems, we point out that simply varying the optical lattice potential periodically provides a general and effective way to drive them into topological regimes without breaking their symmetries. Based on this approach, we find that the time-reversal symmetric Kane-Mele model can be effectively driven from the trivial phase to topological phases named as Floquet Quantum Spin Hall insulator. Due to the existence of two gaps in the Floquet system, this novel state of matter can stably host one or two pair of gapless helical states on the same boundary, which suggests this state is not a simple analog of the Quantum Spin Hall insulator. This new driving approach to a system without TRS is also investigated.

11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15927, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515084

RESUMO

Recently it has been shown that multicomponent spin-orbit-coupled fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices can be viewed as spinless fermions moving in two-dimensional synthetic lattices with synthetic magnetic flux. The quantum Hall edge states in these systems have been observed in recent experiments. In this paper we study the effect of an attractive Hubbard interaction. Since the Hubbard interaction is long-range in the synthetic dimension, it is able to efficiently induce Cooper pairing between the counterpropagating chiral edge states. The topological class of the resultant one-dimensional superfluid is determined by the parity (even/odd) of the Chern number in the two-dimensional synthetic lattice. We also show the presence of a chiral symmetry in our model, which implies Z classification and the robustness of multiple zero modes when this symmetry is unbroken.

12.
Nano Lett ; 11(10): 4475-9, 2011 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21916447

RESUMO

A wide variety of complex, multicomponent plasmonic nanostructures have been shown to possess Fano resonances. Here we introduce a remarkably simple planar nanostructure, a single metallic nanodisk with a missing wedge-shaped slice, that also supports a Fano resonance. In this geometry, the Fano line shape arises from the coupling between a hybridized plasmon resonance of the disk and a narrower quadrupolar mode supported by the edge of the missing wedge slice. As a consequence, both disk size and wedge angle control the properties of the resonance. A semianalytical description of plasmon hybridization proves useful for analyzing the resulting line shape.

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