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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7052-7066, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621950

RESUMO

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is the most severe form of male infertility owing to the absence of sperm during ejaculation as a result of failed spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of NOA have not been well studied. Here, we revealed the dysregulated differentially expressed genes in NOA and related signaling pathways or biological processes. Cluster features of biological processes include spermatogenesis, fertilization, cilium movement, penetration of zona pellucida, sperm chromatin condensation, and being significantly enriched metabolic pathways in proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, glycolysis and glycogenesis pathways in NOA using Gene Ontology analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The NOA gene co-expression network was constructed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify the hub genes (CHD5 and SPTBN2). In addition, we used another Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (GSE45887) to validate these hub genes. Furthermore, we used the Seurat package to classify testicular tissue cells from NOA patients and to characterize the differential expression of hub genes in different cell types from different adult males based on the scRNA-seq dataset (GSE106487). These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of NOA. Of particular note, CHD5 and SPTBN2 may be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of NOA.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
3.
Environ Pollut ; : 116088, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234378

RESUMO

It is known that Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) may impact mammalian reproduction and that in females one target of the drug's action is follicle assembly. Here we revisited the phthalate's action on the ovary and from bioinformatics analyses of the transcriptome performed on newborn mouse ovaries exposed in vitro to DEHP, up-regulation of PDE3A, as one of the most important alterations caused by DEHP on early folliculogenesis, was identified. We obtained some evidence suggesting that the decrease of cAMP level in oocytes and the parallel decrease of PKA expression, consequent on the PDE3A increase, were a major cause of the reduction of follicle assembly in the DEHP-exposed ovaries. In fact, Pde3a RNAi on cultured ovaries reducing cAMP and PKA decrease counteracted the primordial follicle assembly impairment caused by the compound. Moreover, RNAi normalized the level of Kit, Nobox, Figla mRNA and GDF9, BMP15, CX37, γH2AX proteins in oocytes, and KitL transcripts in granulosa cells as well as their proliferation rate altered by DEHP exposure. Taken together, these results identify PDE3A as a new critical target of the deleterious effects of DEHP on early oogenesis in mammals and highlight cAMP-dependent pathways as major regulators of oocyte and granulosa cell activities crucial for follicle assembly. Moreover, we suggest that the level of intracellular cAMP in the oocytes may be an important determinant for their capability to repair DNA lesions caused by DNA damaging compounds including DEHP.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 288, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated macrodactyly is a severe congenital hand anomaly with functional and physiological impact. Known causative genes include PIK3CA, AKT1 and PTEN. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the genetics basis of isolated macrodactyly. RESULTS: We enrolled 24 patients with isolated macrodactyly. Four of them were diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on skin presentations characteristic to this disease. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed using patients' blood and affected tissues. Overall, 20 patients carry mosaic PIK3CA pathogenic variants, i.e. p.His1047Arg (N = 7), p.Glu542Lys (N = 6), p.Glu545Lys (N = 2), p.His1047Leu (N = 2), p.Glu453Lys (N = 1), p.Gln546Lys (N = 1) and p.His1047Tyr (N = 1). Four patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Proteus syndrome carry mosaic AKT1 p.Glu17Lys variant. Variant allele frequencies of these mosaic variants obtained through next-generation sequencing range from 10 to 33%. In genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of patients with PIK3CA variant, we found that patients with the macrodactyly of the lower limbs tend to carry PIK3CA variants located in the helical domain (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Mosaic PIK3CA and AKT1 variants can be found in all of our samples with isolated macrodactyly. Insights into phenotypic and genetic spectrum of isolated macrodactyly may be helpful in perusing a more precise and effective management of isolated macrodactyly.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 250, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported a novel clinically distinguishable subtype of congenital scoliosis (CS), namely, TBX6-associated congenital scoliosis (TACS). We further developed the TBX6-associated CS risk score (TACScore), a multivariate phenotype-based model to predict TACS according to the patient's clinical manifestations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether using the TACScore as a screening method prior to performing whole-exome sequencing (WES) is more cost-effective than using WES as the first-line genetic test for CS. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the molecular data of 416 CS patients in the Deciphering disorders Involving Scoliosis and COmorbidities (DISCO) study. A decision tree was constructed to estimate the cost and the diagnostic time required for the two alternative strategies (TACScore versus WES). Bootstrapping simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the distributions and robustness of the estimates. The economic evaluation considered both the health care payer and the personal budget perspectives. RESULTS: From the health care payer perspective, the strategy of using the TACScore as the primary screening method resulted in an average cost of $1074.2 (95%CI: $1044.8 to $1103.5) and an average diagnostic duration of 38.7d (95%CI: 37.8d to 39.6d) to obtain a molecular diagnosis for each patient. In contrast, the corresponding values were $1169.6 (95%CI: $1166.9 to $1172.2) and 41.4d (95%CI: 41.1d to 41.7d) taking WES as the first-line test (P < 0.001). From the personal budget perspective, patients who were predicted to be positive by the TACScore received a result with an average cost of $715.1 (95%CI: $594.5 to $835.7) and an average diagnostic duration of 30.4d (95%CI: 26.3d to 34.6d). Comparatively, the strategy of WES as the first-line test was estimated to have significantly longer diagnostic time with an average of 44.0d (95%CI: 43.2d to 44.9d), and more expensive with an average of $1193.4 (95%CI: $1185.5 to $1201.3) (P < 0.001). In 100% of the bootstrapping simulations, the TACScore strategy was significantly less costly and more time-saving than WES. The sensitivity analyses revealed that the TACScore strategy remained cost-effective even when the cost per WES decreased to $8.8. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study provides clinicians with economic evidence to integrate the TACScore into clinical practice. The TACScore can be considered a cost-effective tool when it serves as a screening test prior to performing WES.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115382, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866863

RESUMO

Bisphenol S (BPS) is an endocrine disruptor which is widely used in commercial plastic products. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPS has toxic effects on various aspects of mammalian, but there are few reports about reproductive toxicity. In order to investigate the effects of maternal BPS exposure on the reproductive of F1 and F2 female mice, the pregnant mice were orally administered with different dosages of BPS only once every day from 12.5 to 15.5 days post-coitus (dpc). The results showed that maternal BPS exposure to 2 µg per kg of body weight per day (2 µg/kg) and 10 µg/kg accelerated the meiotic prophase I (MPI) of F1 female mice and the expression of the genes related to meiotic were increased. Further studies showed that maternal BPS exposure resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of oocytes enclosed in primordial follicles in the 3 days post-partum (3 dpp) ovaries of F1 female mice. And at the time of 21 days post-partum (21 dpp) in F1 female mice, the number of antral follicles were significantly lower compare to controls. In the study of five-week female mice of F1, we found that BPS disturbed the folliculogenesis, and the maturation rates and fertilization rates of oocytes were significantly decreased. Of note, maternal BPS exposure disrupted H3K4 and H3K9 tri-methylation levels in F1 ovaries. Maternal BPS exposure only affected the cyst breakdown in F2 female mice. Taken together, our results suggest that, maternal BPS exposure impaired the process of meiosis and oogenesis of F1 and F2 offspring, resulting in abnormal follicular development and serious damage to the reproduction.


Assuntos
Meiose , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Gravidez , Reprodução , Sulfonas
7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(10): e1453, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a spinal deformity due to vertebral malformations. Although insufficiency of TBX6 dosage contributes to a substantial proportion of CS, the molecular etiology for the majority of CS remains largely unknown. TBX6-mediated genes involved in the process of somitogenesis represent promising candidates. METHODS: Individuals affected with CS and without a positive genetic finding were referred to this study. Proband-only exome sequencing (ES) were performed on the recruited individuals, followed by analysis of TBX6-mediated candidate genes, namely MEOX1, MEOX2, MESP2, MYOD1, MYF5, RIPPLY1, and RIPPLY2. RESULTS: A total of 584 patients with CS of unknown molecular etiology were recruited. After ES analysis, protein-truncating variants in RIPPLY1 and MYF5 were identified from two individuals, respectively. In addition, we identified five deleterious missense variants (MYOD1, n = 4; RIPPLY2, n = 1) in TBX6-mediated genes. We observed a significant mutational burden of MYOD1 in CS (p = 0.032) compared with the in-house controls (n = 1854). Moreover, a potential oligogenic disease-causing mode was proposed based on the observed mutational co-existence of MYOD1/MEOX1 and MYOD1/RIPPLY1. CONCLUSION: Our study characterized the mutational spectrum of TBX6-mediated genes, prioritized core candidate genes/variants, and provided insight into a potential oligogenic disease-causing mode in CS.

8.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 115, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a skeletal disorder characterized by delayed and irregular ossification of the epiphyses and early-onset osteoarthritis. At least 66% of the reported autosomal dominant MED (AD-MED) cases are caused by COMP mutations. METHODS: We recruited a four-generation Chinese family with early-onset hip osteoarthritis, flatfoot, brachydactyly, and mild short stature. An assessment of the family history, detailed physical examinations, and radiographic evaluations were performed on the proband and other family members, followed by the performance of whole-exome sequencing (WES). The pathogenicity of the candidate mutation was also analyzed. RESULTS: An AD-MED family with 10 affected members and 17 unaffected members was recruited. The main radiographic findings were symmetrical changes in the dysplastic acetabulum and femoral heads, irregular contours of the epiphyses, a shortened femoral neck, and flatfoot. Lower bone density was also observed in the ankle joints, wrist joints, and knees, as well as irregular vertebral end plates. In the proband, we identified the missense mutation c.1153G > T (p. Asp385Tyr), located in exon 11 of the COMP gene. This mutation was assessed as 'pathogenic' because of its low allele frequency and its high likelihood of co-segregation with disease in the reported family. Sanger sequencing validated the novel heterozygous mutation c.1153G > T (p. Asp385Tyr) in exon 11 of COMP in all affected individuals in the family. CONCLUSIONS: Our results underlined a key role of the Asp385 amino acid in the protein function of COMP and confirmed the pathogenicity of the COMP (c.1153G > T; p. Asp385Tyr) mutation in AD-MED disease. We have therefore expanded the known mutational spectrum of COMP and revealed new phenotypic information for AD-MED.


Assuntos
Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Família , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/química , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS), defined by an onset age of scoliosis less than 10 years, conveys significant health risk to affected children. Identification of the molecular aetiology underlying patients with EOS could provide valuable information for both clinical management and prenatal screening. METHODS: In this study, we consecutively recruited a cohort of 447 Chinese patients with operative EOS. We performed exome sequencing (ES) screening on these individuals and their available family members (totaling 670 subjects). Another cohort of 13 patients with idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) from the USA who underwent ES was also recruited. RESULTS: After ES data processing and variant interpretation, we detected molecular diagnostic variants in 92 out of 447 (20.6%) Chinese patients with EOS, including 8 patients with molecular confirmation of their clinical diagnosis and 84 patients with molecular diagnoses of previously unrecognised diseases underlying scoliosis. One out of 13 patients with IEOS from the US cohort was molecularly diagnosed. The age at presentation, the number of organ systems involved and the Cobb angle were the three top features predictive of a molecular diagnosis. CONCLUSION: ES enabled the molecular diagnosis/classification of patients with EOS. Specific clinical features/feature pairs are able to indicate the likelihood of gaining a molecular diagnosis through ES.

10.
Toxicol Lett ; 330: 167-175, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454083

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA), a feed mycotoxin, tends to impair the reproductive performance of animals. Our previous studies have demonstrated that OTA exposure inhibits porcine ovarian granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and induces their apoptosis, but the underlying toxic mechanism is still uncertain. In this study, we explored the OTA exposure on porcine GCs in vitro and found that OTA exposure inhibited the proliferation of porcine GCs and arrested cell cycle of GCs in the G2/M phase. The results based on RNA-Seq revealed that 20 µM and 40 µM OTA exposure increase DNA damage of porcine GCs in vitro. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of 40 µM OTA exposure were enriched in the pathways of mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination in DNA replication compared with control group and 20 µM OTA exposure group. Meanwhile, OTA exposure increased the expression levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) gene γ-H2AX, and DNA repair related genes, such as BRCA1, XRCC1, PARP1, and RAD51. Above all, our research revealed that OTA might exert deleterious effects on porcine ovarian GCs, influencing DNA repair-related biological processes and causing DNA damage response.

11.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921611, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity, but its etiology is unclear. Multiple genetic mutations have been reported to be associated with AIS. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled a cohort of 113 surgically treated AIS patients with available parental subjects from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 10 trio families and whole-genome sequencing in 103 singleton patients. Luciferase assay was used to detect the functional alterations of candidate ESR1 and ESR2 variants. RESULTS Using a de novo strategy, a missense variant in ESR1 (c.868A>G) was selected as a candidate gene for AIS. The main Cobb angle of this patient was 41° (T6-T10). Another potential pathogenic variant in ESR2 (c.236T>C) was identified. The main curve of the patient was 45° at T10-L3. The transactivation capacities of the mutated ESR1 and ESR2 protein were both significantly decreased (p=0.026 and 0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Potential pathogenic variants in ESR1 and ESR2 were identified in 113 AIS patients, suggesting that genetic mutations in ESR1/2 were associated with the risk of AIS.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 182-195, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471994

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a birth defect with variable clinical and anatomical manifestations due to spinal malformation. The genetic etiology underlying about 10% of CS cases in the Chinese population is compound inheritance by which the gene dosage is reduced below that of haploinsufficiency. In this genetic model, the trait manifests as a result of the combined effect of a rare variant and common pathogenic variant allele at a locus. From exome sequencing (ES) data of 523 patients in Asia and two patients in Texas, we identified six TBX6 gene-disruptive variants from 11 unrelated CS patients via ES and in vitro functional testing. The in trans mild hypomorphic allele was identified in 10 of the 11 subjects; as anticipated these 10 shared a similar spinal deformity of hemivertebrae. The remaining case has a homozygous variant in TBX6 (c.418C>T) and presents a more severe spinal deformity phenotype. We found decreased transcriptional activity and abnormal cellular localization as the molecular mechanisms for TBX6 missense loss-of-function alleles. Expanding the mutational spectrum of TBX6 pathogenic alleles enabled an increased molecular diagnostic detection rate, provided further evidence for the gene dosage-dependent genetic model underlying CS, and refined clinical classification.

13.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(1): e1023, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular and genetic mechanisms by which different single nucleotide variant alleles in specific genes, or at the same genetic locus, cause distinct disease phenotypes often remain unclear. Allelic truncating mutations of FBN1 could cause either classical Marfan syndrome (MFS) or a more complicated phenotype associated with Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MPLS). METHODS: We investigated a small cohort, encompassing two classical MFS and one MPLS subjects from China, whose clinical presentation included scoliosis potentially requiring surgical intervention. Targeted next generation sequencing was performed on all the participants. We analyzed the molecular diagnosis, clinical features, and the potential molecular mechanism involved in the MPLS subject in our cohort. RESULTS: We report a novel de novo FBN1 mutation for the first Chinese subject with MPLS, a more complicated fibrillinopathy, and two subjects with more classical MFS. We further predict that the MPLS truncating mutation, and others previously reported, is prone to escape the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), while MFS mutations are predicted to be subjected to NMD. Also, the MPLS mutation occurs within the glucogenic hormone asprosin domain of FBN1. In vitro experiments showed that the single MPLS mutation p.Glu2759Cysfs*9 appears to perturb proper FBN1 protein aggregation as compared with the classical MFS mutation p.Tyr2596Thrfs*86. Both mutations appear to upregulate SMAD2 phosphorylation in vitro. CONCLUSION: We provide direct evidence that a dominant-negative interaction of FBN1 potentially explains the complex MPLS phenotypes through genetic and functional analysis. Our study expands the mutation spectrum of FBN1 and highlights the potential molecular mechanism for MPLS.

14.
J Hum Genet ; 65(3): 221-230, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827250

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a form of scoliosis caused by congenital vertebral malformations. Genetic predisposition has been demonstrated in CS. We previously reported that TBX6 loss-of-function causes CS in a compound heterozygous model; however, this model can explain only 10% of CS. Many monogenic and polygenic CS genes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed exome sequencing (ES) data of 615 Chinese CS from the Deciphering Disorders Involving Scoliosis and COmorbidities (DISCO) project. Cosegregation studies for 103 familial CS identified a novel heterozygous nonsense variant, c.2649G>A (p.Trp883Ter) in FBN1. The association between FBN1 and CS was then analyzed by extracting FBN1 variants from ES data of 574 sporadic CS and 828 controls; 30 novel variants were identified and prioritized for further analyses. A mutational burden test showed that the deleterious FBN1 variants were significantly enriched in CS subjects (OR = 3.9, P = 0.03 by Fisher's exact test). One missense variant, c.2613A>C (p.Leu871Phe) was recurrent in two unrelated CS subjects, and in vitro functional experiments for the variant suggest that FBN1 may contribute to CS by upregulating the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signaling. Our study expanded the phenotypic spectrum of FBN1, and provided nove insights into the genetic etiology of CS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Fibrilina-1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Escoliose/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
15.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(2): 221-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of familial intracranial aneurysms (FIAs); however, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential FIA-causing genetic variants by rare variant interrogation and a family-based genomics approach in a large family with an extensive multigenerational pedigree with FIAs. METHOD: Exome sequencing (ES) was performed in a dominant likely family with intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Variants were analyzed by an in-house developed pipeline and prioritized using various filtering strategies, including population frequency, variant type, and predicted variant pathogenicity. Sanger sequencing was also performed to evaluate the segregation of the variants with the phenotype. RESULTS: Based on the ES data obtained from five individuals from a family with 7/21 living members affected with IAs, a total of 14 variants were prioritized as candidate variants. Familial segregation analysis revealed that NFX1 c.2519T>C (p.Leu840Pro) segregated in accordance with Mendelian expectations with the phenotype within the family-that is, present in all IA-affected cases and absent from all unaffected members of the second generation. This missense variant is absent from public databases (1000genome, ExAC, gnomAD, ESP5400), and has damaging predictions by bioinformatics tools (Gerp ++ score = 5.88, CADD score = 16.43, MutationTaster score = 1, LRT score = 0). In addition, 840Leu in NFX1 is robustly conserved in mammals and maps in a region before the RING-type zinc finger domain. CONCLUSION: NFX1 c.2519T>C (p.Leu840Pro) may contribute to the pathogenetics of a subset of FIAs.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Exoma/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo
16.
Curr Gene Ther ; 19(4): 242-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The genetic variations contributed to a substantial proportion of congenital vertebral malformations (CVM). SOX9 gene, a member of the SOX gene family, has been implicated in CVM. To study the SOX9 mutation in CVM patients is of great significance to explain the pathogenesis of scoliosis (the clinical manifestation of CVM) and to explore the pathogenesis of SOX9-related skeletal deformities. METHODS: A total of 50 singleton patients with CVM were included in this study. Exome Sequencing (ES) was performed on all the patients. The recurrent candidate variant of SOX9 gene was validated by Sanger sequencing. Luciferase assay was performed to investigate the functional changes of this variant. RESULTS: A recurrent rare heterozygous missense variant in SOX9 gene (NM_000346.3: c.1405A>G, p.M469V) which had not been reported previously was identified in three CVM patients who had the clinical findings of congenital scoliosis without deformities in other systems. This variant was absent from our in-house database and it was predicted to be deleterious (CADD = 24.5). The luciferase assay demonstrated that transactivation capacity of the mutated SOX9 protein was significantly lower than that of the wild-type for the two luciferase reporters (p = 0.0202, p = 0.0082, respectively). CONCLUSION: This SOX9 mutation (p.M469V) may contribute to CVM without other systematic deformity, which provides important implications and better understanding of phenotypic variability in SOX9-related skeletal deformities.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/congênito , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
17.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1548-1558, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636772

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize clinically measurable endophenotypes, implicating the TBX6 compound inheritance model. METHODS: Patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) from China(N = 345, cohort 1), Japan (N = 142, cohort 2), and the United States (N = 10, cohort 3) were studied. Clinically measurable endophenotypes were compared according to the TBX6 genotypes. A mouse model for Tbx6 compound inheritance (N = 52) was investigated by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). A clinical diagnostic algorithm (TACScore) was developed to assist in clinical recognition of TBX6-associated CS (TACS). RESULTS: In cohort 1, TACS patients (N = 33) were significantly younger at onset than the remaining CS patients (P = 0.02), presented with one or more hemivertebrae/butterfly vertebrae (P = 4.9 × 10‒8), and exhibited vertebral malformations involving the lower part of the spine (T8-S5, P = 4.4 × 10‒3); observations were confirmed in two replication cohorts. Simple rib anomalies were prevalent in TACS patients (P = 3.1 × 10‒7), while intraspinal anomalies were uncommon (P = 7.0 × 10‒7). A clinically usable TACScore was developed with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9 (P = 1.6 × 10‒15). A Tbx6-/mh (mild-hypomorphic) mouse model supported that a gene dosage effect underlies the TACS phenotype. CONCLUSION: TACS is a clinically distinguishable entity with consistent clinically measurable endophenotypes. The type and distribution of vertebral column abnormalities in TBX6/Tbx6 compound inheritance implicate subtle perturbations in gene dosage as a cause of spine developmental birth defects responsible for about 10% of CS.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes , Padrões de Herança , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , Escoliose/classificação , Escoliose/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921798

RESUMO

Background: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex disease affecting a large number of teenagers, especially in female. This study reveals novel epigenetic perturbation to the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods: A female monozygotic (MZ) twin pair discordant for AIS were examined for whole-exome sequencing and epigenome difference. Sets of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were validated using MethylTarget™ method in 20 AIS female patients and 20 healthy female controls. Results: Few exome difference but several potential DMRs were found between the MZ twins. We identified 313 hypermethylated DMRs and 397 hypomethylated DMRs, respectively. Most of them were enriched in the MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, which may contribute to the discordance of AIS. Several DMRs related to scoliosis genes were tested, and the NDN: TSS-DMR (chr15:23932133-23932304, hg19) was confirmed in additional samples. The methylation level of this DMR was significantly higher in the AIS group than in the control group (p = 0.04). Conclusions: We described the epigenome difference in an AIS female discordant MZ twin pair using Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS). The NDN: TSS-DMR had higher methylation level in female AIS, which can help elucidate the potential etiology of AIS.

19.
J Hum Genet ; 63(11): 1119-1128, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115950

RESUMO

Intracranial vertebral-basilar artery dissection (IVAD) is an arterial disorder leading to life-threatening consequences. Genetic factors are known to be causative to certain syndromic forms of IVAD. However, systematic study of the molecular basis of sporadic and isolated IVAD is lacking. To identify genetic variants contributing to the etiology of IVAD, we enrolled a cohort of 44 unrelated cases with a clinical diagnosis of isolated IVAD and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) for all the participants; a trio exome sequencing approach was used when samples from both parents were available. Four previously reported disease-causing heterozygous variants (three in COL3A1 and one in FBN1) and seven novel heterozygous variants in IVAD-related genes were identified. In addition, six variants in novel IVAD genes including two de novo heterozygous nonsynonymous variants (each in VPS52 and CDK18), two stop-gain variants (each in MYH9 and LYL1), and two heterozygous biallelic variants in TNXB were considered to be possibly contributing to the phenotype, with unknown significance according to the existing knowledge. A significantly higher mutational rate of IVAD candidate genes was observed in patients versus our in-house controls (P = 0.002) (DISCO study, http://www.discostudy.org/ , n = 2248). Our study provided a mutational landscape for patients with isolated IVAD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Feminino , Fibrilina-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética
20.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 675-684, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) represent a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vessels with a prevalence of 10-18/100 000. BAVM is the leading aetiology of intracranial haemorrhage in children. Our objective was to identify gene variants potentially contributing to disease and to better define the molecular aetiology underlying non-syndromic sporadic BAVM. METHODS: We performed whole-exome trio sequencing of 100 unrelated families with a clinically uniform BAVM phenotype. Pathogenic variants were then studied in vivo using a transgenic zebrafish model. RESULTS: We identified four pathogenic heterozygous variants in four patients, including one in the established BAVM-related gene, ENG, and three damaging variants in novel candidate genes: PITPNM3, SARS and LEMD3, which we then functionally validated in zebrafish. In addition, eight likely pathogenic heterozygous variants (TIMP3, SCUBE2, MAP4K4, CDH2, IL17RD, PREX2, ZFYVE16 and EGFR) were identified in eight patients, and 16 patients carried one or more variants of uncertain significance. Potential oligogenic inheritance (MAP4K4 with ENG, RASA1 with TIMP3 and SCUBE2 with ENG) was identified in three patients. Regulation of sma- and mad-related proteins (SMADs) (involved in bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signalling) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endotheliual growth factor recepter 2 (VEGFR2) binding and activity (affecting the VEGF signalling pathway) were the most significantly affected biological process involved in the pathogenesis of BAVM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the specific role of BMP/TGF-ß and VEGF/VEGFR signalling in the aetiology of BAVM and the efficiency of intensive parallel sequencing in the challenging context of genetically heterogeneous paradigm.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Variação Genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Família , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/patologia , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra
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