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1.
J Card Surg ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal mitral prosthesis in young patients is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare outcomes between bileaflet mechanical mitral valve replacement (mMVR) and bioprosthesis mitral valve replacement (bioMVR) for MVR patients aged less than 70 years. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 2018 for studies comparing surgical outcomes of mMVR vs bioMVR. RESULTS: There were 14 observational studies with 20 219 patients (n = 14 658 mMVR and n = 5561 bioMVR). Patients receiving an mMVR were younger with fewer comorbidities including renal failure, dialysis, and less-infective endocarditis (P < .001). The estimated 10-year mortality ranged from 19% to 49% for mMVR and 22% to 58% for bioMVR among studies. Comparing matched or adjusted data, mMVR was associated with lower operative (risk ratio [RR]: 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39, 0.94; P = .03) and long-term (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92; P = .002) mortality at a median follow-up of 8 years (IQR: 6-10 years). Estimated 10-year risk for mitral valve reoperation ranged from 0% to 8% for mMVR and 8% to 22% for bioMVR among matched/adjusted studies. mMVR was associated with lower matched/adjusted risk of reoperation (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.65; P = .001) but with greater risk of bleeding (HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.13; P = .002) and a trend to greater risk of stroke and embolism (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 0.92, 3.15; P = .09). CONCLUSION: Mechanical MVR in patients aged less than 70 years is associated with a lower risk of operative mortality as well as a 20% lower risk of long-term death and 65% lower risk of mitral valve reoperation but 60% greater risk of bleeding compared with bioMVR in matched or adjusted data.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal donor heart preservation and management strategy during heart transplantation remains controversial. Here, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of supplemental cardioplegia administration during donor heart implant for transplantation. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until February 2019 for studies comparing patients who received transplants with the donor heart given supplemental cardioplegia or not. Data was extracted by two independent investigators. The main outcomes were early morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Seven retrospective observational studies (four comparing to historical controls) and 3 randomized controlled trials enrolling 1125 patients were included. Supplemental cardioplegia included crystalloid, and blood cardioplegia given continuous retrograde or as terminal "hot shots". Supplemental cardioplegia was associated with improved early mortality (risk ratio [RR]:0.55; 95%CI:0.35 to 0.87; p<0.01), greater rates of spontaneous return of sinus rhythm (RR:2.62; 95%CI:1.50 to 4.56; p<0.01), shorter intensive care stay (MD:-3.4 days; 95%CI:-5.1 to -1.6; p<0.01), and lower incidence of ischemic changes seen on endomyocardial biopsy (RR:0.49; 95%CI:0.35 to 0.69; p<0.01) compared to controls. Mid-term mortality was not different between groups (incident rate ratio:0.80; 95%CI:0.51 to 1.26; p=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of supplemental cardioplegia may be associated with a reduction in organ ischemic injury and shorter intensive care stay as well as improvement in early survival post-transplantation. This strategy may be a simple and cost-effective adjunct to improve outcomes of heart transplantation, especially in an era of increasing use of marginal donor organs. Further investigation will be needed to confirm the findings of this hypothesis-generating study.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve sparing operations theoretically have fewer stroke and bleeding complications but may increase late reoperation risk, versus composite valve grafts. METHODS: We meta-analyzed all studies comparing aortic valve sparing (reimplantation and remodelling) and composite valve grafting (bioprosthetic and mechanical) procedures. Early outcomes were: all-cause mortality, reoperation for bleeding, myocardial infarction, thromboembolism/stroke. Long-term outcomes included: all-cause mortality, reintervention, bleeding, and thromboembolism/stroke. Studies exclusively investigating dissection or pediatric populations were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 3,794 patients undergoing composite valve grafting and 2,424 undergoing aortic valve sparing procedures were included from 9 adjusted and 17 unadjusted observational studies. Mean follow-up was 5.8±3.0 years. Aortic valve sparing was not associated with any difference in early mortality, bleeding, myocardial infarction or thromboembolic complications. Late mortality was significantly lower following valve sparing (incident risk ratio: 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.54 - 0.87 p<0.01). Late thromboembolism/stroke (incident rate ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.22 - 0.60 p<0.01) and bleeding (incident rate ratio: 0.21, 95% confidence interval 0.11 - 0.42, p<0.01) risks were lower following valve sparing. Procedure type did not impact late reintervention. CONCLUSIONS: Aortic valve sparing appears to be safe, and associated with reduced late mortality, thromboembolism/stroke and bleeding compared with composite valve grafting. Late durability is equivalent. Aortic valve sparing should be considered in patients with favorable aortic valve morphology.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(1): e3-e4, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276641
5.
J Card Surg ; 35(1): 66-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral valve (MV) disease with mitral annular calcification (MAC) poses a surgical challenge and the clinical outcomes of MV surgery as well as transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) remain relatively unexplored. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of MAC on clinical outcomes following MV surgery and TMVR. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until February 2019 for studies comparing clinical outcomes of MV surgery or TMVR in patients with and without MAC. Data were extracted by two independent investigators. Outcomes were perioperative and midterm complications and mortality. RESULTS: Seven observational studies enrolling 2902 patients were included. MAC patients were older, more likely to be female with greater chronic lung disease and kidney failure. Perioperative mortality was similar between patients with and without MAC undergoing MV surgery (risk ratio [RR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-2.65; P = .74). MAC was associated with a higher risk of bleeding, permanent pacemaker implantation, and periprosthetic leak. Midterm mortality was greater in MAC patients undergoing MV surgery (incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.67; P = .02). MAC patients undergoing TMVR had higher perioperative (RR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.93-7.38; P < .01) and 1-year (RR, 5.44; 95% CI, 3.49-8.49; P < .01) mortality, decreased procedural success, greater left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and need for conversion to surgery when compared with patients undergoing TMVR for dysfunction of a bioprosthetic valve or annuloplasty ring. CONCLUSION: MV procedures in patients with MAC are associated with higher mortality and morbidity. This is largely driven by the high-risk patient profile associated with MAC. TMVR holds promise but has important limitations and should be reserved for select patients.

6.
J Card Surg ; 34(12): 1617-1625, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: We compared early and late outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and pulmonary hypertension (PHT). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until July 2018 for studies comparing patients with AS and none, mild-moderate, or severe PHT undergoing SAVR. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were 12 observational studies with 70 676 patients with median follow-up 4.0 years (interquartile range, 2.6-4 years). Compared to patients with no PHT, patients with any PHT undergoing SAVR were older (mean difference [MD], 2.31 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-3.23 years; P < .01), with greater comorbidities and reduced ejection fraction (MD, -4.36; 95%CI, -5.94 to -2.78; P < .01). Patients with any PHT had higher unadjusted (5.2% vs 2.4%; risk ratio [RR], 2.27; 95%CI, 2.04-2.53; P < .01) and adjusted (RR, 1.65; 95%CI, 1.28-2.14; P < .01) in-hospital mortality compared with no PHT. Severe (RR, 3.53; 95%CI, 1.46-8.54; P < .01) and mild-moderate PHT (RR, 2.13; 95%CI, 1.28-3.55; P < .01) were associated with higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality compared with no PHT. Any PHT was associated with a higher unadjusted risk of stroke (RR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.42-1.90; P < .01), acute kidney injury (RR, 2.02; 95%CI, 1.50-2.72; P < .01), prolonged ventilation (RR, 1.62; 95%CI, 1.04-2.52; P = .03), and longer hospital stay (MD, 1.76 days; 95%CI, 0.57-2.95; P < .01). Severe (HR, 2.44; 95%CI, 1.60-3.72; P < .01) but not mild-moderate PHT (HR, 2.25; 95%CI, 0.91-5.59; P = .08) was associated with higher adjusted long-term mortality compared with no PHT. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe AS and severe PHT had a significant increase in operative mortality and more than double the risk of long-term mortality following SAVR compared with patients with no PHT. Such patients may benefit from a less invasive transcatheter aortic valve intervention.

8.
J Vasc Surg ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to provide a systematic review of the literature reporting the contemporary early outcomes after endovascular and open repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs). METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase were searched for studies from January 2006 to March 2018 that reported either endovascular (using branched or fenestrated endografts) or open repair of TAAA in at least 10 patients. Outcomes of interest included perioperative mortality, spinal cord injury (SCI), renal failure requiring dialysis, and stroke. Pooled proportions were determined using a random-effects model. RESULTS: The analysis included 71 studies, of which 24 and 47 reported outcomes after endovascular and open TAAA repair, respectively. Endovascular cohort patients were older and had higher rates of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes. Endovascular repair was associated with higher rates of SCI (13.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5%-16.7%) compared with open repair (7.4%; 95% CI, 6.2%-8.7%; P < .01) but similar rates of permanent paralysis (5.2% [95% CI, 3.8%-6.7%] vs 4.4% [95% CI, 3.3%-5.6%]; P = .39), lower rates of postoperative dialysis (6.4% [95% CI, 3.2%-9.5%] vs 12.0% [95% CI, 8.2%-16.3%]; P = .03) but similar rates of being discharged on permanent dialysis (3.7% [95% CI, 2.0%-5.9%] vs 3.8% [95% CI, 2.9%-5.3%]; P = .93), a trend to lower stroke (2.7% [95% CI, 1.9%-3.6%] vs 3.9% [95% CI, 3.0%-4.9%]; P = .06), and similar perioperative mortality (7.4% [95% CI, 5.9%-9.1%] vs 8.9% [95% CI, 7.2%-10.9%]; P = .21). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review summarizes the contemporary literature results of endovascular and open TAAA repair. Endovascular repair studies included patients with more comorbidities and were associated with higher rates of SCI but similar rates of permanent paraplegia, whereas open repair studies had higher rates of postoperative dialysis but similar rates of being discharged on permanent dialysis. Perioperative mortality rates were similar. Universally adopted reporting standards for patient characteristics, outcomes, and the conduct of contemporary comparative studies will allow better assessment and comparisons of the risks associated with the two surgical treatment options for TAAA.

10.
Cardiol Clin ; 37(4): 525-531, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587792

RESUMO

Cardiac tumors are rare. Most surgeons will encounter few primary cardiac tumors outside of myxomas. This article offers the authors' approach to simple and complex primary and secondary cardiac tumors. Symptoms of primary cardiac tumors are primarily determined by tumor size and anatomic location. Most simple primary tumors and some complex primary tumors are best managed by surgical resection. Secondary tumors are 30 times more frequent than primary cardiac tumors. Surgical resection of secondary tumors is rational in a few highly selected patients. For complex primary and secondary tumors, the authors recommend referral to an experienced multidisciplinary cardiac tumor team.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 34(5): 536-542, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394562

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with significant CAD and LVD are a high-risk patient population. They make up a minority of the cases from the largest, prospective coronary revascularization trials. The Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial and its substudies are the most important and well cited in this field. The 10-year data from STICH showed that surgical revascularization was associated with lower all-cause mortality compared with medical therapy. Several smaller studies have confirmed that surgical revascularization carries a significant risk of short-term mortality but overall improved long-term outcomes in patients with LVD. Data from multiple observational studies further confirm that coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is superior to percutaneous coronary revascularization for long-term survival and freedom from repeat revascularization in patients with LVD. We suggest that patients with LVD undergoing CABG should be considered for multiarterial grafting and that some patients may benefit from an off-pump procedure. SUMMARY: Surgical revascularization confers a long-term survival benefit in patients with significant CAD and LVD. Further studies will be needed to precisely determine the ideal candidate for surgical versus percutaneous revascularization.

13.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 34(5): 571-577, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394563

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the cardiac surgical simulation experience with a focus on data supporting its use. RECENT FINDINGS: Simulators have been used to improve trainee performance across multiple surgical domains. Few cardiac surgery residency programs have incorporated the use of simulation individually and Boot Camp programs in the United States and Canada have also introduced surgical simulation early in cardiac surgical training. Simulation curricula have some common elements: component tasks, deliberate practice, progressive operative responsibility, and coaching by an experienced surgeon. Cardiac surgical simulators can range from inexpensive, low-fidelity models for the practice of isolated skills to high-fidelity, operating room-scenarios. Multiple small studies have consistently demonstrated that the use of simulation improves qualitative and quantitative performance measures as well as overall resident confidence in clinical settings. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that use of simulation has led to improved quantitative performance measures in the operating room or patient outcomes. The barriers to wider use of surgical simulators include perceived lack of time and resources, the need for sustained practice and the lack of high-quality data to demonstrate clinical benefit. SUMMARY: Incorporation of cardiac surgery simulation has been slow in most residency programs. There is consistent data demonstrating that simulation improves resident performance measures of simulation-based tasks but whether this will lead to improved patient outcomes remains an open question.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) may benefit select high-risk patients. We sought to analyze the long-term outcomes of OPCAB versus on-pump coronary artery bypass (ONCAB) in patients with moderate renal failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of primary isolated CAB surgery performed in Ontario, Canada, from October 2008 to March 2016 in the CorHealth Ontario Cardiac Registry identified 50,115 cases. Of these, 7782 (15.5%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2. OPCAB was compared to ONCAB after propensity score matching. RESULTS: Following propensity score matching, 1578 patient pairs were formed. Total number of bypass grafts was higher in ONCAB (3.31 ± 1.01 vs 3.12 ± 1.14; P < .01) and more arterial grafts were used in OPCAB (1.55 ± 0.71 vs 1.14 ± 0.58; P < .01). OPCAB was associated with lower rate of in-hospital stroke (0.7% vs 2.2%; P < .01), renal failure requiring dialysis (1.2% vs 2.9%; P < .01), and blood transfusion (52.4% vs 69.3%; P < .01). There was no difference in perioperative mortality (2.4% vs 3.0%; P = .36) between OPCAB and ONCAB, respectively. At 8-year follow-up, survival probability was not different when comparing OPCAB versus ONCAB: 62% versus 65%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.13; P = .38). Cumulative incidence of permanent dialysis did not differ at 8-year follow-up: 7% versus 7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.43; P = .74. CONCLUSIONS: OPCAB is associated with improved in-hospital renal outcomes, but is not associated with changes in short- or long-term mortality, or with the long-term cumulative incidence of end-stage renal failure requiring permanent dialysis in patients with moderate renal failure.

16.
Innovations (Phila) ; 14(5): 385-393, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Del Nido cardioplegia (DC) has been used extensively in pediatric cardiac surgery but the efficacy and safety in adults remains uncertain. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing DC and blood cardioplegia (BC) in our primary endpoint of 30-day or in-hospital mortality as well as other efficacy and safety endpoints. METHODS: Both MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 1996 to 2017 for studies comparing DC and BC. Data were extracted by 2 independent investigators and aggregated in a random effects model. RESULTS: One randomized controlled trial (n = 89), 7 adjusted (n = 1,104), and 5 unadjusted observational studies (n = 717) were included. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality between DC and BC (relative risk:0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22, 2.07; P = 0.49). DC reduced cardioplegia volume requirements (mean difference [MD]:-1.1 L, 95% CI, -1.6, -0.6; P < 0.0001), aortic cross-clamp time (MD: -8 minutes, 95% CI, -12, -3; P = 0.0004), and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times (MD: -8 minutes, 95% CI, -14, -3; P = 0.03). DC reduced troponin release (standardized MD: -0.3, 95% CI, -0.5, -0.1; P = 0.001). In-hospital outcomes of stroke, atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury/dialysis, low cardiac output state, blood transfusion, reoperation rate, postoperative left ventricular EF, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital LOS were comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS: DC is a safe alternative to BC in routine adult cardiac surgery. Its use is associated with reduction in CPB and aortic cross-clamp times and may potentially offer improved myocardial protection.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e012447, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215306

RESUMO

Background Although it is traditionally regarded as a single entity, perioperative stroke comprises 2 separate phenomena (early/intraoperative and delayed/postoperative stroke). We aimed to systematically evaluate incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome of early and delayed stroke after cardiac surgery. Methods and Results A systematic review ( MEDLINE , EMBASE , Cochrane Library) was performed to identify all articles reporting early (on awakening from anesthesia) and delayed (after normal awakening from anesthesia) stroke after cardiac surgery. End points were pooled event rates of stroke and operative mortality and incident rate of late mortality. Thirty-six articles were included (174 969 patients). The pooled event rate for early stroke was 0.98% (95% CI 0.79% to 1.23%) and was 0.93% for delayed stoke (95% CI 0.77% to 1.11%; P=0.68). The pooled event rate of operative mortality was 28.8% (95% CI 17.6% to 43.4%) for early and 17.9% (95% CI 14.0% to 22.7%) for delayed stroke, compared with 2.4% (95% CI 1.9% to 3.1%) for patients without stroke ( P<0.001 for early versus delayed, and for perioperative stroke, early stroke, and delayed stroke versus no stroke). At a mean follow-up of 8.25 years, the incident rate of late mortality was 11.7% (95% CI 7.5% to 18.3%) for early and 9.4% (95% CI 5.9% to 14.9%) for delayed stroke, compared with 3.4% (95% CI 2.4% to 4.8%) in patients with no stroke. Meta-regression demonstrated that off-pump was inversely associated with early stroke (ß=-0.009, P=0.01), whereas previous stroke (ß=0.02, P<0.001) was associated with delayed stroke. Conclusions Early and delayed stroke after cardiac surgery have different risk factors and impacts on operative mortality as well as on long-term survival.

19.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 34(5): 557-563, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246588

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize landmark studies and recent evidence in support for and against benefits of routine percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials have raised uncertainty regarding the prognostic benefits of routine PCI in patients with SIHD. The benefits of PCI to improve symptoms and quality of life (QOL), thought to be more established, was brought into question recently by the ORBITA trial. Two hundred participants with single vessel SIHD optimized first on antianginal therapy were randomized to PCI or sham PCI procedure. At 6 weeks, there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of exercise time increment (PCI minus sham PCI 16.6 s, 95% confidence interval -8.9 to 42.0 s, P = 0.20), or secondary endpoints of change in angina or QOL scores between the groups. SUMMARY: Findings from this first placebo-controlled trial of PCI in patients with single vessel SIHD suggest that PCI need not necessarily be the first line or default strategy for symptomatic improvement. Results from the ongoing ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) trial will provide further guidance regarding symptomatic and prognostic benefits of early angiography and revascularization for higher risk SIHD patients with moderate-severe ischemia.

20.
Innovations (Phila) ; 14(4): 291-298, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The management of concomitant mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis (AS) at the time of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is controversial. Here we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of CABG and aortic valve replacement (AVR) versus CABG alone in patients with mild-moderate AS. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until July 2018 for studies comparing CABG & AVR versus CABG in patients with mild-moderate AS undergoing coronary bypass. Data were extracted by 2 independent investigators. The main outcomes were operative mortality, long-term survival, and reintervention for AS. RESULTS: There were 6 unmatched retrospective observational studies with 1,172 patients (median follow-up 4.7 [interquartile range: 4.3 to 5.3] years). Patients undergoing CABG & AVR had less severe coronary artery disease. There were no differences in operative mortality (relative risk [RR]: 1.07; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.94; P = 0.8). CABG & AVR was associated with greater incidence of stroke, bleeding, renal failure, and mediastinitis. At median follow-up of 5 years, there was no difference in long-term mortality (incidence rate ratio [IRR]:1.44; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.51; P = 0.19), but CABG & AVR was associated with 73% lower risk of reoperation for AS (n = 13/485 versus n = 71/702; IRR: 0.27; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.51; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing CABG with mild-moderate AS, combining AVR with CABG was associated with no difference in operative mortality but with increased risk of stroke, bleeding, renal failure, and mediastinitis. Long-term mortality was not different, but a risk of reoperation for AS at 5 years was 73% lower. Given the increasingly wide availability and safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), one may consider a conservative approach toward concomitant mild-moderate AS.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Humanos , Mediastinite/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
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