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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 139: 106526, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158486

RESUMO

The clownfish-sea anemone symbiosis has been a model system for understanding fundamental evolutionary and ecological processes. However, our evolutionary understanding of this symbiosis comes entirely from studies of clownfishes. A holistic understanding of a model mutualism requires systematic, biogeographic, and phylogenetic insight into both partners. Here, we conduct the largest phylogenetic analysis of sea anemones (Order Actiniaria) to date, with a focus on expanding the biogeographic and taxonomic sampling of the 10 nominal clownfish-hosting species. Using a combination of mtDNA and nuDNA loci we test (1) the monophyly of each clownfish-hosting family and genus, (2) the current anemone taxonomy that suggests symbioses with clownfishes evolved multiple times within Actiniaria, and (3) whether, like the clownfishes, there is evidence that host anemones have a Coral Triangle biogeographic origin. Our phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrates widespread poly- and para-phyly at the family and genus level, particularly within the family Stichodactylidae and genus Stichodactyla, and suggests that symbioses with clownfishes evolved minimally three times within sea anemones. We further recover evidence for a Tethyan biogeographic origin for some clades. Our data provide the first evidence that clownfish and some sea anemone hosts have different biogeographic origins, and that there may be cryptic species of host anemones. Finally, our findings reflect the need for a major taxonomic revision of the clownfish-hosting sea anemones.

3.
Zoolog Sci ; 35(2): 188-198, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623791

RESUMO

A new species in a new genus of sea anemone, Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov., was discovered at several localities along the temperate rocky shores of Japan. The new species is approximately 4 mm in length and has been assigned to family Edwardsiidae, because it has eight macrocnemes, lacks sphincter and basal muscles, and possesses rounded aboral end. The sea anemone, however, also has a peculiar body shape unlike that of any other known taxa. This new species resembles some genera, especially Drillactis and Nematostella, in smooth column surface without nemathybomes or tenaculi, but is distinguishable from them by several morphological features: the presence of holotrichs and absence of nematosomes. Furthermore, this edwardsiid species exhibits a peculiar symbiotic ecology with sponges. Therefore, a new genus, Tempuractis, is proposed for this species. In the field, T. rinkai sp. nov. was always found living inside homosclerophorid sponge of the genus Oscarella, which suggests a possible obligate symbiosis between Porifera and Actiniaria. The benefit of this symbiosis is discussed on the basis of observations of live specimens, both in the aquarium and field. This is the first report of symbiosis between a sea anemone and a homoscleromorph sponge.


Assuntos
Poríferos/fisiologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/classificação , Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Simbiose , Animais , Japão , Anêmonas-do-Mar/anatomia & histologia
4.
Zoolog Sci ; 33(4): 448-53, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498806

RESUMO

In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme. Furthermore, this species shows an interesting behavior: it can inflate its body like a balloon, lift above the seafloor, and drift with the sea current. The presence of a single, strong siphonoglyph, physa-like aboral end, and the lack of sphincter muscle classify this sea anemone within Haloclavidae. It resembles Peachia species, but cannot be classified in this genus as the new species has two pairs of mesenteries, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme, and irregular antenna tentacles. Therefore, we propose a new genus Antennapeachia to accommodate this species.


Assuntos
Anêmonas-do-Mar/anatomia & histologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Japão
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 58(Pt 11): 2597-601, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18984699

RESUMO

Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)).


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Poliplacóforos/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genes de RNAr , Genótipo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Japão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 56(Pt 2): 343-7, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16449437

RESUMO

Two bacterial strains, F423T and F10102, were isolated from two ascidians, Polycitor proliferus and Botryllidae sp., respectively, which were collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Cells of both isolates were motile, rod-shaped and formed star-shaped aggregates in the early stage of exponential growth, but were coccoid in stationary growth phase. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and physiological and biochemical tests indicated that the two strains were members of a novel species of the genus Pseudovibrio for which the name Pseudovibrio ascidiaceicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F423T (=NBRC 100514T=IAM 15084T=DSM 16392T=KCTC 12308T).


Assuntos
Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Urocordados/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genes de RNAr , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fenótipo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Rhodobacteraceae/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 135(2): 309-24, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12798941

RESUMO

KPNAYKGKLPIGLWamide, a novel member of the GLWamide peptide family, was isolated from Hydra magnipapillata. The purification was monitored with a bioassay: contraction of the retractor muscle of a sea anemone, Anthopleura fuscoviridis. The new peptide, termed Hym-370, is longer than the other GLWamides previously isolated from H. magnipapillata and another sea anemone, A. elegantissima. The amino acid sequence of Hym-370 is six residues longer at its N-terminal than a putative sequence previously deduced from the cDNA encoding the precursor protein. The new longer isoform, like the shorter GLWamides, evoked concentration-dependent muscle contractions in both H. magnipapillata and A. fuscoviridis. In contrast, Hym-248, one of the shorter GLWamide peptides, specifically induced contraction of the endodermal muscles in H. magnipapillata. This is the first case in which a member of the hydra GLWamide family (Hym-GLWamides) has exhibited an activity not shared by the others. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to the common C-terminal tripeptide GLWamide and were used in immunohistochemistry to localize the GLWamides in the tissue of two species of hydra, H. magnipapillata and H. oligactis, and one species of sea anemone, A. fuscoviridis. In each case, nerve cells were specifically labeled. These results suggest that the GLWamides are ubiquitous among cnidarians and are involved in regulating the excitability of specific muscles.


Assuntos
Hydra/química , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Amidas/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cnidários/citologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hydra/citologia , Hydra/efeitos dos fármacos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neuropeptídeos/química , Biblioteca de Peptídeos
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