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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(4)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417559

RESUMO

Horizontal transfer (HT) of genes between multicellular animals, once thought to be extremely rare, is being more commonly detected, but its global geographic trend and transfer mechanism have not been investigated. We discovered a unique HT pattern of Bovine-B (BovB) LINE retrotransposons in vertebrates, with a bizarre transfer direction from predators (snakes) to their prey (frogs). At least 54 instances of BovB HT were detected, which we estimate to have occurred across time between 85 and 1.3 Ma. Using comprehensive transcontinental sampling, our study demonstrates that BovB HT is highly prevalent in one geographical region, Madagascar, suggesting important regional differences in the occurrence of HTs. We discovered parasite vectors that may plausibly transmit BovB and found that the proportion of BovB-positive parasites is also high in Madagascar where BovB thus might be physically transported by parasites to diverse vertebrates, potentially including humans. Remarkably, in two frog lineages, BovB HT occurred after migration from a non-HT area (Africa) to the HT hotspot (Madagascar). These results provide a novel perspective on how the prevalence of parasites influences the occurrence of HT in a region, similar to pathogens and their vectors in some endemic diseases.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Parasitos , Animais , Bovinos , Geografia , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia , Comportamento Predatório , Retroelementos , Vertebrados/genética
2.
Parasite ; 28: 53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142955

RESUMO

Taeniasis remains a prevalent public health problem in Thailand. National helminthiasis surveys report only the incidence of Taenia spp. eggs. The ability to differentiate Taenia species using morphological and molecular techniques is vital for epidemiological surveys. This study detected taeniasis carriers and other helminthic infections by Kato's thick smear technique and identified the Taenia species by multiplex PCR. The study subjects were the ethnic Karen people in Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand, bordering Myanmar. In total, 983 faecal samples from villagers were examined for helminthiases. Interview-based questionnaires were used to gather information on possible risk factors for infection. The prevalence of helminth infections was 42.7% (420/983), including single (37.3%, 367/983) and mixed infections (5.4%, 53/983). The most common infection (19.23%, 189/983) was Ascaris lumbricoides, whereas taeniasis carriers comprised 2.8% (28/983). Multiplex PCR of Cox1 was used for species identification of Taenia tapeworms, eggs, or both in 22 taeniasis carriers. Most of the parasites (20 cases) were Taenia solium, with two cases of Taenia saginata. Taenia saginata asiatica was not found in the villagers examined. The analysis of 314 completed questionnaires showed that a statistically significant (p < 0.05) risk of taeniasis was correlated with being male, a history of being allowed to forage during childhood, a history of seeing tapeworm proglottids, and a history of raw or undercooked pork consumption. Health education programmes must seek to reduce and prevent reinfection in these communities.


TITLE: Facteurs de risque et prévalence de la téniase chez les Karens du district de Tha Song Yang, province de Tak, Thaïlande. ABSTRACT: La téniase reste un problème de santé publique répandu en Thaïlande. Les enquêtes nationales sur les helminthiases ne rapportent que l'incidence des œufs de Taenia spp. La capacité de différencier les espèces de Taenia à l'aide de techniques morphologiques et moléculaires est vitale pour les enquêtes épidémiologiques. Cette étude a détecté des porteurs de téniase et d'autres infections helminthiques par la technique de frottis épais de Kato et a identifié les espèces de Taenia par PCR multiplex. Les sujets de l'étude étaient les Karens du district de Tha Song Yang, province de Tak, Thaïlande, à la frontière du Myanmar. Au total, 983 échantillons de matières fécales provenant de villageois ont été examinés pour les helminthiases. Des questionnaires basés sur des entretiens ont été utilisés pour recueillir des informations sur les facteurs de risque possibles d'infection. La prévalence des helminthes était de 42,7 % (420/983), dont des infections uniques (37,3 %, 367/983) et mixtes (5,4 %, 53/983). L'infection la plus courante (19,23 %, 189/983) était Ascaris lumbricoides, tandis que les porteurs de téniase représentaient 2,8 % (28/983). La PCR multiplexe de Cox1 a été utilisée pour l'identification des adultes ou des oeufs de Taenia, ou des deux, chez 22 porteurs de téniase. La plupart des parasites (20 cas) étaient Taenia solium, avec deux cas de Taenia saginata. Taenia saginata asiatica n'a pas été trouvé chez les villageois examinés. L'analyse de 314 questionnaires a montré qu'un risque statistiquement significatif (p < 0,05) de téniase était en corrélation avec le fait d'être un homme, et des antécédents d'avoir été autorisé à ramasser sa nourriture pendant l'enfance, d'avoir vu des proglottis de ténia et de consommation de porc cru ou insuffisamment cuit. Les programmes d'éducation sanitaire doivent chercher à réduire et à prévenir la réinfection dans ces communautés.


Assuntos
Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teníase/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
3.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486126

RESUMO

Global distributions of zoonotic pathogens have been strongly affected by the history of human dispersal and domestication of livestock. The pork tapeworm Taenia solium is distributed worldwide as the cause of neurocysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. T. solium has been reported in Indonesia but only endemic to restricted areas such as Bali and Papua. Previous studies indicated the distinctiveness of a mitochondrial haplotype confirmed in Papua, but only one isolate has been examined to date. In this study, genetic characterization of T. solium and pigs in Bali and Papua was conducted to clarify the distributional history of the parasite. Mitochondrial haplotype network analysis clearly showed that Indonesian T. solium comprises a unique haplogroup which was the first to diverge among Asian genotypes, indicating its single origin and the fact that it was not introduced in the recent past from other area in Asia in which it is endemic. Although phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial D-loop revealed multiple origins of pigs in Bali and Papua, the majority of pigs belonged to the Pacific Clade, which is widely dispersed throughout the Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) and Oceania due to Neolithic human dispersal. Given the results of our network analysis, it is likely that the Pacific Clade pigs played a key role in the dispersal of T. solium. The data suggest that T. solium was introduced from mainland Asia into Western Indonesia, including Bali, by modern humans in the late Pleistocene, or in the early to middle Holocene along with the Pacific Clade pigs. Introduction into New Guinea most likely occurred in the late Holocene through the spread of Pacific Clade pigs. Over time, T. solium has been eradicated from most of Indonesia through the middle to modern ages owing to religious and cultural practices.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Sus scrofa/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia solium/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Indonésia , Ilhas , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/classificação , Suínos , Taenia solium/classificação , Teníase/parasitologia
4.
PeerJ ; 8: e9529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742799

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal myxosporean parasites from the genus Enteromyxum are known to cause severe disease, resulting in high mortalities in numerous species of cultured marine fishes globally. Originally described as Myxidium spp., they were transferred to a new genus, Enteromyxum, to emphasize their novel characteristics. Their retention in the family Myxidiidae at the time was warranted, but more comprehensive phylogenetic analyses have since demonstrated the need for a new family for these parasites. We discovered a novel Enteromyxum in wild fish from Malaysia and herein describe the fourth species in the genus and erect a new family, the Enteromyxidae n. fam., to accommodate them. Enteromyxum caesio n. sp. is described infecting the tissues of the stomach in the redbelly yellowtail fusilier, Caesio cuning, from Malaysia. The new species is distinct from all others in the genus, as the myxospores although morphologically similar, are significantly smaller in size. Furthermore, small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence data reveal that E. caesio is <84% similar to others in the genus, but collectively they form a robust and discrete clade, the Enteromyxidae n. fam., which is placed as a sister taxon to other histozoic marine myxosporeans. In addition, we describe, using transmission electron microscopy, the epicellular stages of Enteromyxum fugu and show a scanning electron micrograph of a mature myxospore of E. caesio detailing the otherwise indistinct sutural line, features of the polar capsules and spore valve ridges. The Enteromyxidae n. fam. is a commercially important group of parasites infecting the gastrointestinal tract of marine fishes and the histozoic species can cause the disease enteromyxosis in intensive finfish aquaculture facilities. Epicellular and sloughed histozoic stages are responsible for fish-to-fish transmission in net pen aquaculture systems but actinospores from an annelid host are thought to be necessary for transmission to fish in the wild.

5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100337, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796200

RESUMO

Avitellina tapeworms are common intestinal parasites of ruminants with a worldwide distribution. In Senegal, only Avitellina centripunctata tapeworm has been reported to date, and genetic diversity was previously confirmed by enzymatic analysis. This study aims to clarify the diversity of Avitellina tapeworms isolated from sheep and cattle in Senegal. In total, 613 adult Avitellina tapeworms were collected from sheep and cattle. Morphological analysis by the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy identified three Avitellina "morphospecies": A. centripunctata and Avitellina sp.2 were detected in sheep while Avitellina sp.3 was identified in cattle. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences revealed that 101 Avitellina tapeworms were divided into 54 haplotypes grouped into three clades, of which two were specific to sheep and one specific to cattle. Three morphospecies corresponded to each of three clades and the maximum pairwise divergence among the clades ranged from 9.7 to 18.5% in cox1. The present study demonstrates the unexpected diversity of Avitellina tapeworms in domestic ruminants, and emphasize the necessity of re-evaluation of the taxonomy of the genus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Microscopia/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Prevalência , Senegal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
6.
Acta Trop ; 198: 105075, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295430

RESUMO

Taeniasis is an important parasitic condition in Asia, especially since all three human-infecting Taenia spp., Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica are found in this region. These three species are believed to be sympatrically distributed, with the largest disease burden found in remote and rural areas where people raise pigs and cattle in a traditional manner. Recent studies revealed that T. asiatica and T. saginata are genetically-related sister species that are not completely reproductively isolated from each other. Current evidence indicates that most T. asiatica adult worms are hybrid-derived descendants. Moving forward, nuclear DNA analysis will be critical in further assessing the species circulating locally. Lifestyle choices, such as the consumption of undercooked meat, are important in maintaining the life cycles of these parasites. In addition, poor hygiene and sanitation, in highly endemic areas, make disease control difficult, resulting in the need for sustainable education programs. An overview of the present situation of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia is provided, followed by a discussion of molecular approaches to species assessment and the impact of human lifestyles on parasite transmission.


Assuntos
Taenia/classificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Taenia/genética
7.
Acta Trop ; 189: 114-116, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321521

RESUMO

In North Sumatra, Indonesia, taeniasis has previously been reported solely from Samosir Island located in Lake Toba. In 2014, however, three individuals were identified with taeniasis after voluntarily reporting for treatment, stimulating a subsequent investigation conducted in 2017. This investigation indicated that a previously unidentified endemic area exists in Simalungun District. Molecular analysis showed the worms to be hybrid-derived descendants of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, which is consistent with specimens identified previously from Samosir Island.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Teníase/epidemiologia , Animais , Portador Sadio , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Taenia
8.
Acta Trop ; 190: 273-283, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385216

RESUMO

Taeniasis and cysticercosis are known to be endemic in several Indonesian islands, although relatively little recent epidemiological data are available. As most Indonesian people are Muslims, taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, has a restricted presence in non-Muslim societies and is endemic only among some Hindu communities on the island of Bali. Bali has long been known to be endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis; almost a century ago levels of cysticercosis of 20-30% were described in cattle and 2-3% in pigs. Few studies of taeniasis/cysticercosis were undertaken in Bali prior to a series of research programs commenced since the 1990s. Both Taenia saginata and T. solium continue to be endemic in Bali. Molecular studies have revealed that all T. saginata-like tapeworms detected in Bali are T. saginata. No evidence has been found for the presence of Taenia asiatica in Bali. Economic, sanitary and education improvements across much of the island over the past decades have been associated with a decline in the amount of transmission of T. solium such that the parasite now seems to be restricted to the eastern part of the island, a small area on the northeastern slope of Mt. Agung, the highest mountain in Bali. The living environment including sanitation and hygiene condition in this endemic area remains relatively poor especially during the half-year dry season, and pigs continue to roam freely. In this review, historical records and ongoing projects towards elimination of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali are reviewed to provide a better understanding of the present situation of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali towards a future, cysticercosis-free tropical resort island.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Teníase/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Ilhas , Suínos/parasitologia , Teníase/prevenção & controle
9.
Zoolog Sci ; 35(6): 548-552, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520361

RESUMO

The infection caused by a kinetoplastid flagellate, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, in an ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, results in softening of the tunic, and finally death. This disease is usually recognized using palpation of the softening tunic, and A. hoyamushi infection is detectable using microscopy or PCR amplification of specific gene fragments. The present study is the first quantitative evaluation of the symptoms of soft tunic syndrome by measuring the amount of bending (bending) and the peak force required to pierce the tunic (force). There was a strong correlation between bending and force. Correlation analyses among other parameters (ascidian total weight, tunic thickness, and tunic water content) indicated that larger ascidians had harder and thicker tunics with a higher water content. As compared to the tunic of healthy individuals, softened tunic was thinner and had lower water content. Infected tunics thus possibly lose water and become softer and thinner. Mechanisms for maintaining the appropriate water level content may be crucial for preventing tunic softening.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Kinetoplastida/fisiologia , Urocordados/microbiologia , Urocordados/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(11): 2055-2060, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724589

RESUMO

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in sensing extracellular calcium ions and regulating parathyroid hormone secretion by parathyroid gland cells, and the receptor is a suitable target for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Cinacalcet hydrochloride is a representative CaSR agonist which widely used for the hyperparathyroidism. However, it has several issues to clinical use, such as nausea/vomiting and strong inhibition of CYP2D6. We tried to improve these issues of cinacalcet for a new pharmaceutical agent as a preferable CaSR agonist. Optimization from cinacalcet resulted in the identification of pyrrolidine compounds and successfully led to the discovery of evocalcet as an oral allosteric CaSR agonist. Evocalcet, which exhibited highly favorable profiles such as CaSR agonistic activity and good DMPK profiles, will provide a novel therapeutic option for secondary hyperparathyroidism.


Assuntos
Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Hiperparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/agonistas , Animais , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/síntese química , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/química , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Parasitol Int ; 67(5): 584-586, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753095

RESUMO

Recent molecular re-evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus, which causes cystic echinococcosis (CE), has revealed that it is not a single species, but instead consists of 5 cryptic species. Among them, E. granulosus (dog-sheep strain) is predominant (75%) followed by Echinococcus canadensis (22%). The major affected organs, in humans, are the liver (88%) and lungs (11%). Primary cerebral CE comprises less than 1% of all cases. As cerebral CE cases are rare, there are few reports with molecular confirmation of the causative species. This study reports mitochondrial gene analysis from 4 Mongolian pediatric cerebral CE cases. Molecular confirmation was obtained for 3 of the 4 cases, with all 3 cases determined to be due to E. canadensis (G6/G7) infection. None of the cases had other organ involvement. This is only the third report on the molecular identification of the Echinococcus species responsible for cerebral CE, and only the second report of E. canadensis (G6/G7) being the causative agent of cerebral CE.


Assuntos
Infecções Parasitárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Infecções Parasitárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Cérebro/parasitologia , Equinococose/complicações , Echinococcus/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mongólia
12.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614098

RESUMO

Cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet), an oral calcimimetic agent has been widely used for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In sharp contrast to vitamin D receptor activators, cinacalcet suppresses SHPT without inducing hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia. Nevertheless, some patients remain refractory to SHPT with this agent, as the dose cannot be sufficiently increased due to gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to resolve this issue, we have developed a newly synthesized calcimimetic agent, evocalcet (MT-4580/KHK7580). In a rat model of CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy, oral administration of evocalcet efficiently suppressed the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). With regard to the gastro-intestinal effects, cinacalcet induced a significant delay in gastric emptying in rats, while evocalcet did no marked effects on it. Evocalcet also demonstrated the less induction of emesis compared to cinacalcet in common marmosets. The pharmacological effects of evocalcet were observed at lower doses because of its higher bioavailability than cinacalcet, which may have contributed to the reduced GI tract symptoms. In addition, evocalcet showed no substantial direct inhibition of any CYP isozymes in in vitro liver microsome assay, suggesting a better profile in drug interactions than cinacalcet that inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6. These findings suggest that evocalcet can be a better alternative to cinacalcet, an oral calcimimetic agent, with a wider safety margin.


Assuntos
Calcimiméticos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Paratireoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Calcimiméticos/química , Calcimiméticos/farmacocinética , Callithrix , Cinacalcete/farmacologia , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/química , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacocinética , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Glândulas Paratireoides/enzimologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006260, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420601

RESUMO

Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp. (14%), and Taenia spp. (4%) eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2), T. saginata (n = 21), and T. asiatica (n = 5). Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold) revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not "pure T. asiatica" but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Criança , Cisticercose/sangue , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Cisticercose/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/genética , Taenia/imunologia , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/imunologia , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Taenia solium/genética , Taenia solium/imunologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 11: 27-31, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014614

RESUMO

Genetic and morphological diversity of Thysaniezia tapeworms from cattle and sheep in Senegal was investigated using light and scanning microscopic observations and molecular analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 52 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep and cattle. Although the tapeworms of the two hosts were morphologically very close, phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 and SSU rDNA gene sequences showed that they were divided into two clades corresponding each to a host. The maximum pairwise divergence between the clades were 12.1% in cox1 and 2.9% in SSU rDNA, indicating they are distinct species. The tapeworms collected from sheep were morphologically identified as Thysaniezia ovilla, a cosmopolitan species in domestic ruminants. Detailed morphological observations revealed a consistent difference between the tapeworms obtained from sheep and those from cattle. The latter were identified as Thysaniezia connochaeti. The present study highlights presence of two species of Thysaniezia among domestic ruminants in Senegal: T. ovilla specific to sheep and T. connochaeti specific to cattle. Our work is the first report of T. connochaeti from domestic animals.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Variação Genética , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Filogenia , Senegal , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Int ; 67(2): 218-224, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288139

RESUMO

Phylogenetic relationships of tapeworms of the genus Moniezia Blanchard, 1891 (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae) parasitizing the Eurasian elk Alces alces, the moose A. americanus and the reindeer/caribou Rangifer tarandus (Cervidae) were studied using DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and nad1). Several isolates from domestic ruminants, representing Moniezia expansa (Rudolphi, 1810) sensu lato and M. benedeni (Moniez, 1879) sensu lato, and one unidentified isolate from an African antelope, were also included in the analysis. Both genes identified the same six species of Moniezia, but interspecific phylogenetic relationships were better resolved by the nad1 data. The six species of Moniezia comprised two main clades: clade 1 that originates in bovids, with subsequent colonization of northern cervids in Eurasia, and clade 2 that originates in northern cervids, with subsequent specific divergence within these hosts. Clade 2 has a Holarctic distribution. None of the Moniezia specimens in Alces and Rangifer was conspecific with the species in domestic ruminants, suggesting that the custom of identifying Moniezia spp. in northern cervids either as M. expansa or M. benedeni is incorrect. At least two of the species parasitizing Alces and Rangifer have not been previously recognized. These findings challenge the results of all previous studies concerning the diversity and ecology of Moniezia spp. in northern cervids. The traditional classification into three subgenera (Moniezia Blanchard, 1891, Blanchariezia Skrjabin & Schultz, 1937 and Baeriezia Skrjabin & Schultz, 1937), based on the presence and type of interproglottidal glands, conflicts with the currently observed molecular phylogenetic relationships within the genus Moniezia.


Assuntos
Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia , Rena/parasitologia
17.
Int J Parasitol ; 47(14): 971-979, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797792

RESUMO

The specific status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial lineages G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain) with sylvatic or semi-domestic cycles. There is an argument whether the mitochondrial lineages should be recognised as separate species which correspond to the biological or epidemiological aggregation. In the present study, the specific status of E. canadensis was investigated using mitochondrial DNA and single copy nuclear DNA markers. Nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and partial nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) were determined for 48 isolates of E. canadensis collected from different hosts in a wide range of regions. The mitochondrial phylogeny of cox1 showed that all the isolates were clearly divided into three clades corresponding to G6/G7, G8 and G10. Five and three alleles were confirmed at pepck and pold loci, respectively. These alleles were generally divided into two groups corresponding to G6/G7 or G8 and G10. However, allele sharing was confirmed among individuals belonging to different lineages. The allele sharing occurred primarily in regions where different mitochondrial DNA lineages were found in sympatry. The resultant nuclear mitochondrial discordance suggests the genetic exchangeability among E. canadensis isolates belonging to different lineages. An apparently mosaic parasite fauna that reflects faunal mixing due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance, including introductions and invasion, precludes us from designating each of G6/G7, G8 and G10 into a different species.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Echinococcus/genética , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Echinococcus/classificação , Echinococcus/enzimologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos Retrospectivos , Alinhamento de Sequência
18.
Acta Trop ; 174: 19-23, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634145

RESUMO

From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan®, Bayer). A total of 39T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers.


Assuntos
Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia , Animais , Portador Sadio , Ovos , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microscopia , Prevalência
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 79(2): 308-313, 2017 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890868

RESUMO

Serology is important for the diagnosis and follow-up of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However, patient conditions are highly variable among those with AE, and antibody responses in serological follow-up have not been well-defined. We recently described a new AE rat model established by implantation of small AE tissue into a single arbitrary location in the liver; no metastasis and dissemination were observed. In the present study, we examined the serological characteristics in our rat model before and after surgical treatment. The results showed that antibody responses against crude antigens were increased at one month after transplantation and similar to those of other model animals. For the antigen Em18, antibody responses were slower in our rat model than in other animal models. After surgical resection, changes in antibody responses against Em18 were similar to those observed in human patients with AE. Because of the slow growth of lesions, establishment of a single hepatic lesion and patterns of antibody responses, our rat model may be useful for clarifying follow-up serodiagnoses in human AE and determining the mechanisms of multi-organ involvement by primary infection with oncospheres rather than metastasis.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico , Equinococose Hepática/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes Sorológicos
20.
J Parasitol Res ; 2016: 3937292, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27597893

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species.

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