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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315388

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the current study was to develop and explore a series of new cytotoxic agents based on the conjugation between the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine moiety and a second pharmacophore at the C2 or N3 position. BACKGROUND: As the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core is a bioisostere of the 4-anilinoquinazoline, various new thienopyrimidine derivatives were synthesized by modifying the structure of the clinically used anticancer quinazoline EGFR inhibitors of the first generation - gefitinib, and second generation - dacomitinib and canertinib. It was reported that some thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives showed improved EGFR inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the benzimidazole heterocycle is present as a pharmacophore unit in the structure of many clinically used chemotherapeutic agents. Some 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives, possessing anticancer activity, demonstrated EGFR inhibition and the benzimidazole derivative EGF816 is currently in the second phase of clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were design of a novel series thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines, synthesis of the compounds and investigation of their effects towards human cancer HT-29, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2 and to normal human Lep3 cell lines. (American Type Culture Collection, ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA) Methods: The synthetic protocol implemented cyclocondensation of 2-amino-thiophenes and nitriles in inert medium, aza-Michael addition to benzimidazole derivatives and nucleophylic substitution at the N3 place. MTS test was used in order to establish the cytotoxicity of the tested compounds. SAR analysis and in silico assessment of the inhibitory potential towards human oncogenic V599EB-Raf were performed using Molinspiration tool and Molecular Operating environment software. RESULTS: The MTS test data showed that almost all studied thieno[2,3-d]pyirimidines (9-13, 21-22 and 25) manifest high inhibiting effect on the cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, whereat compounds 9 (IC50 = 130 nM) and 10 (IC50 = 261 nM) containing amino acid moiety, and 21 (IC50 = 108 nM) possesing two thienopyrimidine moieties attached to a 1,3-disubstituted benzimidazole linker, revealed many times lower toxicity against Lep3 cells compared to the cancer cells. Thienopyrimidines 11-13 possessed high selectivity against HeLa cells. Compound 13 showed high inhibitory activity against MDA-MB-231 and HepG2, with IC50 1.44 nM and 1.11 nM respectively. To outline the possible biological target of the studied coumpounds, their potential to interact with human oncogenic V599EB-Raf was explored by a docking study. As a result, it was suggested that the benzimidazolyl and glycyl fragments could enhance the binding ability of the new compounds by increasing the number of hydrogen bond acceptors and by stabilizing the inactive form of the enzyme. CONCLUSION: The thienopyrimidines tested in vitro towards human cancer HT-29, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2 and normal human Lep3 cell lines demonstrated cytotoxicity in nanomolar range. It was established that compounds 9, 10 and 21 showed many times lower toxicity against normal Lep3 cells that can provide a high selectivity towards all four cancer cell lines at small concentrations. Based on the analysis of the structure-activity relationship, the observed trends in the cytotoxicity could be related to the lipophilicity and the topological polar surface area of the tested compounds. The docking study on the potential of the new thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-ones to interact with mutant V599EB-Raf showed that the compounds might be able to stabilize the enzyme in its inactive form.

2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109540, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139148

RESUMO

In the present study, fifteen benzimidazolyl-2-hydrazones 7a-7o of fluoro-, hydroxy- and methoxy-substituted benzaldehydes and 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carbaldehyde were synthesized and their structure was identified by IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The compounds 7j 2-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-(5(6)-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)hydrazone and 7i 2-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)hydrazone have exerted the strongest anthelmintic activity (100% after 24 h incubation period at 37 °C) against isolated muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis in an in vitro experiment. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells and mouse embryo fibroblasts 3T3 showed that the studied benzimidazolyl-2-hydrazones exhibit low to moderate cytotoxic effects. The ability of the studied benzimidazolyl-2-hydrazones to modulate microtubule polymerization was confirmed and suggested that their anthelmintic action is mediated through inhibition of the tubulin polymerization likewise the other known benzimidazole anthelmitics. It was also shown that the four most promising benzimidazolyl-2-hydrazones do not affect significantly the AChE activity even at high tested concentration, thus indicating that they do not have the potential for neurotoxic effects. The binding mode of compounds 7j and 7n in the colchicine-binding site of tubulin were clarified by molecular docking simulations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that for the synthesized benzimidazole derivatives the anthelmintic activity against T. spiralis and the inhibition of tubulin polymerization are closely related.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/química , Hidrazonas/química , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Anti-Helmínticos/síntese química , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/metabolismo , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Hidrazonas/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(11): 2299-2309, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818516

RESUMO

Neuroprotective drugs and selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors can slow down the progression and improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since there is an implication of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, the compounds possessing an ability to reduce the oxidative stress are prime candidates for neuroprotection. Thereby our current study is focused on the development of new multi-target PD drugs capable of inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase-B while exerting neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. A small series of benzimidazole derivatives containing hydroxy and methoxy arylhydrazone fragments has been synthesized and the neurotoxicity of the compounds has been evaluated in vitro on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and on isolated rat brain synaptosomes by measuring the cell viability and the levels of reduced glutathione and a good safety profile has been shown. The 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy substituted arylhydrazone 7 was the least toxic on neuronal SH-SY5Y cells and showed the lowest neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. The neuroprotective properties of the test compounds were further assessed using two models: H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SH-SY5Y cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. Compound 7 showed more pronounced neuroprotective activity on SH-SY5Y cells, compared to the referent melatonin and rasagiline. It also preserved the synaptosomal viability and the reduced glutathione levels; the effects were stronger than those of rasagiline and comparable to melatonin. All the tested compounds were capable to inhibit human monoamine oxidase-B enzyme to a significant extent, however, compound 7 exerted the most prominent inhibitory activity, similar to selegiline and rasagiline. The carried out molecular docking studies revealed that the activity is related to the appropriate molecular structure enabling the ligand to enter deeper in the narrow and highly lipophylic active site pocket of the human monoamine oxidase-B and has a favoring interaction with the key amino acid residues Tyr326 and Cys172. Since much scientific evidence points out the implication of iron dyshomeostasis in PD, the compounds were tested to reduce the ferrous iron induced oxidative molecular damage on biologically important molecules in an in vitro lecithin containing model system. All the investigated compounds denoted protection effect, stronger than the one of the referent melatonin. In order to support the assignments of the significant neuroprotective and antioxidant pharmacological activities, the radical-scavenging mechanisms of the most promising compound 7 were evaluated using DFT methods. It was found that the most probable free radicals scavenging mechanism in nonpolar phase is the hydrogen atom transfer from the amide group of compound 7, while in polar medium the process is expected to occur by a proton transfer. The current study outlines a perspective leading structure, bearing the potential for a new anti-PD drug. All performed procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care Committee of the Medical University of Sofia (Bulgarian Agency for Food Safety with Permission № 190, approved on February 6, 2020).

4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808584

RESUMO

Novel biocompatible compounds that stabilize proteins in solution are in demand for biomedical and/or biotechnological applications. Here, we evaluated the effect of six ionic liquids, containing mono- or dicholinium [Chol]1or2 cation and anions of charged amino acids such as lysine [Lys], arginine [Arg], aspartic acid [Asp], or glutamic acid [Glu], on the structure, thermal, and storage stability of the Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH). RtH is a protein with huge biomedicinal potential due to its therapeutic, drug carrier, and adjuvant properties. Overall, the ionic liquids (ILs) induce changes in the secondary structure of RtH. However, the structure near the Cu-active site seems unaltered and the oxygen-binding capacity of the protein is preserved. The ILs showed weak antibacterial activity when tested against three Gram-negative and three Gram-positive bacterial strains. On the contrary, [Chol][Arg] and [Chol][Lys] exhibited high anti-biofilm activity against E. coli 25213 and S. aureus 29213 strains. In addition, the two ILs were able to protect RtH from chemical and microbiological degradation. Maintained or enhanced thermal stability of RtH was observed in the presence of all ILs tested, except for RtH-[Chol]2[Glu].


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Gastrópodes/química , Hemocianinas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Animais
5.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 21(11): 1441-1450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698751

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was the synthesis of some new thienopyrimidine derivatives of 1,3-disubstituted benzimidazoles and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and 3T3 cells lines. BACKGROUND: An overexpression or mutational activation of TK receptors EGFR and HER2/neu is characteristic of tumors. It has been found that some thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines exhibited better inhibitory activity against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ErbB-2) tyrosine kinase in comparison to aminoquinazolines. Breast cancer activity towards MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines by inhibiting EGFR was revealed by a novel 2-arylbenzimidazole. This motivated the synthesis of new thienopyrimidines possessing benzimidazole fragments in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity to the above-mentioned cell lines. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to design and synthesize a novel series of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines bearing biologically active moieties, such as 1,3-disubstituted-benzimidazole heterocycle, structurally similar to diaryl ureas in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: N,N-disubstituted benzimidazole-2-one carbonitriles were synthesized by Aza-Michael addition and used as precursors to generate some of the new thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines in acidic medium The interaction of chloroethyl-2-thienopyrimidines, 2-amino-benzimidazole and benzimidazol-2-one nitriles under solid-liquid transfer catalysis conditions led to new thienopyrimidines. MTT assay for cell survival was performed in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the tested compounds. A fluorescence study was conducted to elucidate some aspects of the mechanism of action. RESULTS: The effects of nine synthesized compounds were investigated towards MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and 3T3 cell lines. Thieno[2,3-d]pyirimidine-4-one 16 (IC50 - 0.058µM) and 21 (IC50 - 0.029µM) possess high cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells after 24h. The most cytotoxic compounds against breast cancer MCF-7 cells was compound 21 (IC50 - 0.074µM), revealing lower cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells with IC50 - 0.20µM. SAR analysis was performed. Fluorescence study of the treatment of MDA-MB cells with compound 21 was carried out in order to clarify some aspects of the mechanism of action. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cytotoxicity of compounds 14 and 20 against MCF-7 and 3T3 cells can suggest a similar mechanism of action. The antitumor potential of the tested compounds proves the necessity for further investigation to estimate the exact inhibition pathway in the cellular processes. The fluorescence study of the treatment of MDA-MB cells with compound 21 showed a rapid process of apoptosis.

6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109137, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442417

RESUMO

In the present study eighteen inhibitors of the hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system were investigated for antioxidant activity using lipid peroxidation (LP) method. Among the assayed compounds ten belong to carbamates with phenyl [1,1'-biphenyl]-3-ylcarbamate (6), reported for the first time, and eight are retro-amide derivatives of palmitamine. Interestingly, results indicated that most of the tested compounds have good antioxidant properties. In particular, 1,3-di([1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)urea (3) shows IC50 = 26 ± 6 µM comparable to ones obtained for standard antioxidants trolox and quercetin (IC50 = 22 ± 6 µM and 23 ± 6 µM, respectively). Compound 3 was investigated further by means of DFT calculations, to clarify a possible mechanism of the antioxidant action. In order to estimate the capability of 3 to act as radical scavenger the structure was optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G** level and the respective bond dissociation enthalpies were calculated. The calculations in non-polar medium predicted as favorable mechanism a donation of a hydrogen atom to the free radical and formation of N-centered radical, while in polar solvents the mechanism of free radical scavenging by SPLET dominates over HAT H-abstraction. The possible radical scavenging mechanisms of another compound with potent antioxidant properties (IC50 = 53 ± 12 µM), the retro-amide derivative of palmitamine (compound 18), was estimated computationally based on the reaction enthalpies of a model compound (structural analogue to 18). The computations indicated that the most favorable mechanisms are hydrogen atom transfer from the hydroxyl group in meta-position of the benzamide fragment in nonpolar medium, and proton transfer from the hydroxyl group in ortho-position of the benzamide fragment in polar medium.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureia/química , Anilidas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Benzamidas/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Radicais Livres/química , Hidrogênio/química , Ácidos Palmíticos/química , Solventes/química
7.
Pharmacol Rep ; 72(4): 846-856, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many neurodegenerative disorders include oxidative stress-mediated pathology. Melatonin and its metabolites act as endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and antioxidants. N,N'-Disubstituted benzimidazole-2-thiones with extended side chains could exert antioxidant and neuroprotective properties due to structural similarities to melatonin. METHODS: The toxicological potential of the compounds was evaluated by monitoring the synaptosomal viability and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. The neuroprotective effects were assessed in vitro in a model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity. The capability to decrease superoxide anion radical and hypochlorite was evaluated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescent assays. RESULTS: Compounds 5-7 containing residues of veratraldehyde, vanillin, and syringaldehyde at concentration 250 µM, preserved at the highest degree the synaptosomal viability and GSH levels. Further screening of compounds 5-7 at lower concentrations of 100 µM, 10 µM, and 1 µM, respectively, demonstrated that 6 and 7 do not show any toxicity within this concentration range. In the model of 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress, 6 revealed concentration-dependent, neuroprotective, and antioxidant activities similar to melatonin. All the three compounds demonstrated ability to decrease the chemiluminescent scavenging index (CL-SI) in the hypochlorite containing system. In the superoxide system, the hydrazones exhibited different effects on the signal. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that the benzimidazole-aldehyde hybrids act as direct ROS scavengers and membranes' stabilizers against free radicals. Thus, they play a role in the antioxidative defense system and have a promising potential as therapeutic neuroprotective agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Aldeídos/química , Animais , Benzimidazóis/química , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Glutationa/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(1-2): 23-30, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926108

RESUMO

This is the first report on the modification of a hemocyanin from Helix lucorum (HlH), a large molluscan respiratory protein, with folic acid (FA). In a two-step synthetic reaction, we prepared samples of HlH conjugated with 20 and 50 FA residues denoted as FA-HlH-1 and FA-HlH-2, respectively. Comparison of the attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra in the amide I band region showed a structural rearrangement in the HlH that is due to FA conjugation. The changes in the secondary structure were more noticeable for FA-HlH-2. The thermal stability of HlH was not significantly affected by the FA modification, which is consistent with the observed structural similarities with the native protein. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays showed that FA-HlH-1 and FA-HlH-2 stimulate fibroblast proliferation when applied in concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/well. A negligible reduction of fibroblast growth was observed only for FA-HlH-1 and FA-HlH-2, exposed to 200 µg/well for 48 h. We found that FA-HlH-2 exhibits a low to moderate cytotoxic effect on two breast cancer cell lines, which express folate receptors, a hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and a hormone-independent (MDA-MB-231). FA-HlH-2 protects nontransformed cells and affects only neoplastic cells, which could be an advantage, and the protein could have potential in combination with other chemotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Caracois Helix/química , Hemocianinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/química , Hemocianinas/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas/química
9.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 353(1): e1900238, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710123

RESUMO

A small library of benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine phthalimide and amine derivatives was evaluated for inhibitory activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). The phthalimide derivatives exhibited better activity than the amine precursors, with 2-(2-(3-chlorobenzyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (compound 14) as the most effective inhibitor (IC50 = 34.17 ± 5.11 µM). The five most potent selected inhibitors did not show cytotoxicity to a greater extent on Caco-2 cells, even at a concentration of 250 µM. Compound 14 is considered as a novel representative of the rare noncompetitive DPP-4 inhibitors. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation indicated the importance of the Tyr547, Lys554, and Trp629 residues of DPP-4 in the formation of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. These observations could be potentially utilized for the rational design and optimization of novel (structurally similar, with phthalimide moiety, or different) noncompetitive DPP-4 inhibitors, which are anyway rare, but favorable in terms of the saturation of substrate competition.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/síntese química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Ftalimidas/síntese química , Ftalimidas/química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108873, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669219

RESUMO

Multiple-targeting compounds might reduce complex polypharmacy of multifactorial diseases, such as diabetes, and contribute to the greater therapeutic success. Targeting reactive oxygen species-producing enzymes, as xanthine oxidase (XO), might suppress progression of diabetes-associated vascular complications. In this study a small series of benzimidazole derivatives (1-9) was evaluated for inhibitory activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and XO. One 1,3-disubstituted-benzimidazole-2-imine (5) and 1,3-thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazolone derivative (8) were shown as effective dual DPP-4 and XO inhibitors, with IC50 values lower than 200 µM, and predicted binding modes with both target enzymes. Both selected dual inhibitors (compounds 5 and 8) did not show cytotoxicity to a greater extent on Caco-2 cells even at concentration of 250 µM. These structures represent new non-purine scaffolds bearing two therapeutic functionalities, being DPP-4 and XO inhibitors, more favorable in comparison to DPP-4 inhibitors with DPP-4 as a single target due to pleiotropic effects of XO inhibition.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Sítios de Ligação , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Acta Chim Slov ; 67(1): 253-259, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558913

RESUMO

For the first time Helix lucorum hemocyanin (HlH) has been feruloylated. Two HlH conjugates with 40- and 120- ferulic acid residues were prepared, denoted as FA-HlH-1 and FA-HlH-2. Expectedly, the feruloylation of HlH induced a rearrangement of the protein molecule, a decrease in the ?-helical structure at the expense of ß-structures was observed. Besides, the FA-HlH conjugates were more prone to aggregation, which is probably due to the stabilization of the partially unfolded protein molecules by non-covalent bonding. Interestingly, the thermal stability of HlH was not affected by the modification. The native and feruloylated HlH were not toxic to normal fibroblasts (BJ cells). We observed a decrease in cell viability of breast cancer MCF-7 cells to about 66% after a 48h exposure to 70 µg/well of FA-HlH-2.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Caracois Helix/química , Hemocianinas/farmacologia , Acilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cumáricos/síntese química , Ácidos Cumáricos/toxicidade , Hemocianinas/síntese química , Hemocianinas/toxicidade , Humanos
12.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881750

RESUMO

The development of ionic liquids based on active pharmaceutical ingredients (API-ILs) is a possible solution to some of the problems of solid and/or hydrophobic drugs such as low solubility and bioavailability, polymorphism and an alternative route of administration could be suggested as compared to the classical drug. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis and detailed characterization of a series of ILs containing a cation amino acid esters and anion ketoprofen (KETO-ILs). The affinity and the binding mode of the KETO-ILs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy. All compounds bind in a distance not longer than 6.14 nm to the BSA fluorophores. The estimated binding constants (KA) are in order of 105 L mol-1, which is indicative of strong drug or IL-BSA interactions. With respect to the ketoprofen-BSA system, a stronger affinity of the ILs containing l-LeuOEt, l-ValOBu, and l-ValOEt cation towards BSA is clearly seen. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments have shown that all studied compounds induced a rearrangement of the protein molecule upon binding, which is consistent with the suggested static mechanism of BSA fluorescence quenching and formation of complexes between BSA and the drugs. All tested compounds were safe for macrophages.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/síntese química , Líquidos Iônicos/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno/síntese química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/síntese química , Ésteres/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/química , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Cinética , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Células RAW 264.7 , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Água/química
13.
Bioorg Chem ; 80: 693-705, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064080

RESUMO

A series of six novel and six known thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amines 2-13 were synthesized, and further were used as a starting material for preparation of a small series of eight novel thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-phthalimides 14-21. Eight compounds, five amine and three phthalimide derivatives, inhibited bovine pancreatic DNase I with an IC50 below 200 µM, being more effective than referent inhibitor crystal violet. Phthalimide derivatives 16, 18 and 19 exhibited higher DNase I inhibitory activity compared to their amine precursors 7, 10 and 11. Compound 19, as the most potent (IC50 = 106 ±â€¯16 µM), offers a good starting point for a design of new DNase I inhibitors. The Pharma RQSAR model showed a significant enhancement of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines activity using aryl substituents at R1 position. The E-State RQSAR model clarified the most important structural fragments relevant for DNase I inhibition. Molecular docking and Site Finder module defined the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines interactions with the most important catalytic residues of DNase I, including Glu 39, His 134, Asp 168 and His 252. We also found that steric effects and increase of molecular volume play a vital role in DNase I inhibition.


Assuntos
Desoxirribonuclease I/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Desoxirribonuclease I/química , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ftalimidas/síntese química , Ftalimidas/química , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Cell Biochem ; 119(11): 8937-8948, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054936

RESUMO

Inhibitory potential of 19 benzimidazoles against bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) was investigated in vitro. Three compounds inhibited DNase I with IC50 below 100 µM and proved to be more potent DNase I inhibitors than crystal violet (IC50 = 351.82 ± 29.41 µM), used as a positive control. Compound 9 showed the most potent DNase I inhibition with an IC 50 value of 79.46 ± 11.75 µM. To further explore the relationship between inhibitory activity and 2D pharmacophore features, Pharma/E-State R-group quantitative structure-activity relationship (RQSAR) models were generated and validated using Schrödinger Suite. RQSAR models showed a significant enhancement of benzimidazoles activity using hydrogen-bond acceptor substituents at the R2, R3, and R4 positions, or aryl substituents at the R4 position. The Site Finder module and molecular docking defined the benzimidazoles interactions with the most important catalytic residues of DNase I, including H-acceptor interaction with residue His 134 and His 252 and/or H-donor interaction with residue Glu 39. We also found a positive correlation between IC50 inhibition values and relative binding free energies of the most active benzimidazoles. In addition, a molecular dynamics simulation was performed for DNase I-compound 9 docking complex in Desmond. Trajectory analysis showed that docking complex and intermolecular interactions were stable throughout the entire production part of simulations. Furthermore, the results of protein structure alignment module suggested the potential translational impact of benzimidazoles against human DNase I. Due to the significant involvement of DNase I in the pathophysiology of many disease conditions, benzimidazoles as DNase I inhibitors could have potential therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Desoxirribonuclease I/antagonistas & inibidores , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/química , Sítios de Ligação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 192: 263-274, 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156313

RESUMO

This paper describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and quantum mechanical calculations of three azo-azomethine dyes. The dyes were synthesized via condensation reaction between 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and three different 4-aminobenzene azo dyes. Quantum chemical calculations on the optimized molecular geometry and electron densities of the trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers and their vibrational frequencies have been computed by using DFT/B3LYP density-functional theory with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in vacuo. The thermodynamic parameters such as total electronic energy E (RB3LYP), enthalpy H298 (sum of electronic and thermal enthalpies), free Gibbs energy G298 (sum of electronic and thermal free Gibbs energies) and dipole moment µ were computed for trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers in order to estimate the ΔEtrans→cis, Δµtrans→cis,ΔHtrans→cis, ΔGtrans→cis and ΔStrans→cis values. After molecular geometry optimization the electronic spectra have been obtained by TD-DFT calculations at same basis set and correlated with the spectra of vapour deposited nanosized films of the dyes. The NBO analysis was performed in order to understand the intramolecular charge transfer and energy of resonance stabilization. Solvatochromism was investigated by UV-VIS spectroscopy in five different organic solvents with increasing polarity. The dynamic photoisomerization experiments have been performed in DMF by pump lasers λ=355nm (mostly E→Z) and λ=491nm (mostly Z→E) in spectral region 300nm - 800nm at equal concentrations and times of illumination in order to investigate the photodynamical trans-cis-trans properties of the CHN and NN chromophore groups of the dyes.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024251

RESUMO

In this paper three different "push-pull" 4-aminoazobenzene dyes have been synthesized in order to characterize their photochromic behavior in different solvents. The molecular geometry was optimized by DFT/B3LYP functional combined with the standard 6-31+G(d,p) basis set for trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers and the energy levels of HOMO and LUMO frontier orbitals were computed using IEFPCM solvation in CHCl3 and DMF. The calculated results were compared to the experimental optical band gap and HOMO values of cyclic voltammetry. The intramolecular six-membered hydrogen bond was formed in both isomers of the synthesized dyes. The thermodynamic parameters such as total electronic energy E (RB3LYP), enthalpy H298 (sum of electronic and thermal enthalpies), free Gibbs energy G298 (sum of electronic and thermal free Gibbs energies) and dipole moment µ were computed for trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers in order to estimate the ΔEtrans→cis, Δµtrans→cis, ΔHtrans→cis, ΔGtrans→cis and ΔStrans→cis values. The NBO analysis was performed in order to understand the intramolecular charge transfer and energy of resonance stabilization. The solvatochromic shift was evaluated by UV-VIS spectroscopy in CHCl3 (nonpolar), EtOH (polar protic) and DMF (polar aprotic) solvents to determine the electron withdrawing and donating properties of the substituents on electron transitions energy. Through the increasing solvent polarity a strong bathochromic shift is observed. The photoisomerization experiments have been performed in two solvents CHCl3 (nonpolar) and DMF (polar aprotic) by UV light irradiation with λ=365nm at equal concentrations and time of illuminations. The electronic spectra were computed by TD-DFT after geometry optimization using IEFPCM solvation in CHCl3 and DMF. The degree of photoisomerization was calculated for the three azo chromophores in both solvents. By using first derivative of the UV-VIS spectra it was possible to resolve the overlapped electron transitions absorption bands. The existing intramolecular hydrogen bond in the azo chromophores was discussed in relation to the isomerization mechanisms and relative stability of the cis (Z) isomers.

17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 123: 69-79, 2016 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474924

RESUMO

Some derivatives of 3-ethyl-2-mercapto-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized using ethyl 2-aminothiophene-3-carboxylates as precursors in order to estimate their cytotoxicity, respectively proliferative activity. Thienopyrimidinones containing thiosemicarbazide as well as 1,3,4-thiadiazole moieties were evaluated for their cytotoxical effect on four cancer cell lines: HT-29, breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2 as well as human diploid cell line Lep-3. Compounds 5b, 6a and 6b revealed cytotoxicity to the four studied cancer cell lines. The highst cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-31 exhibited the thiosemicarbazide 5b with IC50 2.31.10(-4) µM, but most active towards HT-29 cell lines was thienopyrimidine 6c with IC50 0.001 µM. Compound 6a showed the highest inhibitory activity with IC50 - 0.99 µM to human liver carcinoma HepG2 cells and low cytotoxicity towards Lep3 (IC50 = 191 µM). The thienopyrimidine derivative linked to thiadiazole 6b was toxic to the four studied cancer cell lines, especially to HeLa (IC50-0.83 µM), and besides that the compound demonstrated toxicity to Lep 3 cells at very high concentration 89 × 10(3) µM. The solid-state photostability of the derivatives 5a-c and 6a-c was tested by irradiation with UV light. All of the studied compounds show solid-state photostability in 240 min of irradiation. Using MOE software molecular docking of the three ligands 5b, 6b and 7 was accomplished into an internal pocket formed by the activation segment and the P-loop of (V599E)B-Raf. It was established that the binding of the ligands to (V599E)B-Raf promotes an inactive conformation of the enzyme.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos da radiação , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/efeitos da radiação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 82: 798-805, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478091

RESUMO

This is the first study on the surface modification of a hemocyanin from marine snail Rapana thomasiana (RtH) with series of imidazolium-based amino acid ionic liquids [emim][AA]. We monitored the induced by [emim][AA] conformational changes in RtH molecule and evaluated the effect of these ionic liquids (ILs) on the protein thermal stability. The cytotoxicity of all obtained RtH-[emim][AA] complexes was assessed toward breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and murine fibroblasts (3T3). As a whole, even small amounts of the tested ILs altered the secondary structure of RtH. The thermal denaturation of RtH in presence of [emim][AA] displayed multi-component transitions, which were shifted toward lower temperatures in comparison to those estimated for the native RtH. The profiles of the RtH-IL calorimetric curves show a clear dependence on the structure of the added salts. In addition, all RtH-[emim][AA] complexes exhibited an enhanced antiprofilerative activity of toward MCF-7 cells in comparison to that of the native RtH. The best results are observed for RtH-[emim][Leu], RtH-[emim][Trp] or RtH-[emim][Ile], which applied in concentration of 700 µg/mL inhibited the MCF-7 cell viability (for 24h) by 66, 63 and 53%, respectively. In addition, these IL-RtH complexes were less cytotoxic to 3T3 cells, i.e. they exhibited some cell specificity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Gastrópodes , Hemocianinas/química , Hemocianinas/farmacologia , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Células 3T3 , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Líquidos Iônicos/síntese química , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Estabilidade Proteica , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica
19.
Nat Prod Commun ; 10(8): 1423-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26434133

RESUMO

Recently, we found that two cyclodidepsipeptides, 3,6-di-(propan-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholine-2,5-dione (1) and 3-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(propan-2-yl)-4-methyl- morpholine-2,5-dione (2), are excellent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. In order to obtain more information about the toxicological potential of compounds 1 and 2 on bone cells, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Compound 1 showed neither cytotoxic nor stimulatory effect on cell viability, while compound 2 showed a slight stimulatory effect on cell viability. Both studied compounds showed slight stimulatory effects on proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, an in silico toxicological study of compounds 1 and 2 was performed, and the results indicate that they have a good probability of safe biological intake.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Morfolinas/toxicidade , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Xantina Oxidase/análise
20.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 23(19): 6317-26, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26344590

RESUMO

Two groups of benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized using as precursors 5(6)-substituted 2-mercapto-benzimidazol-thiols and their antioxidant activity was investigated using TBA-MDA test. In the group of 1,3-disubstituted-benzimidazol-2-imines the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition effect 74.04% (IC50=141.89 µg/mL) revealed ethyl [3-(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-2-imino-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimdazol-1-yl]acetate 12 while in the group of 2-substituted-1,3-thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazolones the highest inhibition effect showed 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-7-(phenylcarbonyl)[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one 17 90.76% (IC50=53.70 µg/mL). In order to estimate the capability of the studied benzimidazoles to act as radical scavengers the structure of the most active derivative within the both subseries was optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) level and the respective bond dissociation enthalpies were calculated. The appropriate models for the HAT and SET-mechanism of the antioxidant activity were proposed. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was evaluated against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017). 1,3-Diphenylpropyl-5-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-imine 14 exhibited significant activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. abony and E. coli (with MIC values of 0.125, 0.016, 0.50 and 0.50mg/mL, respectively). The group of thiazolobenzimidazolones did not reveal antibacterial activity against the tested strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Benzimidazóis/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
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