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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.

2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is interest in deriving megakaryocytes (MKs) from pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for biological studies. We previously found that genomic structural integrity and genotype concordance is maintained in iPSC-derived MKs. OBJECTIVE: Establish a comprehensive dataset of genes and proteins expressed in iPSC- derived MKs. METHODS: iPSCs were reprogrammed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and MKs were derived from the iPSCs in 194 healthy European American and African American subjects. mRNA was isolated and gene expression measured by RNA sequencing. Protein expression was measured in 62 of the subjects using mass spectrometry. RESULTS: and Conclusions MKs expressed genes and proteins known to be important in MK and platelet function and demonstrated good agreement with previous studies in human MKs derived from CD34+ progenitor cells. The percent of cells expressing the MK markers CD41 and CD42a was consistent in biological replicates, but variable across subjects, suggesting that unidentified subject-specific factors determine differentiation of MKs from iPSCs. Gene and protein sets important in platelet function were associated with increasing expression of CD41/42a, while those related to more basic cellular functions were associated with lower CD41/42a expression. There was differential gene expression by the sex and race (but not age) of the subject. Numerous genes and proteins were highly expressed in MKs but not known to play a role in MK or platelet function; these represent excellent candidates for future study of hematopoiesis, platelet formation, and/or platelet function.

3.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonates are at risk of gastrointestinal emergencies including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Identifying biomarkers to aid in diagnosis is imperative. We hypothesized that circulating intestinal-specific protein concentrations would distinguish infants with intestinal injury from controls. AIMS: To identify serum concentrations of intestinal-specific protein(s) in infants with intestinal injury and controls. METHODS: We used an in silico approach to identify intestinal-specific proteins. We collected serum from control infants and infants with NEC or SIP and measured protein concentrations using ELISA. If baseline concentrations were near the detection limit in initial control assays, we proceeded to assess concentrations in a larger cohort of controls and infants with injury. Control infants were frequency matched to infants with injury and compared with nonparametric and mixed-effects models analysis. RESULTS: We evaluated four proteins with high intestinal expression: Galectin-4 (Gal-4), S100G, Trefoil Factor-3, and alanyl aminopeptidase. Only Gal-4 demonstrated consistent results near the lower limit of quantification in controls and was studied in the larger cohorts. Gal-4 concentration was low in 111 control infants (median 0.012 ng/ml). By contrast, Gal-4 was significantly increased at diagnosis in infants with surgical NEC and SIP (n = 14, p ≤ 0.001 and n = 8, p = 0.031) compared to matched controls, but not in infants with medical NEC (n = 32, p = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Of the intestinal-specific proteins evaluated, circulating Gal-4 concentrations were at the assay detection limit in control infants. Gal-4 concentrations were significantly elevated in infants with surgical NEC or SIP, suggesting that Gal-4 may serve as a biomarker for neonatal intestinal injury.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 564-582, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713608

RESUMO

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.

5.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-6, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To promote good health in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), prevention of gaps in care is essential, as adverse prognosis is associated with care gaps. A well-organised, formal transition programme may help prevent loss to follow up after leaving paediatric care. To inform the development of a transition programme, we investigated factors associated with care gaps in adults with CHD. METHODS: Between 15 October 2018 and 15 November 2019 data on patient characteristics and patient experiences with transition-related education, difficulties, and gaps in care were collected and assessed in 87 adults with CHD. Two groups (with gaps in care versus without gaps) were compared to identify informative differences using chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. To assess the relationship between care gaps and identified variables, factors with significant difference (p < 0.05) in bivariate analyses were employed as covariates in multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: About half of the study cohort reported having gaps in care. In a multivariate model, patients having thorough discussion about the importance of receiving adult care in paediatric care were 70% less likely to experience gaps (odds ratio 0.303, 95% CI 0.14, 0.66). Forty-seven percent of patient-perceived barriers to transitioning originated from negative feelings associated with transfer. CONCLUSION: Gaps in care are highly prevalent in adults with CHD. For a transition programme to be most effective, curriculum development may need to consider the differential impact of various factors and target areas to mitigate the psychological stress associated with transfer.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low frequency and ancestry-specific variants. METHODS: We combined whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 23,732 participants from 10 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program multi-ethnic studies to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Participants included European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestries. We applied linear mixed models using a genetic relationship matrix estimated from the WGS data and adjusted for age, sex, study, and ethnicity. FINDINGS: When testing single variants, we identified three novel loci driven by low frequency variants more commonly observed in non-European ancestry (PRKAA2, rs180996919, minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.04%, P = 6.1 × 10-11; METTL8, rs116951054, MAF 0.09%, P = 4.5 × 10-9; and MATK, rs539182790, MAF 0.05%, P = 3.4 × 10-9). We also replicated two known loci for common variants (rs2461702, MAF=0.49, P = 1.2 × 10-9, nearest gene GATM, and rs71147340, MAF=0.34, P = 3.3 × 10-9, CDK12). Testing aggregated variants within a gene identified the MAF gene. A statistical approach based on local ancestry helped to identify replication samples for ancestry-specific variants. INTERPRETATION: This study highlights challenges in studying variants influencing kidney traits that are low frequency in populations and more common in non-European ancestry.

7.
J Investig Med ; 69(2): 408-410, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443054

RESUMO

The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Head Injury/Trauma Algorithm is a well-validated decision rule used to identify patients at low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injuries who may not need head CT. In adult patients with mild head trauma, elevated serum glucose and white cell count (WCC) have been associated with abnormal head CT findings. Currently, glucose or WCC is not considered in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to determine if elevations in glucose or WCC could be used as additional tools to risk-stratify pediatric trauma patients for intracranial injury (ICI). Data were abstracted from the Maryland Trauma Registry and from electronic medical records for patients at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center from 2017 to 2020. We evaluated 145 encounters that met the inclusion criteria. There were 33 cases of ICI on CT. In addition to higher median glucose and WCC, we found that patients with ICI had a younger median age and were less likely to have other clinically significant injuries than patients without ICI. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, WCC (OR 1.113, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.21), younger age (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.8 to 0.98), and absence of other injuries (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73) were found to be associated with risk of ICI. The area under the curve for our model was 0.79. When used with the PECARN algorithm, our model could help determine which patients may avoid head CT or undergo a shorter observation period.

8.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have demonstrated that asymptomatic cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) measured by white matter hyperintensity volume is associated with reduced manipulative manual dexterity on the Grooved Peg Board Test (GPBT) in middle-aged healthy individuals with a family history of early coronary artery disease. In this current study, we aim to identify the association of subcortical white matter microstructural impairment measured by diffusion tensor imaging, manual dexterity measured by GPBT and circulating serums ceramide, another marker for white matter injury. We hypothesize that lower regional fractional anisotropy (rFA) is associated with worse performance on GPBT and elevated serum ceramides in the same study population. METHODS: rFA of 48 regions representing the subcortical white matters were analyzed in GeneSTAR participants in addition to serum ceramides and GPBT scores. Unadjusted univariable analyses with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons were completed using Spearman correlation for testing the associations between ceramides, rFA of subcortical white matter, and GPBT performance. Subsequently, sensitivity analyses were performed after excluding the participants that had any physical limitation that may influence their performance on GPBT. Finally, in the adjusted analysis using generalized estimating equation, linear regression models were performed for the areas that met significance threshold in the unadjusted analyses. RESULTS: 112 subjects (age [49 ± 11], 51% female, 39.3% African American) were included. Adjusted analyses for the significant correlations that met the Bonferroni correction threshold in the unadjusted univariable analyses identified significant negative associations between rFA of the right fornix (RF) and log-GPBT score (ß = -0.497, p = 0.037). In addition, rFA of RF negatively correlated with log serum ceramide levels (C18: ß = -0.03, p = 0.003, C20: ß = -0.0002, p = 0.004) and rFA of left genu of corpus callosum negatively correlated with log C18 level (ß = -0.0103, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that subcortical microstructural white matter disruption is associated with elevated serum ceramides and reduced manual dexterity in a population with cSVD. These findings suggest that injury to white matter tracts undermines neural networks, with functional consequences in a middle-aged population with cardiovascular risk factors.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6285, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293549

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6417, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339817

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical drugs targeting dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase the risk of fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. To identify potential novel CVD drug targets without these adverse effects, we perform genome-wide analyses of participants in the HUNT Study in Norway (n = 69,479) to search for protein-altering variants with beneficial impact on quantitative blood traits related to cardiovascular disease, but without detrimental impact on liver function. We identify 76 (11 previously unreported) presumed causal protein-altering variants associated with one or more CVD- or liver-related blood traits. Nine of the variants are predicted to result in loss-of-function of the protein. This includes ZNF529:p.K405X, which is associated with decreased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 1.3 × 10-8) without being associated with liver enzymes or non-fasting blood glucose. Silencing of ZNF529 in human hepatoma cells results in upregulation of LDL receptor and increased LDL uptake in the cells. This suggests that inhibition of ZNF529 or its gene product should be prioritized as a novel candidate drug target for treating dyslipidemia and associated CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Genoma Humano , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Inativação Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fenômica , Receptores de LDL/genética , Reino Unido
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.

12.
Blood ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094331

RESUMO

GWAS studies have identified common variants associated with platelet related phenotypes, but because these variants are largely intronic or intergenic, their link to platelet biology is unclear. In 290 normal subjects from the GeneSTAR Research Study (110 African Americans (AAs) and 180 European Americans (EAs)), we generated whole genome sequence data from whole blood and RNA sequence (RNA-seq) data from extracted non-ribosomal RNA from 185 induced pluripotent stem cell-derived megakaryocyte (MK) cell lines (platelet precursor cells) and 290 blood platelet samples from these subjects. Using eigenMT software to select the peak SNP for each expressed gene, and meta-analyzing the results of AAs and EAs, we identify (q-value < 0.05) N=946 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in derived MKs and N=1,830 cis-eQTLs in blood platelets. Among the 57 eQTLs shared between the two tissues the estimated directions of effect are very consistent (98.2% concordance). A high proportion of detected cis-eQTLs (74.9% in MKs and 84.3% in platelets) are unique to MKs and platelets compared to peak associated SNP-expressed gene pairs of 48 other tissue types that are reported in version V7 of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project. The locations of our identified eQTLs are significantly enriched for overlap with several annotation tracks highlighting genomic regions with specific functionality in MKs, including MK-specific DNAse hotspots, H3K27-acetylation marks, H3K4-methylation marks, enhancers and super-enhancers. These results offer insights into the regulatory signature of MKs and platelets, with significant overlap in genes expressed, eQTLs detected, and enrichment within known super enhancers relevant to platelet biology.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(9): 712-724, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study prospectively evaluated endomyocardial biopsies in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) to identify histopathologic phenotypes and their association with clinical characteristics. BACKGROUND: Myocardial tissue analysis from a prospectively defined HFpEF cohort reflecting contemporary comorbidities is lacking. METHODS: Patients with HFpEF (EF ≥50%) referred to the Johns Hopkins HFpEF Clinic between August 2014 and September 2018 were enrolled for right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy. Clinical features, echocardiography, hemodynamics, and tissue histology were determined and compared with controls (unused donor hearts) and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). RESULTS: Of the 108 patients enrolled, median age was 66 years (25th to 75th percentile: 57 to 74 years), 61% were women, 57% were African American, 62% had a previous HF hospitalization, median systolic blood pressure was 141 mm Hg (25th to 75th percentile: 125 to 162 mm Hg), body mass index (BMI) was 37 kg/m2 (25th to 75th percentile: 32 to 45 kg/m2), and 97% were on a loop diuretic. Myocardial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy were often present (93% and 88%, respectively); however, mild in 71% with fibrosis and in 52% with hypertrophy. Monocyte infiltration (CD68+ cells/mm2) was greater in patients with HFpEF versus controls (60.4 cells/mm2 [25th to 75th percentile: 36.8 to 97.8] vs. 32.1 cells/mm2 [25th to 75th percentile: 22.3 to 59.2]; p = 0.02) and correlated with age and renal disease. Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) was diagnosed in 15 (14%) patients (HFpEF-CA: 7 patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis [ATTR], 4 patients with hereditary ATTR, 3 patients with light-chain amyloidosis, and 1 patient with AA (secondary) amyloidosis), of which 7 cases were unsuspected. Patients with HFpEF-CA were older, with lower BMI, higher left ventricular mass index, and higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin I levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, prospective myocardial tissue analysis of HFpEF, myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy were common, CD68+ inflammation was increased, and CA prevalence was 14%. Tissue analysis in HFpEF might improve precision therapies by identifying relevant myocardial mechanisms.

14.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2111-2121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings. METHODS: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (NBEAL), 10q23.1 (TSPAN14/FAM231A), and 10q24.33 (SH3PXD2A). In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 (NOS3) and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: CALCRL (2q32.1), KLHL24 (3q27.1), VCAN (5q27.1), and POLR2F (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Stem Cell Res ; 46: 101803, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442913

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines have previously been generated through the NHLBI sponsored NextGen program at nine individual study sites. Here, we examined the structural integrity of 506 hiPSC lines as determined by copy number variations (CNVs). We observed that 149 hiPSC lines acquired 258 CNVs relative to donor DNA. We identified six recurrent regions of CNVs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 16 and 20 that overlapped with cancer associated genes. Furthermore, the genes mapping to regions of acquired CNVs show an enrichment in cancer related biological processes (IL6 production) and signaling cascades (JNK cascade & NFκB cascade). The genomic region of instability on chr20 (chr20q11.2) includes transcriptomic signatures for cancer associated genes such as ID1, BCL2L1, TPX2, PDRG1 and HCK. Of these HCK shows statistically significant differential expression between carrier and non-carrier hiPSC lines. Overall, while a low level of genomic instability was observed in the NextGen generated hiPSC lines, the observation of structural instability in regions with known cancer associated genes substantiates the importance of systematic evaluation of genetic variations in hiPSCs before using them as disease/research models.

16.
JMIR Cardio ; 4(1): e14963, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of cigarette smoking are decreasing because of public health initiatives, pharmacological aids, and clinician focus on smoking cessation. However, a sedentary lifestyle increases cardiovascular risk, and therefore, inactive smokers have a particularly enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: In this secondary analysis of mActive-Smoke, a 12-week observational study, we investigated adherence to guideline-recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in smokers and its association with the urge to smoke. METHODS: We enrolled 60 active smokers (≥3 cigarettes per day) and recorded continuous step counts with the Fitbit Charge HR. MVPA was defined as a cadence of greater than or equal to 100 steps per minute. Participants were prompted to report instantaneous smoking urges via text message 3 times a day on a Likert scale from 1 to 9. We used a mixed effects linear model for repeated measures, controlling for demographics and baseline activity level, to investigate the association between MVPA and urge. RESULTS: A total of 53 participants (mean age 40 [SD 12] years, 57% [30/53] women, 49% [26/53] nonwhite, and 38% [20/53] obese) recorded 6 to 12 weeks of data. Data from 3633 person-days were analyzed, with a mean of 69 days per participant. Among all participants, median daily MVPA was 6 min (IQR 2-13), which differed by sex (12 min [IQR 3-20] for men vs 3.5 min [IQR 1-9] for women; P=.004) and BMI (2.5 min [IQR 1-8.3] for obese vs 10 min [IQR 3-15] for nonobese; P=.04). The median total MVPA minutes per week was 80 (IQR 31-162). Only 10% (5/51; 95% CI 4% to 22%) of participants met national guidelines of 150 min per week of MVPA on at least 50% of weeks. Adjusted models showed no association between the number of MVPA minutes per day and mean daily smoking urge (P=.72). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MVPA was low in adult smokers who rarely met national guidelines for MVPA. Given the poor physical activity attainment in smokers, more work is required to enhance physical activity in this population.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 112-120, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883642

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
18.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1624-1636, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636452

RESUMO

Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 192, 2019 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is common in older adults, especially in those patients undergoing spine surgery, in whom it is estimated to occur in > 30% of patients. Although previously thought to be transient, it is now recognized that delirium is associated with both short- and long-term complications. Optimizing the depth of anesthesia may represent a modifiable strategy for delirium prevention. However, previous studies have generally not focused on reducing the depth of anesthesia beyond levels consistent with general anesthesia. Additionally, the results of prior studies have been conflicting. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether reduced depth of anesthesia using spinal anesthesia reduces the incidence of delirium after lumbar fusion surgery compared with general anesthesia. METHODS: This single-center randomized controlled trial is enrolling 218 older adults undergoing lumbar fusion surgery. Patients are randomized to reduced depth of anesthesia in the context of spinal anesthesia with targeted sedation using processed electroencephalogram monitoring versus general anesthesia without processed electroencephalogram monitoring. All patients are evaluated for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method for 3 days after surgery or until discharge and undergo assessments of cognition, function, health-related quality of life, and pain at 3- and 12-months after surgery. The primary outcome is any occurrence of delirium. The main secondary outcome is change in the Mini-Mental Status Examination (or telephone equivalent) at 3-months after surgery. DISCUSSION: Delirium is an important complication after surgery in older adults. The results of this study will examine whether reduced depth of anesthesia using spinal anesthesia with targeted depth of sedation represents a modifiable intervention to reduce the incidence of delirium and other long-term outcomes. The results of this study will be presented at national meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals with the goal of improving perioperative outcomes for older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03133845. This study was submitted to Clinicaltrials.gov on October 23, 2015; however, it was not formally registered until April 28, 2017 due to formatting requirements from the registry, so the formal registration is retrospective.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Delírio/epidemiologia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Idoso , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Commun Biol ; 2: 285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396565

RESUMO

Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications (DAAM1 and THBS3), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases (ZIC4 and FGFRL1). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics underlying brain development and suggest a role for regulatory regions in determining brain volumes.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Lobo Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Parietal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Temporal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Lobo Temporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reino Unido
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