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1.
Cell Genom ; 2(1)2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530816

RESUMO

Genetic studies on telomere length are important for understanding age-related diseases. Prior GWAS for leukocyte TL have been limited to European and Asian populations. Here, we report the first sequencing-based association study for TL across ancestrally-diverse individuals (European, African, Asian and Hispanic/Latino) from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) of whole blood for variant genotype calling and the bioinformatic estimation of telomere length in n=109,122 individuals. We identified 59 sentinel variants (p-value <5×10-9) in 36 loci associated with telomere length, including 20 newly associated loci (13 were replicated in external datasets). There was little evidence of effect size heterogeneity across populations. Fine-mapping at OBFC1 indicated the independent signals colocalized with cell-type specific eQTLs for OBFC1 (STN1). Using a multi-variant gene-based approach, we identified two genes newly implicated in telomere length, DCLRE1B (SNM1B) and PARN. In PheWAS, we demonstrated our TL polygenic trait scores (PTS) were associated with increased risk of cancer-related phenotypes.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading parasitic cause of death in children worldwide, and severe malarial anemia (SMA) is the most common clinical presentation. The evidence in support of current transfusion guidelines for patients with SMA is limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 911 hospitalized children with SMA in a holoendemic region of Zambia to examine the association of whole blood transfusion with in-hospital survival. Data were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models using multiple imputation for missing data. FINDINGS: The median age of patients was 24 months (interquartile range 16-30) and overall case fatality was 16%. Blood transfusion was associated with 35% reduced odds of death in children with SMA (odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81, p = 0.0002) corresponding to a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) of 14 patients. Children with SMA complicated by thrombocytopenia were more likely to benefit from transfusion than those without thrombocytopenia (NNT = 5). Longer storage time of whole blood was negatively associated with survival and with the post-transfusion rise in the platelet count but was not associated with the post-transfusion change in hemoglobin concentration. INTERPRETATION: Whole blood given to pediatric patients with SMA was associated with improved survival, mainly among those with thrombocytopenia who received whole blood stored for <4 weeks. These findings point to a potential use for incorporating thrombocytopenia into clinical-decision making and management of severe malaria, which can be further assessed in prospective studies, and underline the importance of maintaining reliable blood donation networks in areas of high malaria transmission.

3.
Sci Adv ; 8(14): eabl6579, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385311

RESUMO

Human genetic studies support an inverse causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but directionally mixed effects for LTL and diverse malignancies. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), characterized by expansion of hematopoietic cells bearing leukemogenic mutations, predisposes both hematologic malignancy and CAD. TERT (which encodes telomerase reverse transcriptase) is the most significantly associated germline locus for CHIP in genome-wide association studies. Here, we investigated the relationship between CHIP, LTL, and CAD in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program (n = 63,302) and UK Biobank (n = 47,080). Bidirectional Mendelian randomization studies were consistent with longer genetically imputed LTL increasing propensity to develop CHIP, but CHIP then, in turn, hastens to shorten measured LTL (mLTL). We also demonstrated evidence of modest mediation between CHIP and CAD by mLTL. Our data promote an understanding of potential causal relationships across CHIP and LTL toward prevention of CAD.

4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 46(3-4): 170-181, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312098

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex traits; however, the identified SNPs account for a fraction of trait heritability, and identifying the functional elements through which genetic variants exert their effects remains a challenge. Recent evidence suggests that SNPs associated with complex traits are more likely to be expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Thus, incorporating eQTL information can potentially improve power to detect causal variants missed by traditional GWAS approaches. Using genomic, transcriptomic, and platelet phenotype data from the Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk family-based study, we investigated the potential to detect novel genomic risk loci by incorporating information from eQTL in the relevant target tissues (i.e., platelets and megakaryocytes) using established statistical principles in a novel way. Permutation analyses were performed to obtain family-wise error rates for eQTL associations, substantially lowering the genome-wide significance threshold for SNP-phenotype associations. In addition to confirming the well known association between PEAR1 and platelet aggregation, our eQTL-focused approach identified a novel locus (rs1354034) and gene (ARHGEF3) not previously identified in a GWAS of platelet aggregation phenotypes. A colocalization analysis showed strong evidence for a functional role of this eQTL.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Transcriptoma
5.
Nat Genet ; 54(3): 263-273, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256806

RESUMO

Analyses of data from genome-wide association studies on unrelated individuals have shown that, for human traits and diseases, approximately one-third to two-thirds of heritability is captured by common SNPs. However, it is not known whether the remaining heritability is due to the imperfect tagging of causal variants by common SNPs, in particular whether the causal variants are rare, or whether it is overestimated due to bias in inference from pedigree data. Here we estimated heritability for height and body mass index (BMI) from whole-genome sequence data on 25,465 unrelated individuals of European ancestry. The estimated heritability was 0.68 (standard error 0.10) for height and 0.30 (standard error 0.10) for body mass index. Low minor allele frequency variants in low linkage disequilibrium (LD) with neighboring variants were enriched for heritability, to a greater extent for protein-altering variants, consistent with negative selection. Our results imply that rare variants, in particular those in regions of low linkage disequilibrium, are a major source of the still missing heritability of complex traits and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Alelos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has been linked to adverse health economic outcomes. There is a paucity of data on malnutrition in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 4311 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatients at 5 Johns Hopkins-affiliated hospitals between 1 March and 3 December 2020. Malnourishment was identified using the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), then confirmed by registered dietitians. Statistics were conducted with SAS v9.4 (Cary, NC, USA) software to examine the effect of malnutrition on mortality and hospital length of stay among COVID-19 inpatient encounters, while accounting for possible covariates in regression analysis predicting mortality or the log-transformed length of stay. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients who were older, male, or had lower BMIs had a higher likelihood of mortality. Patients with malnutrition were 76% more likely to have mortality (p < 0.001) and to have a 105% longer hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Overall, 12.9% (555/4311) of adult COVID-19 patients were diagnosed with malnutrition and were associated with an 87.9% increase in hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of COVID-19 adult inpatients, malnutrition was associated with a higher likelihood of mortality and increased hospital length of stay.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desnutrição , Adulto , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Circ Res ; 130(5): 741-759, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35109669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in cardiac energy metabolism occur in heart failure (HF) and contribute to contractile dysfunction, but their role, if any, in HF-related pathologic remodeling is much less established. CK (creatine kinase), the primary muscle energy reserve reaction which rapidly provides ATP at the myofibrils and regenerates mitochondrial ADP, is down-regulated in experimental and human HF. We tested the hypotheses that pathologic remodeling in human HF is related to impaired cardiac CK energy metabolism and that rescuing CK attenuates maladaptive hypertrophy in experimental HF. METHODS: First, in 27 HF patients and 14 healthy subjects, we measured cardiac energetics and left ventricular remodeling using noninvasive magnetic resonance 31P spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Second, we tested the impact of metabolic rescue with cardiac-specific overexpression of either Ckmyofib (myofibrillar CK) or Ckmito (mitochondrial CK) on HF-related maladaptive hypertrophy in mice. RESULTS: In people, pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation correlate closely with reduced myocardial ATP levels and rates of ATP synthesis through CK. In mice, transverse aortic constriction-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation are attenuated by overexpression of CKmito, but not by overexpression of CKmyofib. CKmito overexpression also attenuates hypertrophy after chronic isoproterenol stimulation. CKmito lowers mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, tissue reactive oxygen species levels, and upregulates antioxidants and their promoters. When the CK capacity of CKmito-overexpressing mice is limited by creatine substrate depletion, the protection against pathologic remodeling is lost, suggesting the ADP regenerating capacity of the CKmito reaction rather than CK protein per se is critical in limiting adverse HF remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: In the failing human heart, pathologic hypertrophy and adverse remodeling are closely related to deficits in ATP levels and in the CK energy reserve reaction. CKmito, sitting at the intersection of cardiac energetics and redox balance, plays a crucial role in attenuating pathologic remodeling in HF. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00181259.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase Mitocondrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Difosfato de Adenosina , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular
8.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 148, 2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While large genome-wide association studies have identified nearly one thousand loci associated with variation in blood pressure, rare variant identification is still a challenge. In family-based cohorts, genome-wide linkage scans have been successful in identifying rare genetic variants for blood pressure. This study aims to identify low frequency and rare genetic variants within previously reported linkage regions on chromosomes 1 and 19 in African American families from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. Genetic association analyses weighted by linkage evidence were completed with whole genome sequencing data within and across TOPMed ancestral groups consisting of 60,388 individuals of European, African, East Asian, Hispanic, and Samoan ancestries. RESULTS: Associations of low frequency and rare variants in RCN3 and multiple other genes were observed for blood pressure traits in TOPMed samples. The association of low frequency and rare coding variants in RCN3 was further replicated in UK Biobank samples (N = 403,522), and reached genome-wide significance for diastolic blood pressure (p = 2.01 × 10- 7). CONCLUSIONS: Low frequency and rare variants in RCN3 contributes blood pressure variation. This study demonstrates that focusing association analyses in linkage regions greatly reduces multiple-testing burden and improves power to identify novel rare variants associated with blood pressure traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Research shows that patients are concerned about postoperative bowel function after pelvic reconstructive surgery. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of patients with obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS), a subtype of constipation, in the week after surgery, to identify associated patient-level and perioperative characteristics and the associated bother. METHODS: Women completed a preoperative and postoperative ODS questionnaire and postoperative bowel diary. Characteristics of women with and without postoperative ODS were compared. Chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests compared categorical variables. Student's t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared continuous variables. Multivariate logistic regression was assessed for independent effects. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared the groups with regard to bother. Spearman correlation coefficients described the relationship among bother, postoperative ODS score, and bowel diary variables. RESULTS: Of the 186 participants enrolled, 165 completed the postoperative ODS questionnaire. Of these, 39 women (23.6%, 95% CI 17.2-30.1) had postoperative ODS. Postoperative ODS was significantly associated with preoperative ODS (p < 0.001), posterior colporrhaphy (p = 0.03), surgery type (p = 0.01), and longer duration of surgery (p = 0.03). Using multivariate logistic regression controlling for age, only preoperative ODS was significantly associated with postoperative ODS (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.73-4.17). Women with postoperative ODS reported more bother with their defecatory symptoms (p < 0.001). The degree of bother was significantly associated with postoperative ODS score (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Using a validated disease-specific questionnaire to identify ODS, this complication was identified in 23.6% of patients in the week after pelvic reconstructive surgery. Preoperative ODS was a significant and important risk factor for this complication.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(3): 347-361, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing (WGS) from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet-related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several genome-wide association study identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of WGS in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão , Plaquetas , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estados Unidos
11.
Diabetes Care ; 45(1): 232-240, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: LDL cholesterol (LDLc)-lowering drugs modestly increase body weight and type 2 diabetes risk, but the extent to which the diabetogenic effect of lowering LDLc is mediated through increased BMI is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted summary-level univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in 921,908 participants to investigate the effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes risk and the proportion of this effect mediated through BMI. We used data from 92,532 participants from 14 observational studies to replicate findings in individual-level MR analyses. RESULTS: A 1-SD decrease in genetically predicted LDLc was associated with increased type 2 diabetes odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.24]) and BMI (ß = 0.07 SD units [95% CI 0.02, 0.12]) in univariable MR analyses. The multivariable MR analysis showed evidence of an indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01, 1.08]) with a proportion mediated of 38% of the total effect (P = 0.03). Total and indirect effect estimates were similar across a number of sensitivity analyses. Individual-level MR analyses confirmed the indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI with an estimated proportion mediated of 8% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the diabetogenic effect attributed to lowering LDLc is partially mediated through increased BMI. Our results could help advance understanding of adipose tissue and lipids in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and inform strategies to reduce diabetes risk among individuals taking LDLc-lowering medications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(3): 863-871, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonates are at risk of gastrointestinal emergencies including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Identifying biomarkers to aid in diagnosis is imperative. We hypothesized that circulating intestinal-specific protein concentrations would distinguish infants with intestinal injury from controls. AIMS: To identify serum concentrations of intestinal-specific protein(s) in infants with intestinal injury and controls. METHODS: We used an in silico approach to identify intestinal-specific proteins. We collected serum from control infants and infants with NEC or SIP and measured protein concentrations using ELISA. If baseline concentrations were near the detection limit in initial control assays, we proceeded to assess concentrations in a larger cohort of controls and infants with injury. Control infants were frequency matched to infants with injury and compared with nonparametric and mixed-effects models analysis. RESULTS: We evaluated four proteins with high intestinal expression: Galectin-4 (Gal-4), S100G, Trefoil Factor-3, and alanyl aminopeptidase. Only Gal-4 demonstrated consistent results near the lower limit of quantification in controls and was studied in the larger cohorts. Gal-4 concentration was low in 111 control infants (median 0.012 ng/ml). By contrast, Gal-4 was significantly increased at diagnosis in infants with surgical NEC and SIP (n = 14, p ≤ 0.001 and n = 8, p = 0.031) compared to matched controls, but not in infants with medical NEC (n = 32, p = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Of the intestinal-specific proteins evaluated, circulating Gal-4 concentrations were at the assay detection limit in control infants. Gal-4 concentrations were significantly elevated in infants with surgical NEC or SIP, suggesting that Gal-4 may serve as a biomarker for neonatal intestinal injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Enterocolite Necrosante , Perfuração Intestinal , Biomarcadores , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Galectina 4 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestinos
13.
J Card Fail ; 28(5): 723-731, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapy for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains an unmet need with lack of a consensus definition of HFpEF for inclusion into clinical trials. We evaluated whether hemodynamically characterized patients from a HFpEF referral center met inclusion criteria for 4 major HFpEF trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were assessed for theoretical inclusion into 4 major clinical trials (I-PRESERVE, RELAX, TOPCAT, and PARAGON-HF). Clinical, echocardiographic and hemodynamic characteristics and cardiovascular outcomes were compared between patients who met the inclusion criteria vs those who did not for each trial. Of 131 patients with HFpEF, 23% of patients met the enrollment criteria for I-PRESERVE, 38% for RELAX, 18% for TOPCAT, and 13% for PARAGON-HF. The top criteria that excluded patients included low natriuretic peptide level, obesity, uncontrolled hypertension, young age, and low hemoglobin. There was no difference in the probability of HF hospitalization or death in patients included or excluded into each clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort with hemodynamic evidence of HFpEF, a low proportion of patients met inclusion criteria for major HFpEF clinical trials, with no difference in outcomes in patients who did or did not meet inclusion criteria. Given relative the lack of proven therapies in HFpEF, consideration should be given to modifying clinical trial enrollment criteria to better represent contemporary patients with HFpEF in future clinical trials.

15.
HGG Adv ; 2(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734193

RESUMO

Psychological and social factors are known to influence blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. To identify novel BP loci, we carried out genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial BP taking into account the interaction effects of genetic variants with three psychosocial factors: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and social support. Analyses were performed using a two-stage design in a sample of up to 128,894 adults from 5 ancestry groups. In the combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 59 loci (p value <5e-8), including nine novel BP loci. The novel associations were observed mostly with pulse pressure, with fewer observed with mean arterial pressure. Five novel loci were identified in African ancestry, and all but one showed patterns of interaction with at least one psychosocial factor. Functional annotation of the novel loci supports a major role for genes implicated in the immune response (PLCL2), synaptic function and neurotransmission (LIN7A, PFIA2), as well as genes previously implicated in neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders (FSTL5, CHODL). These findings underscore the importance of considering psychological and social factors in gene discovery for BP, especially in non-European populations.

16.
HGG Adv ; 2(2)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604815

RESUMO

Genomic discovery and characterization of risk loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been conducted primarily in individuals of European ancestry. We conducted a multiethnic genome-wide association study of T2D among 53,102 cases and 193,679 control subjects from African, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian, and European population groups in the Population Architecture Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) and Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortia. In individuals of African ancestry, we discovered a risk variant in the TGFB1 gene (rs11466334, risk allele frequency (RAF) = 6.8%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 2.06 × 10-8), which replicated in independent studies of African ancestry (p = 6.26 × 10-23). We identified a multiethnic risk variant in the BACE2 gene (rs13052926, RAF = 14.1%, OR = 1.08, p = 5.75 × 10-9), which also replicated in independent studies (p = 3.45 × 10-4). We also observed a significant difference in the performance of a multiethnic genetic risk score (GRS) across population groups (pheterogeneity = 3.85 × 10-20). Comparing individuals in the top GRS risk category (40%-60%), the OR was highest in Asians (OR = 3.08) and European (OR = 2.94) ancestry populations, followed by Hispanic (OR = 2.39), Native Hawaiian (OR = 2.02), and African ancestry (OR = 1.57) populations. These findings underscore the importance of genetic discovery and risk characterization in diverse populations and the urgent need to further increase representation of non-European ancestry individuals in genetics research to improve genetic-based risk prediction across populations.

17.
Anesthesiology ; 135(6): 992-1003, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing depth of anesthesia and anesthetic exposure may help prevent delirium, but trials have been conflicting. Most studies were conducted under general anesthesia or in cognitively impaired patients. It is unclear whether reducing depth of anesthesia beyond levels consistent with general anesthesia reduces delirium in cognitively intact patients. The authors' objective was to determine whether a bundled approach to reduce anesthetic agent exposure as determined by Bispectral Index (BIS) values (spinal anesthesia with targeted sedation based on BIS values) compared with general anesthesia (masked BIS) reduces delirium. METHODS: Important eligibility criteria for this parallel-arm randomized trial were patients 65 yr or greater undergoing lumbar spine fusion. The intervention group received spinal anesthesia with targeted sedation to BIS greater than 60 to 70. The control group received general anesthesia (masked BIS). The primary outcome was delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method daily through postoperative day 3, with blinded assessment. RESULTS: The median age of 217 patients in the analysis was 72 (interquartile range, 69 to 77). The median BIS value in the spinal anesthesia with targeted sedation based on BIS values group was 62 (interquartile range, 53 to 70) and in the general anesthesia with masked BIS values group was 45 (interquartile range, 41 to 50; P < 0.001). Incident delirium was not different in the spinal anesthesia with targeted sedation based on BIS values group (25.2% [28 of 111] vs. the general anesthesia with masked BIS values group (18.9% [20 of 106]; P = 0.259; relative risk, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.76]). In prespecified subgroup analyses, the effect of anesthetic strategy differed according to the Mini-Mental State Examination, but not the Charlson Comorbidity Index or age. Two strokes occurred among patients receiving spinal anesthesia and one death among patients receiving general anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal anesthesia with targeted sedation based on BIS values compared with general anesthesia with masked BIS values did not reduce delirium after lumbar fusion.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Delírio do Despertar/diagnóstico , Delírio do Despertar/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Delírio do Despertar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at increased likelihood of hospital readmission when compared with non-NICU admitted infants, resulting in appreciable financial and emotional burdens. Early readmission, days to weeks, following NICU discharge, may be preventable. Population-based data identifying potentially modifiable factors and spending associated with early readmission are lacking. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a secondary data analysis of privately insured infants in the IBM MarketScan Research Database born from 2011 to 2017 in all 50 states and admitted to the NICU. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics of early readmission within 7 days and between 8 and 30 days following NICU discharge and the payments of NICU and readmission care. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 86,741 NICU survivors analyzed, 3,131 infants (3.6%) were readmitted by 7 days and 2,128 infants (2.5%) between 8 and 30 days. Preterm infants had reduced odds of readmission by 7 days compared with term infants. Infants transferred to a step-down facility (vs. discharge home) and those with congenital anomalies had higher independent odds of readmission by 7 and 8 to 30 days. A higher percentage of NICU infants within the lowest quartile of initial NICU length of stay (LOS) were readmitted by 7 days compared with NICU infants in the middle and highest LOS quartiles (64 vs. 36%, p < 0.01). Median payments of readmissions at 7 and 8 to 30 days was $12,785 and 14,380, respectively. CONCLUSION: Being term, being transferred to a step-down facility, and having a congenital anomaly were risk factors for early readmission. Shorter initial NICU LOS may be a contributing factor to readmission by 7 days, especially among term infants. These findings identify factors associated with readmission with the hope of preventing early readmission, minimizing spending, and optimizing ideal timing of NICU discharge. KEY POINTS: · Preterm infants were less likely than term infants to be readmitted within 7 days after discharge.. · Transferred infants had higher odds of readmission versus those who were discharged home.. · Payments for an average single NICU day were $1,000 less than for an average day of readmission..

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1836-1851, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582791

RESUMO

Many common and rare variants associated with hematologic traits have been discovered through imputation on large-scale reference panels. However, the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in Europeans, and determining causal variants has proved challenging. We performed a GWAS of total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts generated from 109,563,748 variants in the autosomes and the X chromosome in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which included data from 61,802 individuals of diverse ancestry. We discovered and replicated 7 leukocyte trait associations, including (1) the association between a chromosome X, pseudo-autosomal region (PAR), noncoding variant located between cytokine receptor genes (CSF2RA and CLRF2) and lower eosinophil count; and (2) associations between single variants found predominantly among African Americans at the S1PR3 (9q22.1) and HBB (11p15.4) loci and monocyte and lymphocyte counts, respectively. We further provide evidence indicating that the newly discovered eosinophil-lowering chromosome X PAR variant might be associated with reduced susceptibility to common allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Additionally, we found a burden of very rare FLT3 (13q12.2) variants associated with monocyte counts. Together, these results emphasize the utility of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples in identifying associations missed by European-ancestry-driven GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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