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1.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-19, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635178

RESUMO

The genetic diversity and population structures of five Chongqing local chicken populations were investigated using by 24 microsatellite markers. Results revealed that the mean number of alleles (NA) ranged from 7.08 (Daninghe chicken, DN) to 8.46 (Nanchuan chicken, NC). The highest observed heterozygosity (HO) and expected heterozygosity (HE) were observed in DN (HO = 0.7252; HE = 0.7409) and the lowest HO and HE were observed in XS (Xiushan native chicken [XS], HO = 0.5910 and HE = 0.6697). The inbreeding coefficient (FIS) within population ranged from 0.022 (DN) to 0.119 (XS). Among the 24 microsatellite markers, four loci (MCW0111, MCW0016, ADL0278, and MCW0104) deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the studied populations. The results of population polygenetic analysis based on Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE software showed that the clustering of the five populations was incomplete consistent with geographical distribution. Moreover, a large number of gene flows were widespread among different populations, suggesting that genetic material exchanges occurred due to human activities and migration which was also verified by PCoA. In summary, this study preliminarily showed that Chongqing local chicken populations had rich genetic diversity and remarkable genetic divergence, but still high risk in conversion. These findings would be useful to the management of conservation strategies and the utilization of local chicken populations in further.

2.
J Genet ; 992020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661207

RESUMO

Droughtmaster is a tropical breed of beef cattle that can survive in hot climates and easily adapt to torrid environments. These traits are important in livestock breeding. In this study, we genotyped five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the AHSA2 gene from 190 cattle belonging to three different breeds (Droughtmaster, Angus and Simmental) by using snapshot technology. This work aimed to identify the valuable molecular marker of heat resistance in cattle. Results showed that Droughtmaster exhibited higher expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content compared with the two other breeds. The AHSA2-1 locus deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the Droughtmaster breed (P < 0.05). Two SNPs in Droughtmaster diverged significantly from Angus and Simmental. The SNPs were identified as AHSA2-3 and AHSA2-4, which were closely linked to the three breeds based on pair-wise FST. AHSA2-4 involved a missense mutation. In summary, the GG genotypes in AHSA2-3 and AHSA2-4 may be candidate genotypes associated with heat resistance traits and may serve as valuable genetic markers for breeding of heat-tolerant beef cattle in the future.

3.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 83-90, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544655

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are critical for disease resistance or susceptibility responsible for host-pathogen interactions determined mainly by extensive polymorphisms in the MHC genes. Here, we examined the diversity and phylogenetic pattern of MHC haplotypes reconstructed using three MHC-linked microsatellite markers in 55 populations of five Bovidae species and compared them with those based on neutral autosomal microsatellite markers (NAMs). Three-hundred-and-forty MHC haplotypes were identified in 1453 Bovidae individuals, suggesting significantly higher polymorphism and heterozygosity compared with those based on NAMs. The ambitious boundaries in population differentiation (phylogenetic network, pairwise FST and STRUCTURE analyses) within and between species assessed using the MHC haplotypes were different from those revealed by NAMs associated closely with speciation, geographical distribution, domestication and management histories. In addition, the mean FST was significantly correlated negatively with the number of observed alleles (NA), observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) (P < 0.05) in the MHC haplotype dataset while there was no correction of the mean FST estimates (P> 0.05) between the MHC haplotype and NAMs datasets. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a lower percentage of total variance (PTV) between species/groups based on the MHC-linked microsatellites than NAMs. Therefore, it was inferred that individuals within populations accumulated as many MHC variants as possible to increase their heterozygosity and thus the survival rate of their affiliated populations and species, which eventually reduced population differentiation and thereby complicated their classification and phylogenetic relationship inference. In summary, host-pathogen coevolution and heterozygote advantage, rather than demographic history, act as key driving forces shaping the MHC diversity within the populations and determining the interspecific MHC diversity.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Evolução Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/imunologia , Bovinos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
4.
3 Biotech ; 10(6): 259, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432020

RESUMO

The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important animal model in high-altitude adaptation studies. Here, we performed the genome-wide selective sweep analysis to identify the candidate copy number variation (CNV) for the high-altitude adaptation of yaks. A total of 531 autosomal CNVs were determined from 29 yak genome-wide resequencing data (15 high- and 14 low-altitude distributions) by using a CNV caller with a CNV identification interval > 5 kb, CNV silhouette score > 0.7, and minimum allele frequency > 0.05. Most high-frequency CNVs were located at the exonic (44.63%) and intergenic (46.52%) regions. In accordance with the results of the selective sweep analysis, 7 candidate CNVs were identified from the interaction of the top 20 CNVs with highest divergence from the F ST and V ST between the low (LA) and high (HA) altitudes. Five genes (i.e., GRIK4, IFNLR1, LOC102275985, GRHL3, and LOC102275713) were also annotated from the seven candidate CNVs and their upstream and downstream ranges at 300 kb. GRIK4, IFNLR1, and LOC102275985 were enriched in five known signal pathways, namely, glutamatergic synapse, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and olfactory transduction. These pathways are involved in the environmental adaptability and various physiological functions of animals, especially the physiological regulation under a hypoxic environment. The results of this study advanced the understanding of CNV as an important genomic structure variant type that contributes to HA adaptation and helped further explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the altitude adaptability of yaks.

7.
3 Biotech ; 9(3): 99, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800610

RESUMO

Sex reversal has been studied extensively in vertebrate species, particularly in domestic goats, because polled intersex syndrome (PIS) has seriously affected their production efficiency. In the present study, we used histopathologically diagnosed cases of PIS to identify correlated genomic regions and variants using representative selection signatures and performed GWAS using Restriction-Site Associated Resequencing DNA. We identified 171 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may have contributed to this phenotype, and 53 SNPs were determined to be located in coding regions using a general linear model. The transcriptome data sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the pituitary tissues of intersexual and nonintersexual goats were examined using high-throughput technology. A total of 10,063 DEGs and 337 long noncoding RNAs were identified. The DEGs were clustered into 56 GO categories and determined to be significantly enriched in 53 signaling pathways by KEGG analysis. In addition, according to qPCR results, PSPO2 and FSH were significantly more highly expressed in sexually mature pituitary tissues of intersexual goats compared to healthy controls (nonintersexual). These results demonstrate that certain novel potential genomic regions may be responsible for intersexual goats, and the transcriptome data indicate that the regulation of various physiological systems is involved in intersexual goat development. Therefore, these results provide helpful data for understanding the molecular mechanisms of intersex syndrome in goats.

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