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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125438, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494498

RESUMO

Fifteen vitisin A-type pyranoanthocyanins (vAPs) were determined in bilberry wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The fermentation involving S. pombe enhanced the production of vAPs compared to the fermentation with pure S. cerevisiae. The formation of vAPs correlated significantly with the decrease in the content of monomeric anthocyanins and pyruvic acid during 12 months of aging. vAPs were more stable than their corresponding monomeric anthocyanins. Methylation in the B-ring and glycosylation with galactose and arabinose further improved the stability of vAPs. Aging for 12 months led to depletion of pyruvic acid and reduction of over 50% of monomeric anthocyanins. The content of vAPs increased by 26-54% during the first six months of aging, followed by a 2.2-10.2% reduction over the following six months. More residual pyruvic acid in S. pombe wines after fermentation consequently enhanced the generation of vAPs during aging.

2.
Food Chem ; : 125797, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818516

RESUMO

Our recent clinical study suggested that polyphenol-rich purple potatoes lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared to yellow potatoes. Here, 17 healthy male volunteers consumed yellow potatoes with or without purple potato extract (PPE, extracted with water/ethanol/acetic acid) rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and other phenolics (140 mg) in a randomized cross-over trial. Ethanol-free PPE decreased the incremental area under the curve for glucose (p = 0.019) and insulin (p = 0.015) until 120 min after the meal, glucose at 20 min (p = 0.015) and 40 min (p = 0.004), and insulin at 20 min (p = 0.003), 40 min (p = 0.004) and 60 min (p = 0.005) after the meal. PPE affected some of the studied 90 inflammation markers after meal; for example insulin-like hormone FGF-19 levels were elevated at 240 min (p = 0.001). These results indicate that PPE alleviates postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and affects postprandial inflammation.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730342

RESUMO

Blackcurrants of three Finnish commercial cultivars 'Mortti', 'Ola', and 'Melalahti' cultivated in southern and northern Finland were compared on the basis of the content and composition of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seventeen B-type PA oligomers (degree of polymerization 2-5 and 7) were detected by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total PAs, dimers, trimers, and tetramers were quantified. Among the three cultivars, 'Ola' had the highest contents of both total PAs and PA oligomers. 'Melalahti' was separated from both 'Mortti' and 'Ola' by PA profiles in the partial least-squares discriminant analysis model. All three cultivars revealed distinct responses to latitude and weather conditions. The content of total PAs showed a positive correlation to latitude in 'Ola' and 'Melalahti'. Among the meteorological variables, high temperature and radiation correlated negatively with total PAs, while only specific variables showed a correlation with PA oligomers.

4.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731548

RESUMO

The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, which is worth around US$1 trillion or even $2.6 trillion when social and economic costs are included. In the fruit and vegetable sector, 45% of the total produced amount is lost in the production (post-harvest, processing, and distribution) and consumption chains. Therefore, it is necessary to find new technological and environmentally friendly solutions to utilize fruit wastes as new raw materials to develop and scale up the production of high value-added products and ingredients. Considering that the production and consumption of fruits has increased in the last years and following the need to find the sustainable use of different fruit side streams, this work aimed to describe the chemical composition and bioactivity of different fruit seeds consumed worldwide. A comprehensive focus is given on the extraction techniques of water-soluble and lipophilic compounds and in vitro/in vivo functionalities, and the link between chemical composition and observed activity is holistically explained.

5.
Anal Chem ; 91(21): 13695-13702, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600055

RESUMO

An ultrahigh-performance-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of AAB and ABC type triacylglycerol (TG) regioisomers. Excellent linear regressions were established between the ratio of [RR]+ product ions and the proportion of regioisomers of TGs. The method was further optimized by analysis of 18 regiospecific pairs of AAB type TGs and five triplets of regioisomers of ABC type TGs with acyl carbon number (ACN) ranging from 36 to 54 and the number of double bonds (DB) from 0 to 7. Reverse linear relationships were recognized between the slope of the calibration curve and the number of double bonds of the sn-2 fatty acids. Negative linear regressions were found between the intercepts of the calibration curves and the sum of ACN + DB of sn-2 fatty acids. The method was highly repeatable as shown by the low deviation and high stability of the calibration curves at different concentrations and between different periods of analysis. This is the first time that calibration curves for the ABC type TGs are reported. The results provide crucial and novel information for reliable and quantitative determination of regioisomeric TGs in natural fats and oils.

6.
Food Chem ; 301: 125255, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377617

RESUMO

Craterellus tubaeformis (Funnel Chanterelle) is among the most abundant wild mushrooms in Finland. Three polysaccharide fractions were sequentially extracted from the fruiting bodies of C. tubaeformis, using hot water, 2% and 25% KOH solutions, respectively, and purified. The monomer composition, molecular weight, and chemical structure were determined using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed as well. The hot water extract consisted mainly of high-molecular weight → 2,6)-α-Man-(1 → and → 6)-α-Gal-(1 → chains, covalently bound to proteins. The alkali extracts consisted of acidic → 6)-ß-Glc-(1→, with branches of short → 3)-ß-Glc-(1 → chains or single ß-Glc residues. The use of alkali influenced the glycosidic linkages, molecular mass and thermal stability of the polysaccharide fractions. The use of KOH 2% increased the amount of low molecular weight polysaccharides, resulting in bimodal molecular weight distributions, with little impact on the thermal stability. Conversely, extraction with KOH 25% provided low molecular weight polysaccharides with substantially reduced thermal stability.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Agaricales/química , Carpóforos/citologia , Peso Molecular , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
J Food Biochem ; 43(6): e12642, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353611

RESUMO

Sugars and organic acids are important phytochemicals contributing to the nutrition and sensory properties of fruits and berries. Their contents are closely correlated to the genetic background of plants as well as to the environmental conditions during growth. This review focuses on the recent researches on the metabolism of these compounds in fruits and berries in response to the variation of environmental conditions, including temperature, radiation, and water supply. A great deal of investigations indicates that the influence of environmental factors on the composition of fruits/berries depended largely on the genetic background. Moreover, the metabolic regulation in response to environmental changes also varies between different plant developmental stages. Nevertheless, some general trends, like the positive correlation between light intensity and sugar content, were observed in most investigations. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), the content of malic acid always decreases as light intensity increases, and as the water supply decreases. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The contents of sugars and organic acids, and especially their relative ratio, are important indicators determining the taste and quality of fruits and fruit products. In this review, we summarized the investigations carried out on the regulation of these sensory contributing primary metabolites in fruits and berries in relation to the variation of environmental conditions. It was indicated that various factors, such as plant genotype, growing period, and interaction between environmental factors, might contribute to the impact of environmental changes on the composition of fruits/berries. The article not only provides comprehensive knowledges in food chemistry and plant physiology but also provide important background knowledge for berry cultivation and breeding, as well as useful guidelines for utilization of fruits and berries in food industry.

8.
Food Chem ; 293: 151-160, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151596

RESUMO

Blackcurrant juices were prepared without enzyme (NEB-juice) and with conventional enzyme-aided berry pressing (EB-juice). Juices were pasteurized and stored at ambient temperature (in light and dark conditions) and at +4 °C for a 1-year period of time. Volatile composition and odor attributes were followed by HS-SPME-GC-MS and a sensory panel, respectively. Volatiles were decreased in the EB-juice, showing 100-fold lower contents of the main terpenoids, e.g., α-pinene, δ-3-carene, limonene, terpinolene, bornyl acetate and ß-caryophyllene; whereas esters, such as methyl butanoate and ethyl butanoate, showed 2- and 4-fold lower contents for the EB-juice. Pasteurization produced minor changes in both juices. Volatiles decreased during storage at room temperature while at +4 °C esters and eucalyptol were kept at 100%. The descriptive sensory analysis reported a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of the berry-like odor after 12-month storage at RT. Storage at +4 °C for 12 months did not affect the odor quality.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ribes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Pasteurização , Ribes/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura Ambiente , Terpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
9.
Food Res Int ; 122: 318-329, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229085

RESUMO

Oil deterioration during deep-frying influences the quality of fried foods to a great extent. In this study, the frying performance of six vegetable oils, i.e., hemp, lupin, oat, rapeseed, soy, and sunflower, was evaluated following short-term (60 min) deep-frying of French fries at 180 °C. The frying oils were investigated for fatty acid profile, volatile compound composition, and parameters of oxidative stability, such as iodine, peroxide, and p-anisidine values. The examination showed that the content of Æ©PUFA in hemp oil decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after 60 min of deep-frying, although the degree of change was relatively small (close to 1.5%). Similarly, soy oil presented a fatty acid profile prone to oxidation, and generated the highest level of peroxides at the end of the thermal treatment (PV = 16.6 ±â€¯2.3 mEq O2 kg-1). As for the volatile compound composition of the oils, sunflower oil was extensively affected by the deep-frying treatment with a significant decrease (p > 0.05) in total terpenes, accompanied by a considerable rise in total aldehydes. Oppositely, the proportions of MUFA and PUFA of lupin and oat oils remained stable (p > 0.05) during the short-term deep-frying, indicating high stability of these oils. The research provided new data for evaluating the suitability of these oils for household food preparations.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(19): 5621-5633, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013088

RESUMO

Berries representing 21 cultivars of blackcurrant were analyzed using liquid chromatographic, gas chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods coupled with multivariate models. This study pinpointed compositional variation among cultivars of different origins cultivated in the same location during two seasons. The chemical profiles of blackcurrants varied significantly among cultivars and growing years. The key differences among cultivars of Scottish, Lithuanian, and Finnish origins were in the contents of phenolic acids (23 vs 16 vs 19 mg/100 g on average, respectively), mainly as 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4- O-coumaroylglucose, ( E)-coumaroyloxymethylene-glucopyranosyloxy-( Z)-butenenitrile, and 1- O-feruloylglucose. The Scottish cultivars were grouped on the basis of the 3- O-glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, as were the Lithuanian cultivars. Among the Finnish samples, the content of myricetin 3- O-glycosides, 4- O-caffeoylglucose, 1- O-coumaroylglucose, and 4- O-coumaroylglucose were significantly different between the two green-fruited cultivars and the black-fruited cultivars. The samples from the studied years differed in the content of phenolic acid derivatives, quercetin glycosides, monosaccharides, and citric acid.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Ribes/química , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Europa (Continente) , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicosídeos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Ribes/classificação , Estações do Ano
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(9)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824446

RESUMO

Recent studies report the presence of fungal species in breast milk of healthy mothers, suggesting a potential role in infant mycobiome development. In the present work, we aimed to determine whether the healthy human breast milk mycobiota is influenced by geographical location and mode of delivery, as well as to investigate its interaction with bacterial profiles in the same samples. A total of 80 mature breast milk samples from 4 different countries were analyzed by Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, joining the 18S and 5.8S regions of the fungal rRNA region. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found to be the dominant phyla, with Malassezia and Davidiella being the most prevalent genera across countries. A core formed by Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium was shared in the milk samples from the different origins, although specific shifts in mycobiome composition were associated with geographic location and delivery mode. The presence of fungi in the breast milk samples was further confirmed by culture and isolate characterization, and fungal loads were estimated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the fungal ITS1 region. Cooccurrence network analysis of bacteria and fungi showed complex interactions that were influenced by geographical location, mode of delivery, maternal age, and pregestational body mass index. The presence of a breast milk mycobiome was confirmed in all samples analyzed, regardless of the geographic origin.IMPORTANCE During recent years, human breast milk has been documented as a potential source of bacteria for the newborn. Recently, we have reported the presence of fungi in breast milk from healthy mothers. It is well known that environmental and perinatal factors can affect milk bacteria; however, the impact on milk fungi is still unknown. The current report describes fungal communities (mycobiota) in breast milk samples across different geographic locations and the influence of the mode of delivery. We also provide novel insights on bacterium-fungus interactions, taking into account environmental and perinatal factors. We identified a core of four genera shared across locations, consisting of Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium, which have been reported to be present in the infant gut. Our data confirm the presence of fungi in breast milk across continents and support the potential role of breast milk in the initial seeding of fungal species in the infant gut.

12.
Food Chem ; 283: 381-389, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722887

RESUMO

Lack of synthetic enantiospecific triacylglycerols (TAGs) has hindered our understanding of the impact of TAG structure on the absorption and metabolic fate of fatty acids (FAs). In a five-day feeding trial with mildly (n-3) deficient rats, the bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3), DHA] and stearic acid (18:0) from the two different enantiomers of TAG: sn-22:6(n-3)-18:0-18:0 and sn-18:0-18:0-22:6(n-3), and their regioisomeric TAG: sn-18:0-22:6(n-3)-18:0 was compared. Less secretion of fecal DHA was detected from the sn-2 position compared with the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but no difference was found in DHA content of the fasting plasma or in the weight of the body or organs. 18:0 was lost to feces mainly as cleaved from the primary positions but also as glycerol-bound. The 5-day intervention in rats was long enough to modify the fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Fezes/química , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicerídeos/química
13.
Food Chem ; 275: 515-522, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724228

RESUMO

A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of vitamin K compounds: phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MK-n). Non-chlorinated mobile phase composition was optimized for separation of eight vitamin K compounds on a reversed phase column in 10 min. Sample treatment with liquid and solid phase extractions and by the use of MK-4 as an internal standard enabled the quantitation of microgram level of vitamin K compounds in food. The method was used to screen and quantitate vitamin K from 17 fermented food products. The highest amount of PK was detected in kimchi (42 µg/100 g), whereas the highest MK-7 content was detected in natto (902 µg/100 g). Some MK-9 was present in kefir (5 µg/100 g). Two Chinese fermented soybean pastes contained significant amount of MK-6 (5-36 µg/100 g), MK-7 (12-86 µg/100 g), and MK-8 (22-44 µg/100 g).


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Vitamina K/química , Pressão Atmosférica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Food Microbiol ; 80: 25-39, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704594

RESUMO

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juice was fermented with Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD291 and TD70526) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SP3796 and SP70572) in pure fermentation as well as in sequential and simultaneous inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1116 (SC1116). Altogether, 56 volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified with HS-SPME-GC/MS in bilberry products. Yeast fermentation prominently enhanced the aroma complexity of bilberry with a sharp increase in alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and acetals. Compared to S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii produced less ethanol but more fusel alcohols that potentially enhance "alcohol" and "nail polish" odors in TD70526 and less "fruity" esters in TD291. SP70572 resulted in high productions of undesirable compounds of acetoin and acetaldehyde but a low content of higher alcohols and esters, SP3796 produced a high content of fatty acid ethyl esters and acetoin. In comparison with monoculture of non-Saccharomyces yeast, sequential and simultaneous cultures of S. pombe and S. cerevisiae significantly decreased the content of acetoin while increased the relative level of esters; sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae remarkably increased the concentration of acetaldehyde; simultaneous inoculations of S. cerevisiae with TD70526 and TD291 significantly decreased the content of fusel alcohols and increased the content of esters, respectively. The findings suggested that non-Saccharomyces yeasts possess the potential to affect and modulate the aromatic profile of fermented bilberry products. Sequential and simultaneous inoculations with S. pombe strains and S. cerevisiae as well as simultaneous fermentation using T. delbrueckii strains and S. cerevisiae are optimal strategies to positively influence the aroma profile of bilberry wines.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Torulaspora/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Cinética , Vinho/microbiologia
15.
Food Chem ; 281: 189-196, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658747

RESUMO

Anthocyanin-rich fractions isolated from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) including delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were enzymatically acylated with lauric acid. All the four anthocyanins were successfully monoacylated, and their relative proportions did not affect the conversion yield. The acylation occurred at the 6″-OH position of the glucosides and at the rhamnose 4‴-OH of the rutinosides. The rutinoside moieties of the anthocyanins were successfully acylated for the first time, and the corresponding acylation sites were verified by NMR analysis. The acylation enhanced the lipophilicity. The hydrophilic anthocyanin rutinosides were more lipophilic after acylation. Introducing lauric acid into the anthocyanins significantly improved the thermostability and capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and maintained UV-vis absorbance and antioxidant activity. This research provides important insights into acylation of mixed anthocyanins with different glycosyl moieties.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Ribes/química , Acilação , Glucosídeos/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Food Chem ; 272: 1-11, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309518

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides, SB) leaves contain wide-ranging bioactive compounds. Processing of the leaves into beverages/food presents great potential for supporting human health. The research aimed to investigate the impact of different processing methods on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of tea-type infusions prepared from SB leaves. Leaves of two SB cultivars, 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', were processed with different methods commonly used for tea processing. Phenolic compounds in the infusions were analyzed with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array Detection and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-hexoside-7-O-rhamnoside were the three major flavonol glycosides, stachyurin and casuarinin were the most abundant ellagitannins. The infusions of 'Tytti' contained more total phenolics than those of 'Terhi' (p < 0.05). High temperature processing resulted in higher content of total phenolics and ellagitannins in the infusions compared with low temperatures (p < 0.05). Thermal processing decreased the antioxidant activities of the infusions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Hippophae/química , Fenóis/análise , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Liofilização , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Hippophae/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Fenóis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Food Chem ; 278: 56-66, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583411

RESUMO

The effect of cooking on the taste compounds of five mushroom species Agaricus bisporus, Lactarius trivialis, Cantharellus cibarius, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Suillus variegatus were assessed with a special focus on the compounds responsible for the umami taste. Liquid chromatography was used to analyse free amino acids (FAAs) and 5'-nucleotides from fresh and sous vide (SV) cooked mushroom samples and cooking juice. The SV technique enabled analysis of entire mushrooms, including the liquid released during cooking. FAA content decreased when cooking temperature increased, indicating their further chemical reactions. S. variegatus contained highest concentrations of FAAs in analysed wild mushrooms. The umami-enhancing nucleotide 5'-GMP was detected only in cooked samples, concentration being likely dependent on enzymatic activity. The highest concentration of 5'-GMP was detected in cooked L. trivialis samples (17 mg/100 g fw). To our knowledge, the analysed taste compounds of L. trivialis and S. variegatus are documented for the first time.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Culinária/métodos , Nucleotídeos/análise , Agaricales/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a sea buckthorn oil and sodium hyaluronate-containing eyelid spray emulsion (SB spray) on dry eye. METHODS: A randomized controlled study was carried out. Adults (25-70 years) with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) ≥20 and moderate or severe dryness, burning or grittiness of the eyes were included. In study part one (n = 2), SB spray was used on both closed eyelids four times in one day. In part two (n = 10), SB spray was used on one randomized eyelid, and a commercial reference spray on the other for nine days. In part three (n = 40), eyes were randomized to one eye receiving SB spray and an untreated control for 1.5 months. Dry eye tests were carried out at baseline, during, and at the end of each study section. Symptoms were recorded in questionnaires and daily logs. RESULTS: In part one, the SB spray was well tolerated. In part two, OSDI decreased significantly (P = 0.022) in the SB spray eye compared to the reference spray, indicating a beneficial effect on symptoms. In part three, OSDI in the SB spray eye decreased significantly compared to the untreated control (P = 0.0007). The scores for dryness at the study end were lower in the SB spray eye compared to control (P = 0.0070). Symptom sums and frequencies of dryness (sum P = 0.0046, frequency P = 0.0016) and watering (sum P = 0.0003, frequency P = 0.013) in the daily logs were lower in the eye treated with SB spray. CONCLUSIONS: SB spray on closed eyelids relieved the symptoms of dry eye.

19.
Food Chem ; 266: 262-274, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381185

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of fermentation with pure cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD291 and TD70526) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SP3796 and SP70572), as well as in sequential and mixed inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the chemical composition of bilberry wine. In comparison to the bilberry wines produced by pure and sequential fermentations, mixed cultures produced bilberry wines with more ethanol, higher pH values, higher percentages of red and yellow shade, but less glycerol and acetaldehyde. Higher values of color intensity and bluish parameter were found in products of pure fermentations with non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Compared to S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii contributed to the reduction of ethanol and acetic acid while increasing the content of succinic acid, lactic acid and higher alcohols; S. pombe consumed malic acid almost completely and produced more glycerol, acetaldehyde and/or pyruvic acid. Fermentation with SP70572 had the highest amounts of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives.

20.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248972

RESUMO

The composition of human breast milk is highly variable, and it can be influenced by genetics, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the impact of geographical location and mode of delivery on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) metabolic profile of breast milk and its relationship with the milk microbiome. Human milk metabolic and microbiota profiles were determined using NMR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively, in 79 healthy women from Finland, Spain, South Africa, and China. Up to 68 metabolites, including amino acids, oligosaccharides, and fatty acid-associated metabolites, were identified in the milk NMR spectra. The metabolite profiles showed significant differences between geographical locations, with significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of galactose, lacto-N-fucopentaose III, lacto-N-fucopentaose I and 2-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-difucohexaose II, lacto-N-fucopentaose III, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, proline, N-acetyl lysine, methyl-histidine, dimethylamine, kynurenine, urea, creatine and creatine phosphate, formate, lactate, acetate, phosphocholine, acetylcholine, LDL, VLDL, ethanolamine, riboflavin, hippurate, spermidine, spermine and uridine. Additionally, the effect of caesarean section on milk metabolome was dependent on the geographical region. Specific interrelations between human milk metabolites and microbiota were also identified. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were most significantly associated with the milk metabolites, being either positively or negatively correlated depending on the metabolite. Our results reveal specific milk metabolomic profiles across geographical locations and also highlight the potential interactions between human milk's metabolites and microbes.

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