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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131049, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520974

RESUMO

Black currants (Ribes nigrum) were fermented with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts without added sugar to yield low-ethanol-content beverages. The effects of yeasts on the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS, GC-O, and generic descriptive analysis. Ninety-eight volatile compounds were identified from the black currant juice and fermented beverages. Significant increases in the contents of esters (131 %), higher alcohols (391 %), and fatty acids (not present in juice sample) compared to initial juice were observed depending on the yeasts used. GC-O analysis revealed the higher impact of esters on the sensory properties of Saccharomyces bayanus-fermented beverage compared to the Torulaspora delbrueckii-fermented beverage. In the sensory evaluation, non-Saccharomyces yeasts resulted in a higher 'black currant odour'. However, all beverages were intensely sour, which can be a significant challenge in the development of alcoholic berry beverages.


Assuntos
Metschnikowia , Ribes , Saccharomyces , Torulaspora , Vinho , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Fermentação , Vinho/análise , Leveduras
2.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131437, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749087

RESUMO

The phenolic compounds in juices and ciders made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Schizosaccharomyces pombe from eleven Finnish apple cultivars were analyzed using liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods combined with multivariate data analysis. In general, the ciders contained less phenolic compounds than corresponding apple juices. In the studied apple juices and ciders, hydroxycinnamic acids were the most predominant, accounting for around 80% of total phenolic compounds. Apple juices contained more flavonol glycosides and dihydrochalcones whereas cider processing resulted in increased amount of free hydroxycinnamic acids. The contents of individual phenolic compounds were more dependent on the apple cultivars than the yeast species. Certain cultivars contained remarkably higher contents of dihydrochalcones and hydroxycinnamic acids when comparing with other cultivars. Ciders made using S. pombe remained higher contents of procyanidins and (+)-catechin while S. cerevisiae ciders contained higher individual hydroxycinnamic acids, such as 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and 4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid.

3.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(6): 5570-5615, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611984

RESUMO

Anthocyanins, the natural red and purple colorants of berries, fruits, vegetables, and tubers, improve carbohydrate metabolism and decrease the risk factors of metabolic disorders, but their industrial use is limited by their chemical instability. Acylation of the glycosyl moieties of anthocyanins, however, changes the chemical properties of anthocyanins and provides enhanced stability. Thus, acylated anthocyanins are more usable as natural colorants and bioactive components of innovative functional foods. Acylated anthocyanins are common in pigmented vegetables and tubers, the consumption of which has the potential to increase the intake of health-promoting anthocyanins as part of the daily diet. For the first time, this review presents the current findings on bioavailability, absorption, metabolism, and health effects of acylated anthocyanins with comparison to more extensively investigated nonacylated anthocyanins. The structural differences between nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins lead to enhanced color stability, altered absorption, bioavailability, in vivo stability, and colonic degradation. The impact of phenolic metabolites and their potential health effects regardless of the low bioavailability of the parent anthocyanins as such is discussed. Here, purple-fleshed potatoes are presented as a globally available, eco-friendly model food rich in acylated anthocyanins, which further highlights the industrial possibilities and nutritional relevance of acylated anthocyanins. This work supports the academic community and industry in food research and development by reviewing the current literature and highlighting gaps of knowledge.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Frutas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação
4.
Foods ; 10(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441588

RESUMO

Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) is one of the most abundant commercially caught fish species from the Baltic Sea. Despite the high content of fat and omega-3 fatty acids, the consumption of Baltic herring has decreased dramatically over the last four decades, mostly due to the small sizes and difficulty in processing. At the same time there is an increasing global demand for fish and fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to investigate enzyme-assisted oil extraction as an environmentally friendly process for valorizing the underutilized fish species and by-products to high quality fish oil for human consumption. Three different commercially available proteolytic enzymes (Alcalase®, Neutrase® and Protamex®) and two treatment times (35 and 70 min) were investigated in the extraction of fish oil from whole fish and by-products from filleting of Baltic herring. The oil quality and stability were studied with peroxide- and p-anisidine value analyses, fatty acid analysis with GC-FID, and volatile compounds with HS-SPME-GC-MS. Overall, longer extraction times led to better oil yields but also increased oxidation of the oil. For whole fish, the highest oil yields were from the 70-min extractions with Neutrase and Protamex. Protamex extraction with 35 min resulted in the best fatty acid composition with the highest content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) but also increased oxidation compared to treatment with other enzymes. For by-products, the highest oil yield was obtained from the 70-min extraction with Protamex without significant differences in EPA and DHA contents among the oils extracted with different enzymes. Oxidation was lowest in the oil produced with 35-min treatment using Neutrase and Protamex. This study showed the potential of using proteolytic enzymes in the extraction of crude oil from Baltic herring and its by-products. However, further research is needed to optimize enzymatic processing of Baltic herring and its by-products to improve yield and quality of crude oil.

5.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-33, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251918

RESUMO

An increasing demand for natural food preservatives is raised by consumers. For Nordic berry species, abundance of phenolic compounds and potent activities of anti-oxidation and anti-bacteria enables a great potential as food preservatives. This review provides a systematic examination of current literature on phenolic profiles, anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial activities of various extracts of Nordic berry species, as well as the impact of various structure features of phenolics on the bioactivities. Special attention is placed on exploitation of leaves of berry species and pomaces after juice-pressing as side-streams of berry production and processing. The current progress and challenges in application of Nordic berry species as food preservatives are discussed. To fully explore the potential application of Nordic berry species in food industry and especially to valorize the side-streams of berry cultivation (leaves) and juice-pressing industry (pomaces), it is crucial to obtain extracts and fractions with targeted phenolic composition, which have high food preserving efficacy and minimal impact on sensory qualities of food products.

6.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 35(18): e9151, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169571

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Phospholipids are important components of cell membranes that are linked to several beneficial health effects such as increasing plasma HDL cholesterol levels, improving cognitive abilities and inhibiting growth of colon cancer. The role of phospholipid (PL) regioisomers in all these health effects is, however, largely not studied due to lack of analytical methods. METHODS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative mode produces structurally informative fragment ions resulting from differential dissociation of fatty acids (FAs) from the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, primarily high-abundance [RCOO]- ions. The fragment ion ratios obtained with different ratios of regiopure phospholipid reference compounds were used to construct calibration curves, which allow determination of regioisomeric ratios of an unknown sample. The method was developed using both direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HILIC-MS). RESULTS: The produced calibration curves have high coefficients of determination (R2  >0.98) and the fragment ion ratios in replicate analyses were very consistent. A test mixture containing 60/40% ratios of all available regioisomer pairs was analyzed to test and validate the functionality of the calibration curves. The results were accurate and reproducible. However, regioisomeric quantification of certain chromatographically overlapping compounds is restricted by the relatively wide window in precursor ion selection of the MS instrument used. CONCLUSIONS: This method establishes a framework for analysis of phospholipid regioisomers. Specific regioisomers can be quantified using the existing data, and method development will continue with improving chromatographic separation and exploring the fragmentation patterns and efficiencies of different PL classes and FA combinations, ultimately to refine this method for routine analysis of natural fats and oils.

7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112284, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044082

RESUMO

Aqueous extracts from blackcurrant press cake (BC), Norway spruce bark (NS), Scots pine bark (SP), and sea buckthorn leaves (SB) were obtained using maceration and pressurized hot water and tested for their bioactivities. Maceration provided the extraction of higher dry matter contents, including total phenolics (TPC), anthocyanins, and condensed tannins, which also impacted higher antioxidant activity. NS and SB extracts presented the highest mean values of TPC and antioxidant activity. Individually, NS extract presented high contents of proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, and some phenolic acids. In contrast, SB contained a high concentration of ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and quercetin, explaining the antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects. SP and BC extracts had the lowest TPC and antioxidant activity. However, BC had strong antiviral efficacy, whereas SP can be considered a potential ingredient to inhibit α-amylase. Except for BC, the other extracts decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HCT8 and A549 cells. Extracts did not inhibit the production of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 macrophages but inhibited the ROS generation during the THP-1 cell respiratory burst. The recovery of antioxidant compounds from these by-products is incentivized for high value-added applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Enterovirus Humano B/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Hippophae/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picea/química , Pinus sylvestris/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Ribes/química
8.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800424

RESUMO

The polysaccharides of the sterile conk of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have demonstrated multiple bioactivities. The mycelium of this basidiomycete, obtained after submerged cultivation, has been considered a feasible alternative to the sterile conk for the production of polysaccharides. However, previous research has paid little attention to the differences in the structures of polymers obtained from the different resources. Moreover, the birch wood colonized by I. obliquus has never been investigated as a source of bioactive polysaccharides. In the present study, polysaccharide fractions produced from cultivated mycelium, sterile conks of different geographical origins, and birch heart rot were investigated. High amounts of phenolic compounds, possibly lignans, were bound to the sterile conk polysaccharides. Mycelial polysaccharides were rich in α- and ß-glucans and had high (105 Da) and low (104 Da) molecular weight populations. On the other hand, sterile conk polysaccharides were mainly ß-glucan of lower and monodispersed molecular weight (103 Da). Heart rot polysaccharides were comprised mainly of low molecular weight (103 Da) hemicelluloses. Nevertheless, fungal polysaccharides were identified in the extracts. The differences in structure and molecular properties among the polysaccharide fractions of mycelium, heart rot, and sterile conk are likely associated with differences in bioactivities and, therefore, in nutraceutical potential.

9.
Food Chem ; 356: 129628, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836356

RESUMO

The composition of human milk is subject to considerable variation, but the effects of maternal stress are largely unknown. We studied differences in human milk metabolome between Finnish mothers (n = 120, secretors) with symptoms of prenatal symptoms of psychological distress and milk cortisol concentrations. Human milk samples acquired at 2.5 months postpartum were analyzed using targeted 1H NMR metabolomics. Self-reported scores for depression (EPDS), overall anxiety (SCL-90), and pregnancy-related anxiety (PRAQ) were used to evaluate psychological distress. Prenatal psychological distress was positively associated with concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, caprate, and hypoxanthine (q < 0.0012). Milk cortisol was positively associated with lactate concentration (q < 0.05). Changes in the human milk metabolome were shown to be associated with maternal psychological distress and concentration of milk cortisol in a dissimilarly, suggesting alterations in bacterial and energy metabolism of the mother, respectively.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/metabolismo , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Metaboloma , Leite Humano/química , Mães/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(15): 4423-4437, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835816

RESUMO

Anthocyanins have been reported to possess antidiabetic effects. Recent studies indicate acylated anthocyanins have better stability and antioxidative activity compared to their nonacylated counterparts. This study compared the effects of nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins on hepatic gene expression and metabolic profile in diabetic rats, using full-length transcriptomics and 1H NMR metabolomics. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were fed with nonacylated anthocyanin extract from bilberries (NAAB) or acylated anthocyanin extract from purple potatoes (AAPP) at daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. Both anthocyanin extracts restored the levels of multiple metabolites (glucose, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate) and expression of genes (G6pac, Pck1, Pklr, and Gck) involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. AAPP decreased the hepatic glutamine level. NAAB regulated the expression of Mgat4a, Gstm6, and Lpl, whereas AAPP modified the expression of Mgat4a, Jun, Fos, and Egr1. This study indicated different effects of AAPP and NAAB on the hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic profiles of diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 461992, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706165

RESUMO

Stereoisomeric determination of individual triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural oils and fats is a challenge due to similar physicochemical properties of TAGs with different fatty acid combinations. In this study, we present a strategy to resolve the enantiomeric composition of nutritionally important TAGs in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) as an example food matrix. The targeted strategy combines 1) fatty acid profiling with GC, 2) separation of TAGs with RP-HPLC, 3) stereospecific separation with chiral-phase HPLC and 4) structural characterization with MS. Three major asymmetric diacid- and triacid-TAG species were analyzed in sea buckthorn pulp oil. Off-line coupling of RP-HPLC and chiral-phase HPLC allowed separation of several TAG regioisomers and enantiomers, which could not be resolved using one-dimensional techniques. Enantiomeric ratios were determined and specific structural analysis of separated TAGs was performed using direct inlet ammonia negative ion chemical ionization method. Of the TAG 16:0/16:1/16:1 palmitic acid (C16:0) was located predominantly in a primary position and the enantiomeric ratio of TAG sn-16:1-16:1-16:0 to sn-16:0-16:1-16:1 was 70.5/29.5. Among the TAGs 16:0/16:0/18:2 and 16:0/16:0/16:1, only ca 5% had C16:0 in the sn-2 position, thus, ca 95% were symmetric sn-16:0-18:2-16:0 and sn-16:0-16:1-16:0. The enantiomeric ratio of triacid-TAGs containing C16:0 and two unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic C16:1, oleic C18:1 or linoleic acids C18:2) could not be resolved due to lack of commercial enantiopure reference compounds. However, it became clear that the targeted strategy presented offer unique and convenient method to study the enantiomeric structure of individual TAGs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Triglicerídeos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hippophae/química , Óleos/análise , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(9): e2000898, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687145

RESUMO

SCOPE: Structurally stable acylated anthocyanins have potential in various food applications but the effects of acylation and methoxysubstitution on anthocyanin metabolism are poorly understood. This is the first study thoroughly investigating phenolic metabolites, their time-wise changes, and pharmacokinetics following an acute intake of methoxysubstituted monoacylated anthocyanins. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy male volunteers (n = 17) consumed a yellow potato meal with and without purple potato extract rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (140 mg). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is used for identification and quantification of metabolites from serially collected urine and plasma. While the parent anthocyanins are not detected, 28 phenolic metabolites from urine and 14 from plasma are quantified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and protocatechuic acid sulfates and glucuronides; three (catechol, gallic acid-4-O-glucuronide, and 2-methoxybenzoic acid) are detected for the first time after anthocyanin-rich food. Urinary hippuric acid is the most abundant with an increase of 139 µM mM-1 creatinine after the treatment. A large additional set of tentatively identified phenolic metabolites are detected. Late urinary peak time values suggest colonic degradation. CONCLUSION: Acylated anthocyanins are more bioavailable than earlier reported after extensive degradation in human and/or colonial metabolism to phenolic metabolites, which may be further conjugated and demethylated.

13.
Food Chem ; 348: 128995, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503536

RESUMO

Red beet betalains, grape anthocyanins, and their mixtures were used as colorants in white currant juice. Storage stability of the compounds was evaluated using liquid chromatography and the degradation kinetic order and parameters were calculated. Degradation of betalains followed first-order kinetics, while the degradation of anthocyanins did not have any trend toward any order kinetics. The coexisting anthocyanins and their concentration affected the rate constant of betalains. Betalains degraded faster than anthocyanins, their mixtures promoted respective degradation. Pyruvate derivatives of anthocyanins showed better stability. During storage, all samples became more yellowish with CIELab method and lighter in color. In the projective mapping sensory test, samples were distinguished by the colorant type as the main criteria and the storage time as the second criteria. Anthocyanin (described as 'dark' and 'natural') was preferred by sensory panelists over betalain (described as 'pink' and 'unnatural'), as were the fresh samples over stored samples.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Beta vulgaris/química , Paladar , Vitis/química , Betalaínas/química , Cor , Frutas/química , Cinética , Ribes/química
14.
Food Chem ; 346: 128852, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476950

RESUMO

Lupine (Lupinus sp.) is a valuable source of plant proteins. There is little knowledge on the impact of food processing on composition and sensory properties of lupine products. In this research, we investigated the impact of fermentation with five starters of lactic acid bacteria on the sensory quality and flavor-active compounds in dairy analogues prepared from sweet lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensory qualities of unfermented and fermented products were studied with generic descriptive analysis and affective tests. Acids and sugars were analyzed with GC-FID and volatiles with HS-SPME-GC-MS and GC-O. Fermentation increased sourness and 'vinegar' odor and reduced the 'beany' odor and flavor as well as the unpleasantness of flavor. Formation of volatiles during the fermentation was dependent on the starters. However, all fermentations increased the contents of lactic, acetic, and hexanoic acids, while reducing the contents of hexanal, described as 'grassy' in the unfermented lupine sample.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Lupinus/embriologia , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química
15.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-19, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412908

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., SB), as a multi-functional plant, is widely grown in Asia, Europe and Canada. The berries and leaves of SB contain a diverse array of health-supporting phytochemicals, which are also related to the sensory qualities of berry and berry products. This review summarizes the biologically active key-compounds of the berries and leaves of SB, their health-promoting effects, as well as the contributions to the sensory quality of the berries. The target compounds consist of sugars, sugar derivatives, organic acids, phenolic compounds and lipophilic compounds (mainly carotenoids and tocopherols), which play an important role in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions, as well as in metabolic health. In addition, these compounds contribute to the orosensory qualities of SB berries, which are closely related to consumer acceptance and preference of the products. Studies regarding the bioavailability of the compounds and the influence of the processing conditions are also part of this review. Finally, the role of the sensory properties is emphasized in the development of SB products to increase utilization of the berry as a common meal component and to obtain value-added products to support human health.

16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-21, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480261

RESUMO

Fish and algae are the major sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Globally, there is a rapid increase in demand for n-3 PUFA-rich oils. Conventional oil production processes use high temperature and chemicals, compromising the oil quality and the environment. Hence, alternative green technologies have been investigated for producing oils from aquatic sources. While most of the studies have focused on the oil extraction and enrichment of n-3 PUFAs, less effort has been directed toward green refining of oils from fish and algae. Enzymatic processing and ultrasound-assisted extraction with environment-friendly solvents are the most promising green technologies for extracting fish oil, whereas pressurized extractions are suitable for extracting microalgae oil. Lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of fish and algae oil is a promising green technology for enriching n-3 PUFAs. Green refining technologies such as phospholipase- and membrane-assisted degumming deserve investigation for application in fish and algal oils. In the current review, we critically examined the currently existing research on technologies applied at each of the steps involved in the production of oils rich in n-3 PUFAs from fish and algae species. Special attention was placed on assessment of green technologies in comparison with conventional processing methods.

17.
Food Chem ; 342: 128219, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077284

RESUMO

While the development of oat products often requires altered molecular weight (MW) of ß-glucan, the resulting health implications are currently unclear. This 3-leg crossover trial (n = 14) investigated the effects of the consumption of oat bran with High, Medium and Low MW ß-glucan (average > 1000, 524 and 82 kDa respectively) with 3 consequent meals on oat-derived phenolic compounds in urine (UHPLC-MS/MS), bile acids in feces (UHPLC-QTOF), gastrointestinal conditions (ingestible capsule), and perceived gut well-being. Urine excretion of ferulic acid was higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), and the fecal excretion of deoxycholic (p < 0.03, p < 0.02) and chenodeoxycholic (p < 0.06, p < 0.02) acids lower after consumption of Low MW ß-glucan compared with both Medium and High MW ß-glucan. Duodenal pressure was higher after consumption of High MW ß-glucan compared to Medium (p < 0.041) and Low (p < 0.022) MW ß-glucan. The MW of ß-glucan did not affect gut well-being, but the perceptions between females and males differed.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Urina/química , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
Food Chem ; 345: 128833, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341559

RESUMO

Composition of volatile compounds and concentrations of sugars and organic acids were studied in apple ciders produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeasts using eleven different Finnish apple cultivars. Moreover, sensory quality of selected ciders was studied using check-all-that-apply test with untrained panelists. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected in the samples using HS-SPME-GC-MS. In general, the ciders had higher concentrations of higher alcohols, aldehydes, and acetals whereas the juices contained higher contents of C6-alcohols. Simultaneously, fermentation using S. pombe resulted in lower concentrations of malic acid, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and volatile acids and higher concentrations of residual sugars compared to S. cerevisiae. Ciders made using S. cerevisiae were characterized as 'alcoholic' and 'yeasty' while S. pombe ciders were more frequently described as 'sweet', 'honey-like', and less rated as sour. Besides the strong effect by the yeasts, apple cultivars had significant effects on the compositional and sensorial properties of apple ciders.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Malus/química , Malus/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Paladar , Fermentação , Finlândia , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 339: 128052, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152863

RESUMO

The effects of different enzymes, their dosages, and incubation times on juice yield and chemical composition of lingonberry juice were assessed. Nonvolatile composition including sugars, acids and phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) was analyzed using GC-FID, LC-DAD and LC-MS methods, whereas the volatile compound profile was examined using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Selection of the enzyme had a significant effect on the juice yield by increasing it from 70% without enzyme treatment up to 81%. Enzymes significantly increased the contents of most of the phenolic compounds in the juices but had little impact on the contents of sugars and acids. Heat treatment without enzyme addition also significantly affected the composition. Generally, increasing incubation time increased the contents of various phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the effects of dosage were mostly negligible. Enzyme treatment increased the contents of volatile compounds, regardless of dosage or incubation time.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105554

RESUMO

Understanding the importance of the gut microbiota (GM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has raised the hope for therapeutic microbes. We have shown that high hepatic fat content associated with low abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in humans and, further, the administration of F. prausnitzii prevented NAFLD in mice. Here, we aimed at targeting F. prausnitzii by prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) to treat NAFLD. First, the effect of XOS on F. prausnitzii growth was assessed in vitro. Then, XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD, 60% of energy from fat) or low (LFD) fat diet for 12 weeks in Wistar rats (n = 10/group). XOS increased F. prausnitzii growth, having only a minor impact on the GM composition. When supplemented with HFD, XOS ameliorated hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms involved enhanced hepatic ß-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis of cecal metabolites showed that, compared to the HFD, the LFD group had a healthier cecal short-chain fatty acid profile and on the HFD, XOS reduced cecal isovalerate and tyrosine, metabolites previously linked to NAFLD. Cecal branched-chain fatty acids associated positively and butyrate negatively with hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, XOS supplementation can ameliorate NAFLD by improving hepatic oxidative metabolism and affecting GM.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucuronatos/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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