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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487146

RESUMO

Constipation in gestating and lactating sows is common and the inclusion of dietary fiber may help to alleviate this problem. We investigated the effects of inulin (INU) and isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO), two sources of soluble dietary fiber, on gastrointestinal motility-related hormones, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), fecal microflora, and reproductive performance in pregnant sows. On day 64 of gestation, 30 sows were randomly divided into three groups and fed as follows: a basal diet, a basal diet with 0.5% INU, and a basal diet with 0.5% IMO. We found that INU and IMO significantly modulated the levels of gastrointestinal motility-related hormones, as evidenced by an increase in substance P (P < 0.05), and a decrease in the vasoactive intestinal peptide concentrations (P < 0.05), indicating the capacity of INU and IMO to alleviate constipation. Furthermore, IMO enhanced the concentrations of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids in the feces (P < 0.05). High-throughput sequencing showed that IMO and INU increased the fecal microflora α- and ß-diversity (P < 0.05). Methanobrevibacter was more abundant (P < 0.05), whereas the richness of Turicibacter was lower in the INU and IMO groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, IMO significantly increased litter size (P < 0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that INU and IMO can relieve constipation, optimize intestinal flora, and promote reproductive performance in pregnant sows.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Feminino , Hormônios , Inulina/farmacologia , Lactação , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Gravidez , Suínos
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101358, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358955

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) or Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and the cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 360 male, 1-day-old Cobb 500 birds were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group was fed a basal diet; the B. subtilis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. subtilis; the B. licheniformis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. licheniformis. Results showed that chickens supplemented with either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had comparatively higher (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain, whereas no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in feed efficiency. Concentrations of serum IgA, IgY, and IgM, as well as anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and proinflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation. Moreover, chickens fed with diets supplemented by either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had greater antioxidant capacity, indicated by the notable increases (P < 0.05) in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, along with decrease (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde. Compared to the control group, levels of SCFA, excluding acetic and propionic acid, in cecal content had improved (P < 0.05) by adding B. licheniformis, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in acetic and butyric acid was observed with B. subtilis supplementation. Microbial analysis showed that both B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation could increase butyrate-producing bacteria such as Alistipes and Butyricicoccus, and decrease pathogenic bacteria such as the Synergistetes and Gammaproteobacteria. In summary, dietary supplemented with B. subtilis or B. licheniformis improved growth performance, immune status, and antioxidant capacity, increased SCFA production, and modulated cecal microbiota in chickens. Moreover, B. licheniformis was more effective than B. subtilis with the same supplemental amount.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bacillus subtilis , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Masculino
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhamnolipids (RLS), well known as glycolipid biosurfactants, display low toxicity, high biodegradability, and strong antibacterial properties. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of RLS supplementation as a substitute for antibiotics, and particularly to evaluate its effects on growth performance, immunity, intestinal barrier function, and metabolome composition in broilers. RESULTS: The RLS treatment improved the growth performance, immunity, and intestinal barrier function in broilers. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the genus Alistipes was the dominant genus in broilers treated by RLS. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based metabolomic analysis indicated that the sphingolipid metabolism, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, the gycerophospholipid metabolism, and the tryptophan metabolism were changed in broilers that were treated with RLS. CONCLUSION: l-Tryptophan may be the medium for RLS to regulate the growth and physiological metabolism. Rhamnolipids can be used as a potential alternative to antibiotics, with similar functions to antibiotics in the diet of broilers. The optimal level of supplemented RLS in the diet was 1000 mg kg-1 . © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101315, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280650

RESUMO

Antibiotic overuse in poultry husbandry poses a potential threat to meat safety and human health. Lauric acid (LA) is a primary medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) with a strong antibacterial capacity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of LA on the growth performance, immune responses, serum metabolism, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. One-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups: CON, fed a basal diet; ANT, a basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg antibiotic; LA500, a basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg LA; LA1000, a basal diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg LA. The feeding period was 42 d. The results showed that LA significantly improved broiler growth and immune functions, as evidenced by increased body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG), enhanced intestinal mucosal barrier, upregulated immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgY), and downregulated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10) (P < 0.05). HPLC/MS-based metabolome analysis revealed that the serum metabolites in the LA group differed from those of CON and ANT groups. LA markedly decreased the abundance of phosphatidylcholines (PCs), increased lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), and inhibited the sphingolipid metabolism pathway, indicating its capacity to modulate lipid metabolism. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that LA significantly altered cecal microbiota composition by reducing Phascolarctobacterium, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Bacteroides, and increasing Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Spearman correlation analysis revealed that changes in metabolism and microbiota were highly correlated with the growth and immune indices; strong links were also found between lipid metabolism and microbial composition. Taken together, LA promotes broiler growth and immune functions by regulating lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. The above findings highlight the substantial potential of LA as a supplement in poultry diets and provide a new strategy to reduce antibiotic usage and improve food safety.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Láuricos , Masculino , Metaboloma , RNA Ribossômico 16S
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101271, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214748

RESUMO

Occludin is an important component of tight junction proteins and has been extensively studied in animals such as mice, chickens, geese, and pigs. As one of the most important waterfowl species in China, Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) is an important economic animal for meat. However, research on the occludin gene in Muscovy duck is lacking. In the present study, Muscovy duck occludin cDNA was cloned for the first time. The length of the cDNA was 1,699 bp, and it showed a high sequence similarity with the Anser cygnoides domesticus and Gallus gallus occludin genes. The occludin gene was differentially expressed in the tissues of healthy ducks. The highest and lowest expressions of occludin were observed in the crop and the spleen, respectively. After the oral administration of Clostridium butyricum (CB), the occludin expression in the ileum of 7-day-old Muscovy ducks was significantly upregulated and subsequently showed a decreasing trend in 14-day-old Muscovy ducks. Under the early intervention of CB, no significant difference was observed in the occludin expression of cecum between the control and CB group. Collectively, these results suggest that CB plays an important role in regulating the expression of the occludin gene in Muscovy ducks, and adding CB in feed may maintain the intestinal barrier of ducks by regulating the expression of occludin.


Assuntos
Clostridium butyricum , Patos , Ocludina , Animais , China , Patos/genética , Ocludina/genética
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133828

RESUMO

AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum in isolation or in combination with 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in early-stage broilers. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 360 half male and half female Cobb broilers (1 day old) were randomly divided into four groups: Con (basal diet), Anti (basal diet+75 mg/kg chlortetracycline), Cb (basal diet+109  CFU per kg C. butyricum) and CD (basal diet+109  CFU per kg C. butyricum+25 µg/kg 1,25(OH)2 D3 ). The results were as follows: (1) Compared with Con, CD significantly increased ADG (p < 0.05). (2) Contrast with Con and Anti, Cb and CD significantly increased glutathione peroxidase and SOD in the serum and liver, and decreased malondialdehyde content in serum (p < 0.05). (3) In addition, the content of immunoglobulin (IgA, IgY and IgM) in Cb and CD birds was higher than that in Con birds (p < 0.05); the Cb supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the contents of IL-8, IL-1ß and TNF-α than those in Con. (4) Cb and CD had lower caecal acetic and propionic content than the Anti group (p < 0.05). (5) The community richness of Con was significantly higher than that of Anti (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Alistipes and Ruminococcaceae-UCG-014 in Cb and CD supplemented birds were lower than those in Con (p < 0.05). The relative abundant of Escherichia-Shigella in CD was higher than Con and Anti (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that dietary C. butyricum and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can improve the growth performance, immunity responses, antioxidation, bone development and intestinal microflora in early-stage broilers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Oral administration of C. butyricum or C. butyricum combined with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhanced immunity and antioxidant activity in early-stage birds.

7.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101168, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975039

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, immunity function and gut health in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 treatments with 8 replicates comprising 20 broilers each. The experiment lasted 42 d. Treatments included: basal diet without antibiotics (NCO); basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline (ANT); basal diet supplemented with 5 × 109 CFU/kg B. coagulans(BC). The B. coagulans enhanced body weight (BW) and average daily gain compared with the NCO group (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in average daily feed intake and feed: gain ratio (F: G) among three groups (P > 0.05). The B. coagulans significantly increased catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and reduced malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05). The serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgY) were significantly higher in the BC group when compared to the NCO and ANT groups (P < 0.05). The B. coagulans also markedly reduced serum levels of proinflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and enhanced anti-inflammatory factor (IL-10) concentrations compared with control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the control group, BC significantly inhibited serum xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.05). The levels of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyrate, isobutyric acid and valerate in BC group were significantly increased on d 42 compared with the NCO and ANT groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BC significantly altered cecal microbiota by reducing Desulfovibrio and Parasutterella, and by increasing Alistipes and Odoribacter (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, dietary B. coagulans, when used as an alternative to antibiotics, improved body weight, average daily gain, antioxidant capacity, immunity function and gut health in broilers.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bacillus coagulans , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 810-819, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518135

RESUMO

This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation of rhamnolipids (RLS) on the growth performance, gut morphology, immune function, intestinal volatile fatty acid, and microflora community in Linnan yellow broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to groups for supplementation with one of the following for 56 d: no supplement (control), 30 mg/kg bacitracin (ANT), 500 mg/kg RLS, or 1,000 mg/kg RLS (RLS2). The RLS2 diet was found to improve the final BW and ADG on day 56. The RLS diet reduced jejunal crypt depth, increased jejunal villus length, and increased serum IgA, IgM, IgY, IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels. The RLS broilers had higher cecum concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyrate, isobutyric acid, valerate, and isovalerate. High-throughput sequencing indicated that RLS affected microbial quantity and diversity in the cecum. Bacterial richness was higher in the RLS broilers than the ANT broilers. The RLS broilers had higher relative abundances of Megasphaera hypermegale and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 19gly4 on day 28 and Clostridium spiroforme and Alistipes obesi on day 56. These results suggest that RLS supplementation improves growth performance, benefits the intestinal villus morphology, regulates host immune function, and raises intestinal volatile fatty acid content and the relative abundance of the gut microbiota in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/classificação , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100875, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516466

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of α-glyceryl monolaurate (α-GML) on growth performance, immune function, volatile fatty acids production and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. A total of 480 1-day-old yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned in equal numbers to 4 dietary treatments: basal diet (NCO) or supplementations with 30 mg/kg bacitracin (ANT), 500 mg/kg α-GML, or 1,000 mg/kg α-GML (GML2). And, each treatment contained 8 replicates with 15 chickens per replicate. After supplementation with α-GML, the total BW gain and average daily weight gain of broilers increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the broilers on the NCO diet. Moreover, compared with the NCO group, higher levels of immune globulin M and immune globulin Y were observed in both GML groups and the ANT group. Concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate in GML2 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the NCO group on day 28. However, acetate, propionate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations were reduced to significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the NCO group on day 56. The abundance and diversity of microbiota were found to be improved in broilers that were supplemented with GML, using operational taxonomic unit and diversity analyses. Furthermore, the GML treatments increased favorable microbiota, particularly acid-producing bacteria, on day 28 and, also, reduced opportunistic pathogens, such as Alistipes tidjanibacter and Bacteroides dorei by day 56. These results suggest that α-GML supplementation modulates cecal microbiota and broiler immunity and improves volatile fatty acid levels during the early growth stages of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicerídeos , Imunidade , Animais , Biodiversidade , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerídeos/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 610934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363546

RESUMO

Grape seed is rich in vitamin E, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins and has the potential to be used as an antibiotic substitute in broilers. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on growth performance, immune responses, cecal microflora, and serum metabolism in early stage broilers. Data indicated that GSPE improved broiler growth performance by strengthening antioxidant capacity, enhancing immune responses, and increasing cecal short chain fatty acids. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that GSPE changed the predominant cecal microflora and induced the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. An UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomics analysis identified 23 serum metabolites (mainly related to lipid, amino acid, and alkaloid) were extremely changed by GSPE treatment. The correlations between the changes of cecal microflora and serum metabolites in birds fed with GSPE were analyzed. Hence, GSPE potentially provides active ingredients that may be used as antibiotic substitute and reduces environmental pollution by grape by-products.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Metaboloma , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolômica , Ribotipagem
11.
Food Funct ; 11(10): 9216-9225, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030479

RESUMO

The prebiotics inulin (INU) and isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) influence intestinal health and immunity, but their effects on constipation are not clearly established. We evaluated the effects of INU and IMO in a rat model of diphenoxylate-induced constipation. Twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups: basal diet (Con), 40 mg kg-1 diphenoxylate (PCon), 20 g kg-1 INU and treated with 40 mg kg-1 diphenoxylate, and 20 g kg-1 IMO and treated with 40 mg kg-1 diphenoxylate. INU and IMO increased the number, weight, and water content of fecal pellets, and decreased the time to the first black stool in rats with constipation. Serum levels of the gastrointestinal motility-related hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), motilin (MTL), and Substance P (SP) were higher and corticosterone (CORT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were lower in rats treated with prebiotics than in untreated rats. Colon tissue levels of MTL and SP were increased, and VIP and CGRP were decreased by prebiotics. Furthermore, in rats with constipation, INU and IMO increased the colonic contents of short-chain fatty acids. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was lower in the prebiotics groups than in the Con and PCon groups. Lactobacillus was more abundant in the INU and IMO groups than in PCon rats. Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus intestinalis were more abundant in the IMO group than in the PCon group (P < 0.01), and L. intestinalis was more abundant in the INU group than in the PCon group (P < 0.01). In summary, INU and IMO improved constipation and altered the intestinal microbiota in a rat model of constipation.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(7): 6292-6305, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271160

RESUMO

The flavonoids in Ageratum conyzoides L. have been used in traditional medicine due to its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. However, the specific mechanism of its antibacterial effect, and the potential therapeutic effect on vaginitis have not been well explained. The growth curves of E. coli, S. aurues, and P. aeruginosa after treatment with flavonoids were measured. The influences of flavonoids on the conductivity of bacterial culture medium and exudation of bacterial nucleic acid were also detected. Transcriptomics analysis was applied to analyze the potential mechanism of flavonoids. Flavonoids significantly suppressed the growth curves of E. coli, S. aurues, and P. aeruginosa, and increased the conductivity of bacteria and nucleic acid exudation. Transcriptomics analysis indicated that flavonoids could suppress bacteria by affecting the transcription and metabolism pathways. The obvious therapeutic effect of flavonoids on bacterial vaginitis was also observed. This study systematically analyzed the bacteriostatic mechanism of flavonoids, which should be helpful to develop new drugs based on the bacteriostatic effect of flavonoids.


Assuntos
Ageratum , Bactérias , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Vaginite , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vaginite/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginite/microbiologia
13.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(2): 597-605, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891214

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) on growth performance, immune status, gut microbiota and immune responses after lipopolysaccharide challenge in weaned pigs. A total of 144 piglets were assigned to four groups receiving different dietary treatments, including basal diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg CNP fed for 28 days. Each treatment group included six pens (six piglets per pen). The increase in supplemental CNP concentration improved the average daily gain (ADG) and decreased the feed and gain (F/G) and diarrhoea rate (p < .05). However, significant differences in the average daily feed intake (ADFI) among different CNP concentrations were not observed. CNP also increased plasma immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG, and C3 and C4 concentrations in piglets in a dose-dependent manner on day 28, whereas IgM concentration was not affected by CNP. A total of 24 piglets in the control diet and control diet with 400 mg/kg CNP supplementation groups were randomly selected for the experiment of immunological stress. Half of the pigs in each group (n = 6) were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a concentration of 100 µg/kg. The other pigs in each group were injected with sterile saline solution at the same volume. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, prostaglandin E2 (PEG2), interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ß dramatically increased after LPS challenge. However, CNP inhibited the increase in cortisol, PEG2, IL-6 and IL-1ß levels in plasma, whereas TNF-α level slightly increased. Moreover, the effects of CNP on the gut microbiota were also evaluated. Our results showed that dietary supplementation with CNP modified the composition of colonic microbiota, where it increased the amounts of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria and suppressed the growth of potential bacterial pathogens. These findings suggested CNP supplementation improved the growth performance and immune status, alleviated immunological stress and regulated intestinal ecology in weaned piglets. Based on these beneficial effects, CNP could be applied as a functional feed additives supplemented in piglets diet.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Quitosana/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunidade Humoral , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Suínos
14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1096-1105, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724241

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of astragalus polysaccharides (Aps) and ginseng polysaccharide (Gps) on growth performance, liver function, immune function, TLR4 signalling pathways and intestinal barrier in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In an experiment spanning 28 days, 180 weaned piglets were randomly divided into three treatment groups: basal diet (Con), basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Gps (Gps) and basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Aps (Aps). At the end of the experiment, 12 piglets of each group were selected; half (n = 6) were intraperitoneally injected with LPS and half with normal saline. Dietary supplementation with Aps and Gps significantly increased (p < .05) the average daily gain and feed conversion rate. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased (p < .05) expression of serum urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumour inflammatory factor-α (TNF-α), but decreased (p < .05) serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) expression. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets fed with Aps or Gps had lower (p < .05) BUN, ALT, AST, IL-1ß and TNF-α levels and greater (p < .05) SOD, T-AOC and IgA levels. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased (p < .05) the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB, and LPS-challenged piglets fed diets supplemented with Aps or Gps increased TLR4 and MyD88 and decreased NF-κB expression. Lipopolysaccharide challenge reduced (p < .05) the jejunal villus height, and piglets fed with Aps or Gps had increased (p < .05) jejunal villus height. Supplementation with Aps or Gps enhanced the expression of occludin and claudin in challenged or unchallenged piglets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Aps or Gps enhanced piglet growth performance, alleviated liver dysfunction and reduced immunological stress caused by LPS, as well as increased the intestinal barrier function.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia
16.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 930-947, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585924

RESUMO

Biolinguistics realizes a scientific approach to study language both as a biological object (the language faculty) and an internal, intensional and individual language system (I-language), spurring a cross-disciplinary exploration of the biological nature of human language. The poverty of stimulus (POS) in language acquisition, together with the roles played by neurobiological factors in linguistic aphasia, specific language impairment and mirror deficits, confirms the biological nature of the language faculty and I-language. Based on the property, the classic molecular genetic study reveals how human genetic endowments canalize the development of human language, and they interact with specific linguistic experience during the maturation of human language. Further, the rapid development of biological research promotes an increasing emphasis on a more nuanced molecular network system, along with the existing interest in one-gene-one-behavioral phenotype. Thus, a synthetic perspective on the study of the biological part of language will function as a new departure for the incoming biolinguistic inquiry.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Mutação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética
17.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7844-7854, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793606

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of Clostridium butyricum and Enterococcus faecalis (probiotics) in a piglet model. Weaned piglets (180) were randomly divided into three treatment groups and fed basal diet and basal diet supplemented with 6 × 109 CFU C. butyricum per kg and 2 × 1010 CFU E. faecalis per kg, respectively. The probiotics improved the final body weight, average daily gain, and feed conversion rate, while they reduced the diarrhea rate. The serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in probiotic-supplemented piglets were decreased on days 14 and 28. Piglets supplemented with probiotics presented an increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M level on day 14 and IgA, IgG, and IgM levels on day 28 compared with control piglets, respectively. Moreover, the probiotics increased the jejunal villus length and jejunal villus height to crypt depth ratio, while they decreased the jejunal crypt depth compared with those of the control. Similarly, an increase in inflammation-related pathway factor expression was observed after probiotic administration. Piglets supplemented with probiotics had a higher concentration of volatile fatty acids in the colonic contents than that in the control. High-throughput sequencing indicated that the probiotics modulated the colon bacterial diversity. Species richness and the alpha diversity index of bacterial samples in probiotic-supplemented piglets were higher than those in the control. Piglets supplemented with C. butyricum presented a considerably high relative abundance of C. butyricum compared with that in the control. Overall, C. butyricum and E. faecalis can promote growth performance, protect the intestinal villi morphology, improve immunity, and optimize the intestinal flora in weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Clostridium butyricum/fisiologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia
18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4140-4151, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310662

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum and Enterococcus faecalis on growth performance, immune function, inflammation-related pathways, and microflora community in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). One hundred and eighty 28-d-old weaned piglets were randomly divided into 3 treatments groups: piglets fed with a basal diet (Con), piglets fed with a basal diet containing 6 × 109 CFU C. butyricum·kg-1 (CB), and piglets fed with a basal diet containing 2 × 1010 CFU E. faecali·kg-1 (EF). At the end of trial, 1 pig was randomly selected from for each pen (6 pigs per treatment group) and these 18 piglets were orally challenged with LPS 25 µg·kg-1 body weight. The result showed that piglets fed C. butyricum and E. faecalis had greater final BW compared with the control piglets (P < 0.05). The C. butyricum and E. faecalis fed piglets had lower levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), IL-1ß, tumor inflammatory factor-α (TNF-α), and had greater level of serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than control piglets at 1.5 and 3 h after injection with LPS (P < 0.05). Furthermore, piglets in the C. butyricum or E. faecalis treatment groups had a greater ratio of jejunal villus height to crypt depth (V/C) compared with control piglets after challenge with LPS for 3 h (P < 0.05). Compared with the control treatment, the CB and EF treatments significantly decreased the expression of inflammation-related pathway factors (TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB) after challenge with LPS for 3 h (P < 0.05). High-throughput sequencing revealed that C. butyricum and E. faecalis modulated bacterial diversity in the colon. The species richness and alpha diversity (Shannon) of bacterial samples in CB or EF piglets challenged with LPS were higher than those in LPS-challenged control piglets. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Bacteroidales-Rikenellanceae in the CB group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas EF piglets had a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus gasseri (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with C. butyricum or E. faecalis promoted growth performance, improved immunity, relieved intestinal villus damage and inflammation, and optimized the intestinal flora in LPS-challenged weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Clostridium butyricum/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/análise , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(1): 133-143, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388227

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance, immune system, major fecal volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and microflora community in the weaned piglets. We also evaluated the antibacterial activity of the essential oil mixture on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Three hundred weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly divided into the following 3 treatment groups: basal diet (C), basal diet supplemented with the mixture of essential oils and organic acids (T1), and basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (T2). The mixture of essential oils and organic acids comprised of cinnamaldehyde (15%), thymol (5%), citric acid (10%), sorbic acid (10%), malic acid (6.5%), and fumaric acid (13.5%). In vitro studies showed that the mixture of essential oils extremely damaged the cell structure of pathogenic bacteria by deforming the membranes and disorganizing the intracellular components. In vivo studies revealed that diet supplementation with a mixture of essential oils and organic acids improved the final body weight and ADG of piglets (P < 0.05), increased the concentration of serum complement 4 (P < 0.05), and enhanced the fecal level of isovaleric acid (P < 0.05) compared with controls on day 28. Result of high-throughput sequencing revealed that: 1) a total of 1,177 and 1,162 observed taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared between all treatment groups on day 14 and 28, respectively; 2) the T1 exhibited higher (P < 0.05) beta diversity (unweighted UniFrac distance) than control and antibiotics treatment on day 28; 3) the samples in principle component analysis plot and tree of relative abundance were separated from each other based on dietary treatments and age; 4) Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most 2 dominate phyla; Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were the 2 top species among the recognized microbiota; 5) T1 had higher (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Lactobacillus mucosae than control and antibiotics treatment on day 28. To conclude, the mixture of cinnamaldehyde and citric acids damaged the structure of pathogens in vitro; the mixture of essential oils and organic acids improved the growth performance, increased the fecal concentration of isovaleric acid, and modulated the microflora community in weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
20.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 3260, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671050

RESUMO

Several Bacillus strains exert beneficial effects on the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and host health. However, whether Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) can improve gut microbial dysbiosis and ameliorate colitis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the effects of BA administration on intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and colonic microbial composition in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Results showed that BA administration significantly ameliorated body weight loss, decreased disease activity index, and improved colonic tissue morphology in DSS-treated mice. In addition, levels of immunoglobulins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, were decreased after BA administration. Importantly, colonic microbiota profiling indicated a significant (p < 0.05) difference in beta-diversity between BA-administrated and DSS-treated mice, according to weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) results. The relative abundance of the Firmicutes genus was increased, whereas that of Bacteroidetes was decreased by BA administration. Furthermore, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis showed that the most significantly changed pathways between the four groups of mice were carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. In conclusion, our results showed that BA administration has beneficial effects on DSS-induced colitis, suggesting that this strategy might be useful for the treatment of dysbiosis during ulcerative colitis. Further, the changes in metabolism, especially amino acid metabolism, might contribute to the beneficial effects of BA on the amelioration of DSS-induced colitis.

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