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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(6): 1421-1426, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347938

RESUMO

The present study counted the frequency of detection technologies and monitoring frequency of pesticide species by frequency analysis based on the 28 258 pieces of data on pesticide content of Chinese medicinal materials in CNKI, calculated the detection rate and exceeding rate of different types of pesticides, and systematically analyzed the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials. The results showed that there were 40 types of pesticides with detection rates higher than 10%, where new pesticides such as organochlorines and nicotine accounted for 55%, and organic phosphorus, pyrethroids, and carbamates accounted for 17.5%, 15.0%, and 12.5%, respectively. Seventeen types of pesticides exceeded the standard to varying degrees, including 12 types(70.59%) with exceeding rates not higher than 5%, four types(23.53%) with exceeding rates in the range of 5%-10%, and one type(5.88%) with an exceeding rate higher than 10%. As revealed by the analysis results of the past five years, the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials showed a downward trend. Compared with the conditions at worst, organochlorines decreased by about 2/3 in detection rate and 47.23% in exceeding rate, carbamates by about 1/2 in detection rate and 10.78% in exceeding rate, organic phosphorus by 3/4 in detection rate and 7.22% in exceeding rate, pyrethroids by 1/2 in detection rate and 11.05% in exceeding rate, and other types by about 1/2 in detection rate but not exceeded the standard. In general, pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials and safety have been significantly improved. However, pesticide residues are still important factors affecting the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials. It is suggested to further improve the control standards of pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials, strengthen the monitoring of pesticides used in practical production, and promote the ecological planting mode to facilitate the high-quality development of the Chinese medicinal material industry.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , China , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(3): 628-634, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178944

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish a method for synchronous detection of 14 mycotoxins in Pseudostellariae Radix and investigate its contamination with mycotoxins, so as to provide technical guidance for monitoring the quality of Chinese medicinal materials and medication safety. The sample was extracted with 80% acetonitrile in an oscillator for 1 h, purified using the modified QuEChERS purifying agent(0.1 g PSA + 0.3 g C_(18) + 0.3 g MgSO_4), and separated on a Waters HSS T3 chromatographic column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm). The gradient elution was carried out with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, followed by the scanning in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode and the analysis of mycotoxin contamination in 26 Pseudostellariae Radix samples. The recovery rates of the established method were within the range of 82.17%-113.6%, with the RSD values less than 7% and the limits of quantification(LOQ) being 0.019-0.976 µg·kg~(-1). The detection rate of 14 mycotoxins in 26 batches of medicinal materials was 53.85%. The detection rate of sterigmatocystin(ST) was the highest, followed by those of zearalenone(ZEN), aflatoxin G_2(AFG_2), fumonisin B_1(FB_1), HT-2 toxin, and nivalenol(NIV). Their respective detection rates were 38.46%, 26.92%, 23.08%, 11.54%, 11.54%, and 7.69%, with the pollution ranges being 1.48-69.65, 0.11-31.05, 0.11-0.66, 0.28-0.83, 20.86-42.56, and 0.46-1.84 µg·kg~(-1), respectively. The established method for the detection of 14 mycotoxins is accurate, fast and reliable. The research results have very important practical significance for guiding the monitoring and prevention and control of exogenous fungal contamination of Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Micotoxinas , Aflatoxinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5792-5796, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951166

RESUMO

Fusarium is the major pathogen of root rot of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. This study aims to explain the possible distribution of Fusarium species and the contamination of its toxin-chemotypes in tuberous root of P. heterophylla. A total of 89 strains of fungi were isolated from the tuberous root of P. heterophylla. Among them, 29 strains were identified as Fusarium by ITS2 sequence, accounting for 32.5%. They were identified as five species of F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum based on ß-Tubulin and EF-1α genes. LC-MS/MS detected 18, 1, and 5 strains able to produce ZEN, DON, and T2, which accounted for 62.1%, 3.4%, and 17.2%, respectively. Strain JK3-3 can produce ZEN, DON, and T2, while strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2 can produce ZEN and T2. PCR detected six key synthase genes of Tri1, Tri7, Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 in strain JK3-3, which synthesized three toxins of ZEN, DON, and T2. Four key synthase genes of Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 were detected in strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2, which were responsible for the synthesis of ZEN and T2. The results showed that the key genes of toxin biosynthesis were highly correlated with the toxins produced by Fusarium, and the biosynthesis of toxin was strictly controlled by the genetic information of the strain. This study provides a data basis for the targeted prevention and control of exo-genous mycotoxins in P. heterophylla and a possibility for the development of PCR for rapid detection of toxin contamination.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Cromatografia Líquida , Fusarium/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5240-5246, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738425

RESUMO

Zearalenone(ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, possessing estrogen-like effects, carcinogenicity, and multiple toxicities. To seek more efficient and practical agents for biological detoxification and broaden their application, this study isolated 194 bacterial strains from the moldy tuberous root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla, which were co-cultured with ZEN. An efficient ZEN-degrading strain H4-3-C1 was screened out by HPLC and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by morphological observation and molecular identification. The effects of culture medium, inoculation dose, culture time, pH, and temperature on the degradation of ZEN by H4-3-C1 strain were investigated. The mechanism of ZEN degradation and the degrading effect in Coicis Semen were discussed. The degradation rate of 5 µg·mL~(-1) ZEN by H4-3-C1 strain was 85.77% in the LB medium(pH 6) at 28 ℃/180 r·min~(-1) for 24 h with the inoculation dose of 1%. The degradation rate of ZEN in the supernatant of strain culture was higher than that in the intracellular fluid and thalli. The strain was inferred to secret extracellular enzymes to degrade ZEN. In addition, the H4-3-C1 strain could also degrade ZEN in Coicis Semen. If the initial content of ZEN in Coicis Semen was reduced from 90 µg·g~(-1) to 40.68 µg·g~(-1), the degradation rate could reach 54.80%. This study is expected to provide a new strain and application technology for the biological detoxification of ZEN in food processing products and Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Zearalenona , Bactérias , Temperatura
5.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(2): 349-357, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258933

RESUMO

As there is no clear biomarker to diagnose Parkinson's disease, this meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluates the correlation between serum Cystatin C levels and Parkinson's disease in the Chinese population by the meta-analysis method. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China national knowledge infrastructure, and China WanFang databases were systematically searched on the correlation between serum Cystatin C and Parkinson's disease. The results showed that Cystatin C level in Parkinson's disease patients compared with the control group, the standardized mean difference = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.33~2.24, P < 0.05). The level of Cystatin C in the late Parkinson's disease stage compared with that in the mid-term of Parkinson's disease, the standardized mean difference was = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.08~1.49, P < 0.05). The Cystatin C level in the mid-term of Parkinson's disease compared with that in the early Parkinson's disease stage, the standardized mean difference was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.35~2.12, P < 0.05). The level of Cystatin C in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment compared with Parkinson's disease without mild cognitive impairment, the standardized mean difference was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.47~2.10, P < 0.05). The differences were all statistically significant. In conclusion, a high level of serum Cystatin C may be involved in the occurrence and development of Parkinson's disease, whose level is higher in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment than that in Parkinson's disease without mild cognitive impairment. Therefore, Cystatin C in serum is a promising biomarker for diagnosing Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2996-3001, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602845

RESUMO

Through the records of herbal and market investigations,the samples collected from different market and origin were analyzed,and the appearance character indexes were determined in order to revise the commodity specification and grade standard of Dipsaci Radix combined with production practice. This is also to analyze association of the appearance with quality different of intrinsic components. The investigation results indicated the root's long and thick was better,and atrovirens of fracture surface,there are most of the market is dominated by the ungraded goods. Through principal component analysis,variance analysis and cluster analysis,combining with the feasibility of actual operation and herbal record,the length,middle diameter and phloem color were filtrated and the specification was divided into 2 ranks: the selection and ungraded goods,and the grade was divided into 2 ranks for the selection goods: big,small selected goods. Moreover,there were no significant correlation between the appearance and the intrinsic quality index of Dipsaci Radix,the content of extractum were significantly positive correlation with the moisture,but had extremely negative correlation with the total ash. Multiple comparisons indicated that the content of the moisture,extractum and asperosaponin VI of the selected goods were higher than the ungraded goods,while the total ash content were lower,and they hasn't significant difference. The commodity specification and grade standard of Dipsaci Radix as a basis provide commodity specification and grade standard of communities and standardizing market trade order.


Assuntos
Dipsacaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Plantas Medicinais/química , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3627-3632, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602933

RESUMO

In order to understand the pollution of heavy metals in Guizhou soil planting Eucommia ulmoides,the paper has determined the contents of five heavy metals respectively( Cu,Cd,Pb,Hg and As) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The soil environmental quality by single factor pollution index was evaluated,nemerow integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index,the correlation of 5 heavy metals was analyzed and the relationship between heavy medals content and p H value was discussed. The results showed that: ①The soils of LP,SB and ZA-2 had low heavy metals content,LP soil met the first national standard,and other soils met the second national standard; ②The soils of LP,ZA-1 and ZA-2 were all in a clean state,while HX and BZ-1 were in a light pollution state,and the pollution degree was Cu>Pb>As>Cd>Hg; ③The soil of BZ-2 was light warning( medium ecological risk),the soils of HX,BZ-1 and MT were early warning( low ecological risk),the main warning source was Cu and Pb,and the rest were no warning( no ecological risk); ④Cd and As were positively correlated with Pb and Hg,and Cd,Pb and As were positively correlated with p H. The research showed that the soils of LP,SB,ZA-1 and ZA-2 were clean and could be used for E. ulmoides to continue planting,the soils of HX,MT,BZ-1 and BZ-2 were polluted and should be treated in time by effective measures.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Eucommiaceae , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Medição de Risco , Solo/química
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2219-2225, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359645

RESUMO

The study aims at investigating the grade standard and the quality characteristic of Pinelliae Rhizoma for commodity specification, which provides the reference for its grade standard formulation. 42 Pinelliae Rhizoma simples were collected from 5 medicinal materials markets and 2 producing areas. Based on the previous herbalogical study and market investigation, we combined with the data analysis to select the grading indicators using SPSS software for descriptive statistical analysis, analysis of variance, K-cluster analysis and correlation analysis. According to the actual production condition, we developed the grading standards of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Moreover, we compared the internal indicators(water, total ash, leachate and guanosine) of Pinelliae Rhizoma at various grade levels, and analyzed the correlation between appearance traits and internal indicators. The herbalogical study and market research found that the Pinelliae Rhizoma was better in large, solid and white. The results from descriptive and variance analysis showed that the appearance of Pinelliae Rhizoma was significantly different in weight per grain and grain number of 500 g. Referring to the 2015 Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the production practice, we use the length, weight per grain and grain number of 500 g as the classification index of Pinelliae Rhizoma. The results from correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the appearance of Pinelliae Rhizoma and the intrinsic quality index. In addition, we found there was no significant difference in the content of the intrinsic index except for the total ash and the extract. The current study established the classification index of the product specification and grade standard of Pinelliae Rhizoma with length, weight per grain and grain number of 500 g as the index, which can provide the basis for the classification of the product specification and grade of Pinelliae Rhizoma market.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Pinellia/química , Rizoma/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2459-2466, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359711

RESUMO

This paper is aimed to study the commodity specification and grade standard of Galla Chinensis,for standardizing market order and guide the market circulation,and provide a basis for standardization of Galla Chinensis. With 33 samples of Galla Chinensis from market as the object of the research,the herbal textual research and market research were carried out. Then the grading indicator were selected by the descriptive statistics,principal component analysis and cluster analysis,combining with production practice,the commodity specification and grade standard of Galla Chinensis were set out. The data of moisture,ash,gallic acid as the internal index were used to analyze the relationship between the quality difference between grades and the appearance characters and the intrinsic composition. Herbal textual research and market research found that the high quality of Galla Chinensis characterized with large,complete,wall thick,grayish brown characteristics,and Galla Chinensis could be divided into gallnuts and horned gall. Through principal component analysis and cluster analysis,combining actual production and herbal record,screening,the length,diameter,single weight,the number of 500 g were determined as 4 grading indicators,the commodity specification was divided into two: gallnuts and horned gall,the grades was divided into two: selected goods and mixed goods. The result of correlation analysis showed there was no significant correlation between the internal index and the appearance characters of Galla Chinensis. The result of multiple comparison showed that the ash content of the selected goods was smaller than that of the mixed goods,but it did not reach significant. The content of gallic acid of the selected goods and the mixed goods of gallnuts were higher than selected goods of horned gall,and higher than mixed goods of horned galls. Using the length,diameter,single weight,the number of 500 g as the appearance characters index. Combining with the herbal textual research and market research,we have divided two specifications and two grades for the commodity specification and grade standard of Galla Chinensis,which can provide a basis for industry standards and national standards.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Ácido Gálico/análise , Tumores de Planta , Controle de Qualidade
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(21): 4210-4216, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583619

RESUMO

The study aims at evaluating genetic diversity and medicinal quality of cultivated germplasm in Rehmannia glutinosa, and providing theoretical guidance for screening excellent germplasm. The genetic diversity of 21 species of R. glutinosa were analyzed by SRAP molecular markers, and the catalpol and verbascoside was determined by HPLC. The mass fraction of catalpol and verbascoside in R. glutinosa germplasm were respectively in the range of 2.393%-6.519% and 0.063%-0.478%, the germplasm 14, 16, 15 and 20 germplasm, witch catalpol and verbascoside content was higher. A total of 57 bands were produced by 10 primer, among which 40 polymorphic bands were polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 8.77%-54.39%, the Nei's genetic diversity index (H) was 0.374 1, Shannon's polymorphism information index (I) was 0.546 6. Gst and gene flow Nm were 0.608 8 and 0.321 3, respectively. Based on the genetic uniformity, 21 species of germplasm were grouped into 2 categories. The genetic diversity level of R. glutinosa was medium low. The comprehensive consideration of the genetic diversity and the content inculde catalpol and verbascoside, germplasm 7 and germplasm 18 could be used as the preferred materials for the cultivation of reticulum. Germplasm 15 and 16 can be used as the preservation and breeding object of rhubarb germplasm.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Rehmannia/genética , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/genética
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(5): 882-889, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994530

RESUMO

To provide guidance for certification, popularization and application of Pseudostellariae Radix new variety, the regional adaptation and stabilities of "Shitai No.1" were evaluated. The "Qian taizishen No.1" and "SB-C" varieties (strains) were used as the control varieties. The agronomic, medicinal material traits and medicine quality were used as evaluation index to compare the phenotypic difference of the three varieties (strains) in four planting areas. Compared to the control varieties, 10 agronomic traits of "Shitai No.1" had the smallest coefficient of variation among the 18 agronomic traits, and other 8 agronomic traits placed the middle level. Among 8 medicinal material traits and medicine quality indicators, the coefficient of variation of different regions of the extract content, pseudostellarin B content, the number of 50 g root tuber, the plant medicinal materials weight and weight of single root of "Shitai No.1" were the smallest compare to other varieties (strains). It could be divided into three groups based on the phenotypic difference of the three varieties (strains) in four planting areas. The "Shitai No.1" was classified as one group, while the "Qian taizishen No.1" and "SB-C" had cross clustering. The regional stability of several index about agronomic traits, medicinal material traits and medicine quality of "Shitai No.1" were better than that of the control varieties (strains). "Shitai No.1" was suitable for planting, popularization and application in the appropriate ecological areas of Guizhou province.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Raízes de Plantas/química , China , Geografia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/análise , Fenótipo , Tubérculos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(13): 2381-2385, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905556

RESUMO

Based on collections and researches of Pesudostellaria heterophylla germplasm resources from different areas of China, by using Shibing SB-4 provenance as materials, the new variety "Shitai No.1" was bred by mass selection, small plot variety comparative test, regional variety comparative test and field trial planting. Compared with "Qian taizishen No.1" and P. heterophylla land races. The disease and lodging resistance, root yield, polysaccharide content and the first grade rate of "Shitai No.1" have obvious advantages. In addition, it is relatively stable of yield in "Shitai No.1" in different places. It is demonstrated that "Shitai No.1" is a fine variety that adapt to the producing areas of P. heterophylla in Guizhou province, it is worthy to be promoted.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , China , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/análise
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(21): 4197-204, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25775793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide new germplasm materials for breeding new varieties of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. METHOD: The method of single plant selection was adopted, with the comparative experiments being carried out under the same conditions in Shibing county. The 8 plants of Shibing SB-4 were compared respectively with factor analysis for 27 phenotypic traits and 8 yield traits, and single factor variance analysis for the contents of polysaccharides. RESULT: Using factor analysis, 27 phenotypic traits were classified into 7 principal divisors and 8 yield traits were simplified into 3 principal divisors. The 4 strains of P. heterophylla, ZT-01, ZT-02, ZT-06 and ZT-07, performed better than others in the phenotypic traits, and ZT-01, ZT-02, ZT-03 and ZT-07 in the yield traits. The contents of polysaccharides of ZT-01, ZT-02, ZT-05 and ZT-08 showed significantly higher value. CONCLUSION: There is significant difference among the 8 strains of P. heterophylla in phenotypic traits, yield traits and quality traits, making it possible to select certain strains for different purposes. ZT-01 and ZT-02 can be breaded further. ZT-06 and ZT-07 were used as ornamental cultivars for its great phenotypic traits. ZT-03 with good resistance and high yield was taken as resistant variety, and ZT-05 would face next selection on the basis of its high content of polysaccharide.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Caryophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caryophyllaceae/química , China , Fenótipo , Polissacarídeos/análise
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